Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah

Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah (Hindi: ग़ाज़िउद्दीन हैदर शाह Urdu:غازی الدیں حیدر شاہ) (b. c. 1769 – d. 19 October 1827) was the last[1] nawab wazir of Oudh from 11 July 1814 to 19 October 1818[2] and first[1] King of Oudh (Oudh State) from 19 October 1818 to 19 October 1827.[2][3][4]

Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah
Nawab Wazir al-Mamalik of Awadh
Padshah-e Awadh, Shah-e Zaman
Ghazi-ud-Din Haider
7th Nawab Wazir of Oudh
Reign11 July 1814 – 19 October 1818
Coronation12 July 1814, Lucknow
PredecessorYamin ad-Dowla Nazem al-Molk Sa`adat `Ali Khan II Bahadur
SuccessorNaser ad-Din Haydar Solayman Jah Shah
Flag of Awadh.svg 1st King of Oudh
Reign19 October 1818 – 19 October 1827
PredecessorYamin ad-Dowla Nazem al-Molk Sa`adat `Ali Khan II Bahadur
SuccessorNaser ad-Din Haydar Solayman Jah Shah
Borncirca 1769
Died19 October 1827
Full name
Ghazi ad-Din Rafa`at ad-Dowla Abu´l-Mozaffar Haydar Khan
HouseNishapuri
DynastyOudh
FatherSaadat Ali Khan II
ReligionShia Islam

Life

Ghazi-ud-Din Haider Robert Home 1820
'Ghazi-ud-Din Haider, King of Awadh, receiving Tribute'

He was the third son of Nawab Saadat Ali Khan and Mushir Zadi[5] was his mother. He became Nawab Wazir of Oudh on 11 July 1814 after the death of his father. In 1818, under the influence of Warren Hastings, the British Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), he declared himself as the independent Padshah-i-Awadh (King of Oudh). He died in the Farhat Bakhsh palace in Lucknow in 1827. He was succeeded by his son Nasir-ud-Din Haider after his death.

Patron of art and culture

Chattar Manzil
Chutter Manzil and the Royal Boat of Oude by Felice Beato
A Procession of Ghazi ud-Din Haider through Lucknow
A Procession of Ghazi ud-Din Haider through Lucknow

Several monuments in Lucknow were constructed by Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar. He built the Chattar Manzil palace and added the Mubarak Manzil and the Shah Manzil in the Moti Mahal complex for better viewing of the animal fights. He also constructed the tombs of his parents, Sadat Ali Khan and Mushir Zadi Begum.[5] For his European wife, he constructed a European style building known as the Vilayati Bagh. Another creation, the Shah Najaf Imambara (1816), his mausoleum, on the bank of the Gomti is a copy of the fourth Caliph Ali's (R.A) burial place in Najaf, Iraq. His three wives, Sarfaraz Mahal, Mubarak Mahal and Mumtaz Mahal were also buried here.

Ghazi-ud-Din first appointed a British artist, Robert Home (1752–1834) as his court artist and after his retirement in 1828, he appointed another Briton, George Duncan Beechey (1798–1852) as his court artist. In 1815, Raja Ratan Singh (1782–1851), a noted astronomer, poet and scholar of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Sanskrit and English joined his court. Because of his initiative, a royal litho printing press in Lucknow was set up in 1821 and the Haft Qulzum, a dictionary and grammar of the Persian language in two volumes was published from this press in the same year.

Coins of Ghazi-ud-Din

After declaring himself as King, Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah issued coins on his name instead of the Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II from AH 1234 (1818). His coins were completely different from his predecessors. The most important feature of his coinage was the introduction of his coat of arms on the reverse of coin, consisting of two fish facing each other, two tigers each holding a pennon for support and a Katar (a small dagger) surmounted by a crown symbolizing the king.[6]

Gallery

Flag of Awadh

Flag of Nawabs of Awadh, introduced during the reign of Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah(1814–1827).

अवध मोहर

Other Seal, introduced during the reign of Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar (1814–1827).

Ghazi ud-Din Haidar

Ghazi ud-Din Haidar, seventh Nawab (1814–27), entertains Lord and Lady Moira to a banquet in his palace Opaque watercolour, 1820–22

Notes

  1. ^ title after death

References

  1. ^ a b Wazir-ul Mumalik Rifat-ud-Daulah Rafiul-Mulk GHAZIUDDIN HAIDAR
  2. ^ a b Princely States of India
  3. ^ HISTORY OF AWADH (Oudh) a princely State of India by Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui
  4. ^ Oudh 12
  5. ^ a b Another city monument in need of attention, Express News Service, 27 August 2007
  6. ^ Gupta P.L. (1969, reprint 2000). Coins, New Delhi: National Book Trust, ISBN 81-237-1887-X, pp.178–9

External links

Preceded by
Yamin ad-Dowla Nazem al-Molk Sa`adat `Ali Khan II Bahadur
Nawab Wazir al-Mamalik of Oudh
11 Jul 1814 – 19 Oct 1818
Succeeded by
abolished
Preceded by
new creation
Padshah-e Oudh, Shah-e Zaman
19 Oct 1818 – 19 Oct 1827
Succeeded by
Naser ad-Din Haydar Solayman Jah Shah
Ittar

Ittar, also known as attar, is an essential oil derived from botanical sources. Most commonly these oils are extracted via hydro or steam distillation. Ibn Sina, the Persian physician was first to derive the attar of flowers from distillation. Attar can also be expressed by chemical means but generally natural perfumes which qualify as ittars are distilled with water. The oils are generally distilled into a wood base such as sandalwood and then aged. The aging period can last from one to ten years depending on the botanicals used and the results desired. Technically ittars are distillates of flowers, herbs, spices and other natural materials such as baked soil over sandalwood oil/liquid paraffins using hydro distillation technique with deg and bhapka. These techniques are still in use today at Kannauj in India. Jasmine ittar was the favorite perfume of the Nizams of the Hyderabad state. Traditionally in the Eastern world, it was a customary practice of nobility to offer ittar to their guests at the time of their departure. The ittars are traditionally given in ornate tiny crystal cut bottles called as itardans. This tradition of giving a scent to one's guests continues to this day in many parts of the Eastern world. Among Sufi worshipers the use of Ittars during meditation circles and dances is quite common.

Muhammad Ali Shah

Muhammad Ali Shah (c. 1777 – 7 May 1842)

was the third King of Oudh from 7 July 1837 to 7 May 1842.

Nasir-ud-Din Haidar Shah

Nasir-ud-Din Haidar Shah (Hindi: नासिर उद दीन हैदर शाह, Urdu: ناصر الدیں حیدر شاہ ‎) (b.9 September 1803 – d. 7 July 1837)

was the second King of Oudh from 19 October 1827 to 7 July 1837.

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