Gertrude Himmelfarb

Gertrude Himmelfarb (born August 8, 1922), also known as Bea Kristol, is an American historian. She has been a leader of conservative interpretations of history and historiography. She has written extensively on intellectual history, with a focus on Great Britain and the Victorian era, as well as on contemporary society and culture.

Gertrude Himmelfarb
BornAugust 8, 1922 (age 96)
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
Alma materBrooklyn College (BA 1942),
University of Chicago (M.A. 1944, PhD 1950)
Jewish Theological Seminary of America (1939–42)
Girton College, University of Cambridge (1946–47)[1]
Notable awardsFellow of the British Academy
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Fellow of the Royal Historical Society
Fellow of the Society of American Historians
Council of the National Endowment for the Humanities (1982–88)
Council of Scholars of the Library of Congress (1984–2008)
Board of Trustees of the Woodrow Wilson Center (1985–96)
Council of Academic Advisors of the American Enterprise Institute (1987–present)
Jefferson Lecture (1991)
National Humanities Medal (2004)
SpouseIrving Kristol (m. January 18, 1942 – September 18, 2009; his death)
ChildrenWilliam Kristol
Elizabeth Nelson
Relativesparents Max and Bertha (Lerner) Himmelfarb
brother Milton Himmelfarb

Books-aj.svg aj ashton 01.svg Literature portal


Himmelfarb was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Bertha (née Lerner) and Max Himmelfarb, both of Russian Jewish background.[3] She received her undergraduate degree from Brooklyn College in 1942 and her doctorate from the University of Chicago in 1950. Himmelfarb later went on to study at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom, and the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York.

In 1942, she married Irving Kristol, known as the "godfather" of neoconservatism, and has two children, Elizabeth Nelson and William Kristol, a political commentator and editor of The Weekly Standard. She has long been involved in Jewish conservative intellectual circles.[4] Professor Emerita at the Graduate School of the City University of New York, she is the recipient of many awards and honorary degrees. She has served on the Council of Scholars of the Library of Congress, the Council of Academic Advisors of the American Enterprise Institute, and the Council of the National Endowment for the Humanities. She is a Fellow of the British Academy and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1991 she delivered the Jefferson Lecture under the auspices of the National Endowment for the Humanities. In 2004 she received the National Humanities Medal awarded by the President.


Himmelfarb has long nurtured the neoconservative movement in U.S. politics and intellectual life; her husband Irving Kristol helped found the movement.[5]

Himmelfarb is a leading defender of traditional historical methods and practices. Her book The New History and the Old (published in 1987 and revised and expanded in 2004) is a critique of the varieties of "new history" that have sought to displace the old. The "New Histories" she critiqued include: quantitative history that presumes to be more "scientific" than conventional history but relies on partial and dubious data;[6] Marxist historiography derived from economic assumptions and class models that leave little room for the ideas and beliefs of contemporaries or the actual protagonists and events of history;[7] psychoanalytic history dependent on theories and speculations that violate the accepted criteria of historical evidence;[8] analytic history that reduces history to a series of isolated "moments" with no overriding narrative structure;[9] social history, "history from the bottom," that denigrates the role of politics, nationality, and individuals (the "great men" of history);[10][11][12] and, most recently, postmodernist history, which denies even the ideal of objectivity, viewing all of history as a "social construct" on the part of the historian.[13]

Himmelfarb criticized A.J.P. Taylor for seeking to "demoralize" history in his 1961 book The Origins of the Second World War, and for refusing to recognize "moral facts" about interwar Europe.[14] Himmelfarb maintained that Taylor was wrong to treat Adolf Hitler as a "normal" German leader playing by the traditional rules of diplomacy in The Origins of the Second World War instead of being a "world-historical" figure like Napoleon.[14]

Himmelfarb has energetically rejected postmodern academic approaches:

[Postmodernism in history] is a denial of the objectivity of the historian, of the factuality or reality of the past, and thus of the possibility of arriving at any truths about the past. For all disciplines it induces a radical skepticism, relativism, and subjectivism that denies not this or that truth about any subject but the very idea of truth – that denies even the ideal of truth, truth is something to aspire to even if it can never be fully attained.[15]


Himmelfarb is best known as a historian of Victorian England. But she puts that period in a larger context. Her book The Idea of Poverty opens with an extended analysis of Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus, who helped shape debate and policies through much the 19th century and beyond. Victorian Minds features such eighteenth-century "proto-Victorians" as Edmund Burke and Jeremy Bentham, concluding with the "last Victorian," John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, whose novels depict a 20th-century imbued with Victorian values. The Moral Imagination ranges from Burke to Winston Churchill and Lionel Trilling, with assorted Victorians and non-Victorians in between. On Looking into the Abyss has modern culture and society in the forefront and the Victorians in the background, while One Nation, Two Cultures is entirely about American culture and society. The Roads to Modernity enlarges the perspective of the Age of Enlightenment, both chronologically and nationally, placing the British Enlightenment in opposition to the French and in accord with the American. Most recently, The Jewish Odyssey of George Eliot and The People of the Book focus on attitudes to Jews, Judaism, and Zionism in England from their readmission in the 17th century to the present.

And so with scores of essays demonstrating that Victorian "values" – "virtues," she calls them – were not unique to that time and place. "The Victorian Ethos: Before and after Victoria," is the title of one essay;[16] "Victorianism before Victoria" are the opening words of another.[17] The word "Victorian" today has a disagreeable and crabbed connotation, conjuring up repressive sexual and social mores. Himmelfarb humanizes and democratizes that concept. In an interview after receiving the National Humanities Medal, she explained that the Victorian virtues – prudence, temperance, industriousness, decency, responsibility – were thoroughly pedestrian. "They depended on no special breeding, talent, sensibility, or even money. They were common, everyday virtues, within the capacity of ordinary people. They were the virtues of citizens, not of heroes or saints – and of citizens of democratic countries, not aristocratic ones."[18] Himmelfarb has argued "for the reintroduction of traditional values (she prefers the term 'virtues'), such as shame, responsibility, chastity, and self-reliance, into American political life and policy-making".[19]

While she is identified in America as a conservative, in Britain people on the left admire her work. One of her most outspoken admirers is Gordon Brown, the former Labour Party Prime Minister. His introduction to the British edition of Roads to Modernity opens: "I have long admired Gertrude Himmelfarb's historical work, in particular her love of the history of ideas, and her work has stayed with me ever since I was a history student at Edinburgh University."[20]



  • Lord Acton: A Study of Conscience and Politics (1952) OCLC 3011425
  • Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution (1959) online free
  • Victorian Minds (1968) OCLC 400777
  • On Liberty and Liberalism: The Case of John Stuart Mill (1974) OCLC 805020
  • The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age (1984) online free
  • Marriage and Morals Among the Victorians (1986) online free
  • The New History and the Old (1987, 2004) online free
  • Poverty and Compassion: The Moral Imagination of the Late Victorians (1991) online free
  • On Looking into the Abyss: Untimely Thoughts on Culture and Society (1994) online free
  • The De-Moralization of Society: From Victorian Virtues to Modern Values (1995) OCLC 30474640
  • One Nation, Two Cultures (1999) OCLC 40830208
  • Himmelfarb, Gertrude (2008) [2004], The Roads to Modernity: The British, French, and American Enlightenments, OCLC 53091118
  • The Moral Imagination: From Edmund Burke to Lionel Trilling (2006) OCLC 61109330
  • The Jewish Odyssey of George Eliot (2009) OCLC 271080989
  • The People of the Book: Philosemitism in England, from Cromwell to Churchill (Encounter Books, 2011) OCLC 701019524
  • Past and Present: The Challenges of Modernity, from the Pre-Victorians to the Postmodernists (Encounter Books, 2017) OCLC 954670433


  • Lord Acton, Essays on Freedom and Power (Free Press, 1948) OCLC 1052339
  • Milton Himmelfarb, Jews and Gentiles (Encounter Books, 2007) OCLC 70883212
  • Irving Kristol, The Neoconservative Persuasion (Basic Books, 2011) online free
  • Thomas Robert Malthus, Essay on Population (Modern Library, 1960) OCLC 4901335
  • John Stuart Mill, Essays on Politics and Culture (Doubleday, 1962) OCLC 193217
  • John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (Penguin, 1974) OCLC 1941475
  • Alexis de Tocqueville, Memoir on Pauperism (Ivan Dee, 1997) OCLC 36719602
  • The Spirit of the Age: Victorian Essays (Yale University Press, 2007) OCLC 171111099


  1. ^ "Gertrude Himmelfarb". Contemporary Authors Online. Biography in Context. Detroit: Gale. 2008. GALE|H1000045749. Retrieved 2011-09-03. (subscription required)
  2. ^ Rozenblit, Marsha (2007). "Gertrude Himmelfarb". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred. Encyclopaedia Judaica (Fee, via Fairfax County Public Library)|format= requires |url= (help) (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. Gale Document Number: GALE|K2587508972. Retrieved 2011-09-03. Gale Biography in Context.
  3. ^ "Himmelfarb, Gertrude 1922–", Encyclopedia, J rank.
  4. ^ Oz Frankel, Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia (2006)
  5. ^ Mark Gerson, "Reflections of a Neoconservative Disciple." in Christopher C. DeMuth and William Kristol eds. (1995). The Neoconservative Imagination: Essays in Honor of Irving Kristol. American Enterprise Institute. p. 165.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Himmelfarb 2004, pp. 43, 59–64.
  7. ^ Himmelfarb 2004, pp. 88–111.
  8. ^ Himmelfarb 2004, pp. 51–59, 113–25.
  9. ^ Himmelfarb, Gertrude (2004). The New History and the Old. pp. 96–97.
  10. ^ Himmelfarb, Gertrude (2004). The New History and the Old. pp. 126–138.
  11. ^ Himmelfarb, The New History and the Old, pages 18–21.
  12. ^ Himmelfarb, The New History and the Old, pages 19–20.
  13. ^ Himmelfarb, Gertrude (2004). The New History and the Old. pp. 15–30.
  14. ^ a b Himmelfarb, The New History and the Old, Harvard University Press, 2004 page 193.
  15. ^ Gertrude Himmelfarb (2004). The New History and the Old: Critical Essays and Reappraisals. Harvard University Press. p. 16.
  16. ^ Himmelfarb, Gertrude (1999), "The Victorian Ethos: Before and After Victoria", Victorian England, London: Folio Society.
  17. ^ Himmelfarb, Gertrude (March 24–25, 2007), "The War over Virtue", The Wall Street Journal.
  18. ^ Himmelfarb 2008, p. ix.
  19. ^ Frankel, Oz (2006), "Gertrude Himmelfarb", Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, JWA, retrieved June 30, 2009.
  20. ^ Himmelfarb, Gertrude (2008). The Roads to Modernity: The British, French and American Enlightenments. London: Vintage.

External links

Alexandra Orr

Alexandra Orr or Alexandra Leighton; Alexander Sutherland Orr; Mrs Sutherland Orr (23 November 1828 – 23 August 1903) was an English biographer of Robert Browning. She was a model for her brother Frederic Leighton in at least two paintings.

Bea (given name)

Bea is a feminine given name, often short for Beatrice. Notable people with the name include:

Bea Alonzo (born 1987), Filipina actress and singer

Beatrice Arthur (1922–2009), American actress

Bea Ballard, British television producer

Bea Barrett (1916–2002), American amateur golfer

Bea Benaderet (1906–1968), American actress

Bea Bielik (born 1980), American tennis player

Bea Binene (born 1997), Filipina actress

Bea Booze (1920–1975), American R&B and jazz singer

Bea Chester, American baseball player

Bea Feitler (1938–1982), Brazilian-born art-director

Bea Fiedler (born 1957), German topless model

Bea Firth (1946–2008), Canadian politician

Bea Gaddy (1933–2001), American humanitarian

Béa Gonzalez, Spanish-Canadian novelist

Gertrude Himmelfarb (born 1922), also known as Bea Kristol, American historian

Beatrice Lillie (1894–1989), Canadian actress

Bea Maddock (born 1934), Australian artist

Bea Miles (1902–1973), Australian eccentric

Bea Nettles (born 1946), art photographer and author

Bea Nicolas (born 1994), Filipina actress

Bea Palya (born 1976), Hungarian folk singer

Marie Beatrice Schol-Schwarz (1898–1969), also known as Bea Schwartz, Dutch phytopathologist

Bea Segura (born 1975), Spanish actress

Bea Wain (1917–2017), American singer

Bea Wyler, Swiss-German rabbi

Cuthbert Butler

Cuthbert Butler (born Edward Joseph Aloysius Butler, 6 May 1858 – 1 April 1934) was a Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey in England, who gained notice as an ecclesiastical historian. In 1906 he was elected the abbot of the community. He resigned in 1922.Butler is known for The Vatican Council: The Story from Inside in Bishop Ullathorne's Letters. Described by Michael J. G. Pahls as "[t]he standard [English-language] account of the First Vatican Council", the book is based on the correspondence of Bishop William Bernard Ullathorne of Birmingham. Gertrude Himmelfarb describes The Vatican Council as designed to support papal infallibility.He also wrote on mysticism.

Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution

Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution is a 1959 biography of Charles Darwin by historian Gertrude Himmelfarb. The book has been praised for its historical research but heavily criticized for attacking the theory of natural selection.


Himmelfarb is German or Yiddish for "color of the sky". Notable people with the surname include:

Alex Himelfarb, Canadian civil servant and academic

Eric Himelfarb, Canadian ice hockey player

Gary Himelfarb (Doctor Dread), a reggae producer

George Him, Polish-British designer born Jerzy Himmelfarb

Gertrude Himmelfarb, American historian

Milton Himmelfarb, American sociographer

Irving Kristol

Irving Kristol (; January 22, 1920 – September 18, 2009) was an American journalist who was dubbed the "godfather of neoconservatism". As the founder, editor, and contributor to various magazines, he played an influential role in the intellectual and political culture of the last half-century. After his death, he was described by The Daily Telegraph as being "perhaps the most consequential public intellectual of the latter half of the 20th century".

Kluge Scholars' Council

The Kluge Scholars' Council is a body of twenty-one distinguished international scholars, convened by the Librarian of Congress to advise on matters related to the John W. Kluge Center and the Kluge Prize. Through discussion and reflection, the Council assists in implementing an American tradition linking the activities of thinkers and doers, those who are engaged in the world of ideas with those engaged in the world of affairs.

Members of the Scholars' Council are appointed by the Librarian of Congress, under a separate Charter appended to the Kluge Center's Charter.

List of American Enterprise Institute scholars and fellows

The following notable persons are or have in the past been scholars, fellows, or staff members affiliated with the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI). If known, titles and dates of affiliation are included.

List of Booknotes interviews first aired in 1995

Booknotes is an American television series on the C-SPAN network hosted by Brian Lamb, which originally aired from 1989 to 2004. The format of the show is a one-hour, one-on-one interview with a non-fiction author. The series was broadcast at 8 p.m. Eastern Time each Sunday night, and was the longest-running author interview program in U.S. broadcast history.

List of alumni of Girton College, Cambridge

This is a list of alumni of Girton College, Cambridge.

Max Ascoli

Max Ascoli (1898–1978) was a Jewish Italian-American professor of political philosophy and law at the New School for Social Research, United States of America.

Milton Himmelfarb

Milton Himmelfarb (October 21, 1918 – January 4, 2006) was an American sociographer of the American Jewish community.

Himmelfarb worked for four decades at the American Jewish Committee where he was director of information and research services. He edited various versions of the American Jewish Yearbook. He also was a contributing editor of Commentary, the monthly journal of opinion.

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan appointed Himmelfarb to the United States Holocaust Memorial Council. Himmelfarb held several academic posts: visiting professor at the Jewish Theological Seminary and the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College and visiting lecturer at Yale College. He earned a BA in 1938 and MS in 1939 from City College of New York.

Himmelfarb coined the aphorism on the Jewish community's political persuasions: "Jews earn like Episcopalians, and vote like Puerto Ricans."

Himmelfarb's sister is the historian Gertrude Himmelfarb. He died in New York City at the age of 87. Through Gertrude, he was the uncle of William and Elizabeth Kristol.

Orwell Award

The NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language (the Orwell Award for short), "established in 1975 and given by the National Council of Teachers of English Public Language Award Committee, recognizes writers who have made outstanding contributions to the critical analysis of public discourse."Its negative counterpart, awarded by the same body, is the Doublespeak Award, "an ironic tribute to public speakers who have perpetuated language that is grossly deceptive, evasive, euphemistic, confusing, or self-centered."

Philip Merrill Award for Outstanding Contributions to Liberal Arts Education

The Philip Merrill Award for Outstanding Contributions to Liberal Arts Education is an annual prize given by the American Council of Trustees and Alumni to an individual who has “made an extraordinary contribution to the advancement of liberal arts education, core curricula, and the teaching of Western civilization and American history.” The award is named for the late public servant, publisher, entrepreneur, and philanthropist Philip Merrill.

Merrill was a trustee of Cornell University, the University of Maryland Foundation, the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, and the Aspen Institute, as well as a member of the National Council of the American Council of Trustees and Alumni.


Philo-Semitism (also spelled philosemitism) or Judeophilia is an interest in, respect for and an appreciation of Jewish people, their history and the influence of Judaism, particularly on the part of a gentile.

Within the Jewish community, philo-Semitism includes an interest in Jewish culture and a love of things that are considered Jewish.


Scarcity is the limited availability of a commodity, which may be in demand in the market. Scarcity also includes an individual's lack of resources to buy commodities.

The Public Interest

The Public Interest (1965–2005) was a quarterly public policy journal founded by the New York intellectuals Daniel Bell and Irving Kristol in 1965. It was a leading neoconservative journal on political economy and culture, aimed at a readership of journalists, scholars and policy makers.

The Weekly Standard

The Weekly Standard was an American opinion magazine published 48 times per year. Its founding publisher, News Corporation, debuted the title on September 18, 1995. Originally edited by founders Bill Kristol and Fred Barnes, the Standard had been described as a "redoubt of neoconservatism" and as "the neo-con bible." It was owned by MediaDC, a subsidiary of Clarity Media Group, itself a subsidiary of The Anschutz Corporation. On December 14, 2018, its owners announced that the magazine was ceasing publication, with the last issue published on December 17.Many of the magazine's articles were written by members of conservative think tanks located in Washington, including the American Enterprise Institute, the Ethics and Public Policy Center, the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, the Hudson Institute, and the Foreign Policy Initiative. Individuals who wrote for the magazine included Elliott Abrams, Peter Berkowitz, John R. Bolton, Ellen Bork, David Brooks, Gertrude Himmelfarb, Christopher Hitchens, Harvey Mansfield, Cynthia Ozick, Joe Queenan, and John Yoo. The magazine's website also produced regular online-only commentaries and news articles. The site's editorial stance had been described as conservative.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.