Ghanaian English

Ghanaian English is a variety of English spoken in Ghana. English is the official language of Ghana, and is used as a lingua franca throughout the state.[1] English is the most used of the 11 official languages spoken in Ghana.[1]

Demographics

Of the more than 28 million people in Ghana, more than half of the population uses English, and most use English exclusively.[1] Most primary and secondary school classes are taught in English only.

Phonology

Due to Ghana's colonial history, Ghanaian English most closely resembles British English, although it is wildly varied and deviates from the standard in many ways based on location and context.

In contrast to the twelve monophthongal vowels of Received Pronunciation, Ghanaian English has only seven, an attribute shared with other forms of African English.[2] Ghanaian English exhibits several mergers including the fleece–kit, foot–goose, and thought–cloth mergers.[2]

In Ghanaian English, the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant [ɕ] is the usual realization of the phoneme /ʃ/ (as in "ship" and "chicago"), the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate [tɕ] is the usual realization of /tʃ/ (as in "cheese" and ""watching") and the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate [dʑ] is the usual realization of /dʒ/ (as in "general" and "magic").[3]

References

  1. ^ a b c http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/2010phc/Census2010_Summary_report_of_final_results.pdf
  2. ^ a b A handbook of varieties of English : a multimedia reference tool. Schneider, Edgar W. (Edgar Werner), 1954-, Kortmann, Bernd, 1960-. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 2004. ISBN 3110175320. OCLC 56880203.
  3. ^ Huber (2004:859)
  • Huber, Magnus (2004), "Ghanaian English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 842–865, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
Agyei

Agyei is a surname common in the African nation of Ghana, especially among the Akan. Notable people with the surname include:

Dan Agyei (born 1997), English professional footballer

Daniel Agyei (born 1989), Ghanaian footballer

Daniel Kofi Agyei (born 1992), Ghanaian footballer

William Kwabena Antwi Agyei (or Will Antwi) (born 1982), Ghanaian-English footballer

Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is ⟨l⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l.

As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/ are common in Sino-Tibetan languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language is known to contrast such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ].

In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized ("dark l") in certain contexts. By contrast, the non-velarized form is the "clear l" (also known as: "light l"), which occurs before and between vowels in certain English standards. Some languages have only clear l. Others may not have a clear l at all, or only before front vowels (especially [i]).

Fuse ODG

Nana Richard Abiona (born 2 December 1988), better known by his stage name Fuse ODG, is a Ghanaian-British recording artist. He is best known for his 2013 single "Antenna" which peaked at number 7 on the UK Singles Chart, and for featuring in Major Lazer's "Light It Up (Remix)" which also peaked at number 7 on the UK Singles Chart. Born in London and raised in Ghana, Fuse returned to London for his secondary education, where he attended the Archbishop Lanfranc School, Croydon. He grew up in Mitcham, South London.

Ghanaian Arabs

Ghanaian Arabs (Akan: Nkɔmbɔtwetwe Arabia Gaana; Arabic: غانيون عرب‎) are Ghanaians and citizens of Arab origin or descent. Ghanaian Arabs are mainly from Lebanon, Syria and Arab Maghreb. Ghana has the largest Arab population in western Africa.

Ghanaian Indian

Ghanaian Indians (Akan: Nkɔmbɔtwetwe India Gaana; Hindi: घाना के भारतीय; Tamil: கானா இந்தியர்கள்; Malayalam: ഘാനയിലെ ഇന്ത്യക്കാര്‍; Telugu: ఘానా భారతీయులు) are Ghanaians citizens of Indian origin or descent. Many Ghanaian Indians are descendants from those who migrated from India following India's partition in 1947.

Hugh Quarshie

Hugh Anthony Quarshie (born 22 December 1954) is a Ghanaian-born British actor. Some of his best-known roles include his appearances in the films Highlander (1986), The Church (1989), Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), and the Doctor Who episodes "Daleks in Manhattan" and "Evolution of the Daleks" (2007) as well as his long-running role as Ric Griffin in the BBC medical drama Holby City (2001–present). Quarshie has played the role of Ric for 17 years and is the longest serving cast member in Holby City.

Languages of Ghana

Ghana is a multilingual country in which about eighty languages are spoken. Of these, English, which was inherited from the colonial era, is the official language and lingua franca. Of the languages indigenous to Ghana, Akan is the most widely spoken.Ghana has more than seventy ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language. Languages that belong to the same ethnic group are usually mutually intelligible. The Dagbanli and Mampelle languages of Northern Region, for instance, are mutually intelligible with the Frafra and Waali languages of the Upper East Region of Ghana. These four languages are of Mole-Dagbani ethnicity.

Eleven languages have the status of government-sponsored languages: four Akan ethnic languages (Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi, Mfantse and Nzema) and two Mole-Dagbani ethnic languages (Dagaare and Dagbanli). The rest are Ewe, Dangme, Ga, Gonja, and Kasem, Hausa.

List of dialects of English

The following is a list of dialects of English. Dialects are linguistic varieties which may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar. For the classification of varieties of English in terms of pronunciation only, see Regional accents of English.

Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible." English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation), as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localized sub-dialects can be identified, and so on. The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions.

The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into three general categories: the British Isles dialects, those of North America, and those of Australasia. Dialects can be associated not only with place, but also with particular social groups. Within a given English-speaking country, there will often be a form of the language considered to be Standard English – the Standard Englishes of different countries differ, and each can itself be considered a dialect. Standard English is often associated with the more educated layers of society.

March 7

March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 299 days remaining until the end of the year.

Nollywood

Nollywood is a sobriquet that originally referred to the Nigerian film industry. The origin of the term dates back to early 2000s, traced to an article in The New York Times. Due to the history of evolving meanings and contexts, there is no clear or agreed-upon definition for the term, and it has been subjected to several controversies.

October 3

October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 89 days remaining until the end of the year.

September 14

September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 108 days remaining until the end of the year.

T.I.N.A. (album)

T.I.N.A. (an acronym for This Is New Africa) is the debut studio album by Ghanaian-English hip hop recording artist Fuse ODG, released on 31 October 2014 through 3 Beat Records.

TvNolly

The name TvNolly is a coinage from the words "television" and "Nollywood", the controversially celebrated name of the movie industry in Nigeria.

Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʑ⟩ ("z", plus the curl also found in its voiceless counterpart ⟨ɕ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z\. It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiced palatal fricative.

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative does not occur in any major dialect of English. However, it is the usual realization of /ʒ/ (as in vision) in the Ghanaian variety.

Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɕ⟩ ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨ʑ⟩). It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiceless palatal fricative.

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative does not occur in any major dialect of English. However, it is the usual realization of /ʃ/ (as in ship) in the Ghanaian variety.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.