Gesher, Israel

Gesher (Hebrew: גֶּשֶׁר, lit. Bridge) is a kibbutz in the Beit She'an Valley in northeastern Israel. Founded in 1939 by immigrants from Germany, it falls under the jurisdiction of Valley of Springs Regional Council. It is situated 10 km south of kibbutz Deganya Aleph and 15 km south of Tiberias. The population is approximately 500 inhabitants. It is named after the neighbouring bridge over the Jordan river ("gesher" means bridge in Hebrew), known as Jisr el-Majami in Arabic and as Gesher Naharayim in Hebrew. The original site of the kibbutz, abandoned after the 1948 war, is known as Old Gesher. In 2017 it had a population of 420.[1]

Gesher
Skyline of Gesher
Gesher is located in Northeast Israel
Gesher
Gesher
Coordinates: 32°37′16.69″N 35°33′7.56″E / 32.6213028°N 35.5521000°ECoordinates: 32°37′16.69″N 35°33′7.56″E / 32.6213028°N 35.5521000°E
DistrictNorthern
CouncilValley of Springs
AffiliationKibbutz Movement
Founded1939
Founded byHanoar Haoved Movement and immigrants from Germany.
Population
 (2017)[1]
420
Websitewww.gesher.org.il

History

PikiWiki Israel 29877 Geography of Israel
Old bridge
PikiWiki Israel 9840 Trees in Kibbutz Gesher
Kibbutz Gesher lawns

The kibbutz was founded in 1939 on lands bought with the help of Edmond de Rothschild, by a group of Jews born in Palestine who were members of the youth movement HaNo'ar HaOved and a group of young Jews from Germany. They were later joined by Jewish immigrants from Poland, Germany, Austria and additional Palestinian Jews. The kibbutz grew up near the Naharayim bridge as a Tower and stockade settlement.

The site of the kibbutz was a khan from the Mamluk period to the late 18th or early 19th century.[2] Called Jisr el-Majami' (bridge of the meeting), it was one of the earliest khans in the Galilee and was a major crossroads where the north–south Bet She’an–Damascus road intersected the east–west road which led from the Gilead through the Sirin Plateau.[2] Some of the original kibbutz buildings lay within the ruins.[2] There are three bridges at the site - a Byzantine stone bridge, an Ottoman railroad bridge serving the Haifa-Dera'a segment of the Hejaz Railway, and a British Mandate road bridge serving the Haifa-Baghdad highway.[3]

On 27 April 1948, the Haganah took control of the Gesher police station, a Tegart fort that had been evacuated by the British. The Arab Legion, still under British control at the time, ordered them to evacuate it. Haganah refused and both troops exchanged fire during 3 days until the Arab Legion was ordered by his HQ to return to their barracks.[4]

In April–May 1948, 50 children of the kibbutz were evacuated to a 19th-century French monastery on the grounds of Rambam hospital in the Bat Galim neighborhood of Haifa, where they lived for 22 months.[5]The building had been empty since 1933, when the Carmelite nuns had moved into their new monastery on the French Carmel.[6]

For seven days, beginning on May 15, 1948, the kibbutz and Tegart fort were attacked by Iraqi forces using armored cars and aerial bombing.[7]The defenders repulsed the Iraqis, inflicting heavy losses, but the kibbutz was destroyed during combat. After the war, the kibbutz was rebuilt about 1 km to the west.

During the War of Attrition between 1967 and 1970 the kibbutz was attacked with bombs, mines and gunfire by PLO Arab Palestinian fighters. In the 1990s it underwent privatization while preserving the collective model in the areas of education, health, culture and leisure.

After the peace agreement between Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan, the kibbutz established a museum on the original site of the kibbutz that documents the history of Gesher and the Jewish-run power station of Naharayim.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Localities File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Abdullah Mokary and Zvi Gal (2005). "Khan Gesher (Jisr El-Majami')". 'Atiqot. 50: 195–207.
  3. ^ Yale’s Urban Design Workshop building bridges to the first peace park in the Middle East YaleNews, 9 June 2014
  4. ^ David Tal (31 January 2004). War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy. Routledge. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-203-49954-2.
  5. ^ Rambam history
  6. ^ Ashkenazi, Eli (12 April 2014). "19th Century Carmelite Monastery Returned to Public View in Haifa". Haaretz. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  7. ^ Morris, Benny (1 October 2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-300-14524-3. Retrieved 29 April 2019.

Further reading

  • Imanuel Reuveni - Lexicon of Holy Land - Eretz Israel Lexicon (Leksikon Eretz Israel - in Hebrew) Yedioth Ahronoth - Chemed Books Publishing house, 1999.
  • Yuval Elezri (ed) - lexicon Mapa - Eretz Israel (in Hebrew) - Maps Concise Gazetteer of Israel Today 2003, Tel Aviv MAP Mapping and Publishing.

External links

Eitan Broshi

Eitan Broshi (Hebrew: איתן ברושי‎, born 17 June 1950) is an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Zionist Union and Labor Party between 2015 and 2019.

Ella Amitay Sadovsky

Ella Amitay Sadovsky (born 1964) is an Israeli artist, born in Kibbutz Gesher, Israel.

Gesher

Gesher (Hebrew: גֶּשֶׁר, lit. Bridge) may refer to:

Gesher (2019 political party), an active political party from Israel

Gesher (political party), a defunct political party from Israel

Gesher Theater, a theater in Tel-Aviv

Gesher – Zionist Religious Centre, defunct political party from Israel in the early 1980s

Gesher, Israel, a kibbutz in Israel

Camp Gesher, a Habonim-Dror summer camp in Cloyne, Ontario

Gesher, the former codename of the Intel Sandy Bridge microprocessor architecture

Gesher (archaeological site), an archaeological site in Israel

Gesher (2019 political party)

Gesher (Hebrew: גשר, lit. Bridge) is a centrist political party in Israel, established in December 2018 by former Yisrael Beitenu MK Orly Levy. The party focuses primarily on economic and cost-of-living issues, aiming to reduce inequality. The name of the party is a reference to the party founded by Orly's father, David Levy.

List of Roman bridges

The Romans were the world's first major bridge builders. The following list constitutes an attempt to list all known surviving remains of Roman bridges.

A Roman bridge in the sense of this article includes any of these features:

Roman arches

Roman pillars

Roman foundations

Roman abutments

Roman roadway

Roman cutwatersAlso listed are bridges which feature substantially Roman material (spolia), as long as the later bridge is erected on the site of a Roman precursor. Finally, incidences where only inscriptions lay testimony to a former Roman bridge are also included.

In the following, bridges are classified either according to their material or their function. Most data not otherwise marked comes from O’Connor's Roman Bridges which lists 330 stone bridges for traffic, 34 timber bridges and 54 aqueduct bridges. An even larger compilation of more than 900 Roman bridges (as of 2011) is offered by the Italian scholar Galliazzo, which is used here only selectively.Note: the table columns are sortable by clicking the header, e.g. for country of origin etc.

Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed. This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals happened in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene around 12,500 years ago. It was the world's first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture. The Neolithic Revolution greatly narrowed the diversity of foods available, resulting in a downturn in the quality of human nutrition.The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic) societies based in built-up villages and towns. These societies radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation, with activities such as irrigation and deforestation which allowed the production of surplus food. Other developments found very widely are the domestication of animals, pottery, polished stone tools, and rectangular houses.

These developments, sometimes called the Neolithic package, provided the basis for centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g. writing), densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labour, more trade, the development of non-portable art and architecture, and property ownership. The earliest known civilization developed in Sumer in southern Mesopotamia (c.  6,500 BP); its emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age.The relationship of the above-mentioned Neolithic characteristics to the onset of agriculture, their sequence of emergence, and empirical relation to each other at various Neolithic sites remains the subject of academic debate, and varies from place to place, rather than being the outcome of universal laws of social evolution. The Levant saw the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BCE, followed by sites in the wider Fertile Crescent.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) represents the early Neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent, dating to c. 12,000 – c. 8,500 years ago, that is 10,000-6,500 BCE. It succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipalaeolithic Near East (also called Mesolithic), as the domestication of plants and animals was in its formative stages, having possibly been induced by the Younger Dryas. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic culture came to an end around the time of the 8.2 kiloyear event, a cool spell centred on 6200 BCE that lasted several hundred years. It is succeeded by the Pottery Neolithic.

Kibbutzim
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