German tanker Altmark

Altmark was a German oil tanker and supply vessel, one of five of a class built between 1937 and 1939. She is best known for her support of the German commerce raider, the "pocket battleship" Admiral Graf Spee and her subsequent involvement in the "Altmark Incident".

Altmark schiff norwegen joessingfjord
Altmark in early 1940, Jøssingfjord, Norway
History
Nazi Germany
Name: Altmark
Namesake: Altmark
Builder: Howaldtswerke, Kiel
Laid down: 15 June 1936
Launched: 13 November 1937
Commissioned: 14 August 1939
Renamed: Uckermark, 6 August 1940
Fate: Destroyed by accidental explosion, 30 November 1942
General characteristics [1]
Displacement: 20,858 t (20,529 long tons) full load
Length:
  • 178.25 m (584 ft 10 in) o/a
  • 174.65 m (573 ft) w/l
Beam: 22 m (72 ft 2 in)
Draught: 9.3 m (30 ft 6 in)
Propulsion: 4 × MAN 9-cylinder diesel engines, 22,000 shp (16,405 kW), 2 shafts
Speed: 21.1 knots (39.1 km/h; 24.3 mph)
Range: 12,500 nmi (23,200 km) at 15 kn (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Complement: 94–208
Armament:
  • 3 × 15 cm (5.9 in) L/48 C36 guns
  • 2 × 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Flak
  • 4 × 2 cm (0.79 in) Flak
  • 8 × machine guns
Altmark Incident
German dead are brought ashore for burial after the incident.

The Altmark Incident

Altmark (Captain Heinrich Dau) was assigned to support Admiral Graf Spee during her raid in the South Atlantic between September and December 1939. Seamen rescued from the ships sunk by Admiral Graf Spee were transferred to Altmark. After Admiral Graf Spee was heavily damaged by British cruisers in Battle of the River Plate and subsequently scuttled by her crew, in the Río de la Plata in December 1939, Altmark attempted to return to Germany, steaming around the north of Great Britain and then within the Norwegian littoral. On 14 February 1940 Altmark, proceeding south within Norwegian territorial waters, was discovered by three British Lockheed Hudson Mk.II aircraft from RAF Thornaby and pursued by several British destroyers led by HMS Cossack. Late on 16 February 1940 in Jøssingfjord she was fired upon while the Norwegian Navy stood by and took no action save for raising a protest flag. The German tanker then received a boarding party from HMS Cossack. During an attempted escape across the ice, seven of the Altmark crew were shot down. During the skirmish Altmark was run onto the rocks. It had been the British intention to tow the ship back to a Scottish port, but the damage to the tanker's stern frustrated this idea.

An attack by one belligerent upon its enemy in neutral waters is a breach of neutrality, in this case a breach of Norwegian neutrality by Britain. Because Hitler feared Norway would be insufficiently resolute to protect the German iron-ore traffic that passed legitimately along the Norwegian littoral, at Admiral Erich Raeder's urging he decided on the invasion of Norway and Denmark in March 1940.

The British justification for the attack on the Altmark was set out in a Note to the Norwegian Government from Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax dated 10 March 1940. The problem the British Government faced was the wording of The Hague Convention XIII of 1907 to which it was a signatory. Article 10 provides that: "The neutrality of a Power is not affected by the mere passage through its territorial waters of warships or prizes belonging to belligerents."

This meant that the Altmark was within its rights to sail through Norwegian waters with prisoners aboard providing that it did not come to a protracted stop longer than 24 hours. In the diplomatic letter, the British government confirmed that it was not contrary to the law of neutrality to sail a prison ship through neutral waters, and Britain often did this herself. In fact the British complaint had nothing to do with the prisoners. Altmark was a fleet tanker assimilated to a warship and was proceeding to Germany from the Atlantic by the north-about route. Instead of sailing down the North Sea as he would do in peacetime, the master of the Altmark had elected to sail the entire leg of the voyage southwards within Norwegian territorial waters in order to attract immunity from attack there under international law. There was no other reason for him to want to voyage through waters so dangerous to navigation. With no valid breech of international law, the British excused their violation of international law by contriving that the Altmark's course abused international law even without a violation, and since the Norwegians had declined to stop a voyage that was not in violation of international convention the British Admiralty decided it was justified in taking action contrary to law, essentially announcing that it had the right to determine what course an enemy ship must travel to be entitled to the protections of international law.

The question remains unresolved to this day as to whether, as the Hague Conventions stood in 1940, a warship could legitimately seek immunity from attack in neutral waters by widely varying its course to reach them.

Subsequent history

The ship, renamed Uckermark on 6 August 1940, then resumed the role for which she had been built. During Admiral Lütjens' Atlantic adventure with the battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau between January and March 1941, Uckermark, under Captain Zatorski, was a supply ship and scout attached to the squadron. As the result of her reports the battleships were directed to various merchant vessels, which were then sunk.

On 9 September 1942 she left France for Japan with a cargo of vegetable oil and fuel, supplying the auxiliary cruiser Michel on the way, arriving at Yokohama on 24 November 1942. Uckermark was then intended as the replenishment ship for the German raider Thor, which was raiding merchant shipping in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean areas.

On 30 November 1942, Uckermark was anchored in Yokohama, Japan, next to Thor and the Australian passenger liner Nankin, which Thor had captured in March five days out from Fremantle, Australia, en route to Colombo, Ceylon. While the crew was at lunch, Uckermark suffered a huge explosion that ripped the vessel apart. Uckermark, Thor, and Nankin were sunk by the explosion. The cause of the explosion was thought to be a spark from tools used by a repair gang working near the cargo tanks. The Uckermark had delivered 5000ts of gasoline to Yokohama. It seems to be logical that the residual fumes and gasoline did explode. Diesel fuel does not explode the way the ship went up. 53 crewmen from Uckermark died in the explosion. The severely damaged ship was beyond repair and was scrapped.

Some of the survivors of the ship were sent to France on the blockade runner Doggerbank and perished when the ship was mistakenly sunk by the German submarine U-43 on 3 March 1943 with all but one of the 365 strong crew lost at sea.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Uckermark Technical Data". www.german-navy.de. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  2. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-boats: Doggerbank". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 16 May 2010.

External links

Coordinates: 25°30′S 24°30′W / 25.500°S 24.500°W

1940

1940 (MCMXL)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

1940 in Germany

Events in the year 1940 in Germany.

1940 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1940 in the United Kingdom. The year was dominated by Britain's involvement in the Second World War, which commenced in September the previous year, as well as the numerous enemy air raids on Britain and thousands of subsequent casualties. Although the war continued, Britain did triumph in the Battle of Britain and foiled Nazi Germany's invasion attempt.

Altmark

See German tanker Altmark for the ship named after Altmark and Stary Targ for the Polish village named Altmark in German.

The Altmark (English: Old March) is a historic region in Germany, comprising the northern third of Saxony-Anhalt. As the initial territory of the March of Brandenburg, it is sometimes referred to as the "Cradle of Prussia", as by Otto von Bismarck, a native from Schönhausen near Stendal.

Altmark Incident

The Altmark Incident (Norwegian: Altmark-affæren; German: Altmark-Zwischenfall) was a naval incident of World War II between British destroyers and the German tanker Altmark, which happened on 16–17 February 1940. It took place in what were, at that time, neutral Norwegian waters. On board the Altmark were some 300 allied prisoners (officially internees), whose ships were sunk by the pocket battleship Graf Spee in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. British naval forces cornered the tanker and later the destroyer Cossack attacked the German ship near the Jøssingfjord and freed all the prisoners, killing eight German seamen with firearms and wounding ten others, five of them seriously. A British and a Norwegian sailor were also seriously wounded in the action. Germany claimed that the attack was a grave violation of international law and of Norwegian neutrality.

February 16

February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 318 days remaining until the end of the year (319 in leap years).

German destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maass

The German destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maass was the lead ship of her class of four destroyers built for the German Navy (initially called the Reichsmarine and then renamed as the Kriegsmarine in 1935) during the mid-1930s. Completed in 1937, two years before the start of World War II, the ship served as a flagship and spent most of her time training although she did participate in the occupation of Memel in early 1939.

Several days after the start of the war in September 1939, Z1 Leberecht Maass and another destroyer unsuccessfully attacked Polish ships in the naval base on the Hel Peninsula. She was lightly damaged during the action. In mid-February 1940, while proceeding into the North Sea to attack British fishing trawlers (Operation Wikinger), the ship was bombed by a patrolling German bomber that damaged her steering. A court of inquiry convened during the war determined that she and a sister ship were hit by bombs, but a post-war investigation determined that she had drifted into a newly laid British minefield. Z1 Leberecht Maass broke in half with the loss of most of her crew.

German destroyer Z20 Karl Galster

Z20 Karl Galster was one of six Type 1936 destroyers built for the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) in the late 1930s. Completed in early 1939, the ship spent most of her time training. At the beginning of World War II in September, she was initially deployed to lay minefields off the German coast, but was soon transferred to the Skagerrak where she inspected neutral shipping for contraband goods. In late 1939 and early 1940, Z20 Karl Galster helped to laid three offensive minefields off the English coast that claimed one British destroyer, a fishing trawler, and twenty merchant ships. After a refit that prevented her from participating in the German invasion of Norway in April, the ship was sent to Norway for escort duties. Later that year Z20 Karl Galster was transferred to France later, where she made several attacks on British shipping.

The ship returned to Germany in early 1941 for a refit and was transferred to Norway in June as part of the preparations for Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Z20 Karl Galster spent some time at the beginning of the campaign conducting anti-shipping patrols in Soviet waters but these were generally fruitless. She escorted a number of German convoys in the Arctic later in the year until engine problems sent her back to Germany for repairs. The ship returned to Norway in mid-1942, but was badly damaged when she ran aground in July and did not return until December. Z20 Karl Galster participated in the German attack (Operation Zitronella) on the Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, well north of the Arctic Circle, in September 1943. Plagued by engine problems, the ship was under repair from November to August 1944 and then spent the next six months on convoy escort duties in southern Norway when not laying minefields.

Around March 1945, Z20 Karl Galster was transferred to the Baltic Sea where she helped to escort convoys of refugee ships and also rescued evacuees herself in May, around the time that Germany surrendered. When the surviving German warships were divided between the Allies after the war, the ship was eventually allocated to the Soviet Union.

Z20 Karl Galster was handed over in 1946 and renamed Prochnyy. The ship was converted into a training ship in 1950 and then became an accommodation ship in 1954. She was scrapped four years later.

German torpedo boat Luchs

Luchs was the fourth of six Type 24 torpedo boats built for the German Navy (initially called the Reichsmarine and then renamed as the Kriegsmarine in 1935) during the 1920s. The boat made multiple non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in the late 1930s. During World War II, she played a minor role in the Battle of Kristiansand during the Norwegian Campaign of 1940. Luchs was sunk in Norwegian waters in July by either a British submarine or a floating mine.

German torpedo boat Seeadler

Seeadler was the second of six Type 23 torpedo boats built for the German Navy (initially called the Reichsmarine and then renamed as the Kriegsmarine in 1935). The boat made multiple non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in the late 1930s. During World War II, she played a minor role in the Battle of Kristiansand during the Norwegian Campaign of 1940. Seeadler spent the next couple of years escorting minelayers as they laid minefields and laying minefields herself. She also spent the latter half of 1941 escorting convoys through the Skaggerak. The boat returned to France in 1942 and was one of the escorts for the capital ships sailing from France to Germany through the English Channel in the Channel Dash. Seeadler then helped to escort one commerce raider through the Channel and was sunk by British forces while escorting another blockade runner in May.

HMS Ark Royal (91)

HMS Ark Royal (pennant number 91) was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy that served during the Second World War.

Designed in 1934 to fit the restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty, Ark Royal was built by Cammell Laird and Company Ltd. at Birkenhead, England, and completed in November 1938. Her design differed from previous aircraft carriers. Ark Royal was the first ship on which the hangars and flight deck were an integral part of the hull, instead of an add-on or part of the superstructure. Designed to carry a large number of aircraft, she had two hangar deck levels. She served during a period that first saw the extensive use of naval air power; several carrier tactics were developed and refined aboard Ark Royal.

Ark Royal served in some of the most active naval theatres of the Second World War. She was involved in the first aerial and U-boat kills of the war, operations off Norway, the search for the German battleship Bismarck, and the Malta Convoys. Ark Royal survived several near misses and gained a reputation as a 'lucky ship'. She was torpedoed on 13 November 1941 by the German submarine U-81 and sank the following day; one of her 1,488 crew members was killed. Her sinking was the subject of several inquiries; investigators were keen to know how the carrier was lost, in spite of efforts to save the ship and tow her to the naval base at Gibraltar. They found that several design flaws contributed to the loss, which were rectified in new British carriers.

The wreck was discovered in December 2002 by an American underwater survey company using sonar mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle, under contract from the BBC for the filming of a documentary about the ship, at a depth of about 1000 metres and approximately 30 nautical miles (35 mi; 56 km) from Gibraltar.

HMS Seal (N37)

HMS Seal was one of six Grampus-class mine-laying submarines of the Royal Navy. She served in the Second World War and was captured by the Kriegsmarine and taken into German service as UB, one of several captured subs. She was the only submarine the Germans captured at sea during World War II. Her capture allowed the Germans to correct a critical fault in their U-boat torpedoes.Seal was laid down at the Chatham Dockyard on 9 December 1936, launched on 27 September 1938 and commissioned into the Royal Navy on 24 May 1939. During her entire British career, her commander was Rupert Lonsdale, for whom it was his second command.

Hell ship

A hell ship is a ship with extremely unpleasant living conditions or with a reputation for cruelty among the crew. It now generally refers to the ships used by the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army to transport Allied prisoners of war (POWs) and romushas (Asian forced slave laborers) out of the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines, Hong Kong and Singapore in World War II. The POWs were taken to Japan, Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea, the Moluccas, Sumatra, Burma, or Siam to be used as forced labor.

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German auxiliary cruiser Hansa

German auxiliary cruiser Komet

German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

German auxiliary cruiser Michel

German auxiliary cruiser Orion

German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin

German auxiliary cruiser Stier

German auxiliary cruiser Thor

German auxiliary cruiser Widder

German battleship Bismarck

German battleship Gneisenau

German battleship Scharnhorst

German battleship Schlesien

German battleship Schleswig-Holstein

German battleship Tirpitz

German Bestelmeyer

German Blood Certificate

German camps in occupied Poland during World War II

German Christians

German Cross

German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee

German cruiser Admiral Hipper

German cruiser Admiral Scheer

German cruiser Blücher

German cruiser Deutschland

German cruiser Emden

German cruiser Karlsruhe

German cruiser Köln

German cruiser Königsberg

German cruiser Leipzig

German cruiser Lützow (1931)

German cruiser Nürnberg

German cruiser Prinz Eugen

German cruiser Seydlitz

German declaration of war against the Netherlands

German destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maass

German Division Nr. 157

German Division Nr. 188

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

German Faith Movement

German Forced Labour Compensation Programme

German fortification of Guernsey

German Fortress Division Swinemünde

German heavy tank battalions

German hospital ship Berlin

German Instrument of Surrender

German Labour Front

German military technology during World War II

German Motorized Company

German National Movement in Liechtenstein

German National Prize for Art and Science

German night fighter direction vessel Togo

German nuclear energy project

German occupation of Belgium during World War II

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

German occupation of France during World War II

German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II

German occupation of the Channel Islands

German Order (decoration)

German order of battle for Operation Fall Weiss

German Party (Romania)

German People's Party (Romania)

German Resistance

German Restitution Laws

German searchlights of World War II

German submarine U-1 (1935)

German submarine U-2 (1935)

German submarine U-3 (1935)

German submarine U-4 (1935)

German submarine U-5 (1935)

German submarine U-6 (1935)

German submarine U-7 (1935)

German submarine U-8 (1935)

German submarine U-9 (1935)

German submarine U-10 (1935)

German submarine U-11 (1935)

German submarine U-12 (1935)

German submarine U-13 (1935)

German submarine U-14 (1936)

German submarine U-15 (1936)

German submarine U-16 (1936)

German submarine U-17 (1935)

German submarine U-18 (1936)

German submarine U-19 (1936)

German submarine U-20 (1936)

German submarine U-22 (1936)

German submarine U-23 (1936)

German submarine U-24 (1936)

German submarine U-25 (1936)

German submarine U-26 (1936)

German submarine U-27 (1936)

German submarine U-28 (1936)

German submarine U-30 (1936)

German submarine U-31 (1936)

German submarine U-32 (1914)

German submarine U-32 (1937)

German submarine U-33 (1936)

German submarine U-34 (1936)

German submarine U-35 (1936)

German submarine U-36 (1936)

German submarine U-37 (1938)

German submarine U-38 (1938)

German submarine U-39 (1938)

German submarine U-40 (1939)

German submarine U-41 (1939)

German submarine U-42 (1939)

German submarine U-43 (1939)

German submarine U-47 (1938)

German submarine U-48 (1939)

German submarine U-49 (1939)

German submarine U-50 (1939)

German submarine U-51 (1938)

German submarine U-54 (1939)

German submarine U-63 (1940)

German submarine U-66 (1940)

German submarine U-68 (1940)

German submarine U-69 (1940)

German submarine U-70 (1940)

German submarine U-72 (1940)

German submarine U-74 (1940)

German submarine U-75 (1940)

German submarine U-78 (1940)

German submarine U-79 (1941)

German submarine U-81 (1941)

German submarine U-83 (1941)

German submarine U-85 (1941)

German submarine U-86 (1941)

German submarine U-88 (1941)

German submarine U-89 (1941)

German submarine U-94 (1940)

German submarine U-95 (1940)

German submarine U-96 (1940)

German submarine U-98 (1940)

German submarine U-99 (1940)

German submarine U-100 (1940)

German submarine U-101 (1940)

German submarine U-102 (1940)

German submarine U-103 (1940)

German submarine U-106 (1940)

German submarine U-107 (1940)

German submarine U-110 (1940)

German submarine U-116 (1941)

German submarine U-120 (1940)

German submarine U-122 (1939)

German submarine U-123 (1940)

German submarine U-124 (1940)

German submarine U-125 (1940)

German submarine U-128 (1941)

German submarine U-131 (1941)

German submarine U-134 (1941)

German submarine U-137 (1940)

German submarine U-144 (1940)

German submarine U-155 (1941)

German submarine U-156 (1941)

German submarine U-166 (1941)

German submarine U-171

German submarine U-172

German submarine U-175

German submarine U-176

German submarine U-180

German submarine U-181

German submarine U-183

German submarine U-184

German submarine U-185

German submarine U-190

German submarine U-195

German submarine U-196

German submarine U-214

German submarine U-215

German submarine U-217

German submarine U-218

German submarine U-219

German submarine U-221

German submarine U-227

German submarine U-228

German submarine U-234

German submarine U-238

German submarine U-253

German submarine U-254

German submarine U-255

German submarine U-256

German submarine U-259

German submarine U-260

German submarine U-262

German submarine U-268

German submarine U-269

German submarine U-273

German submarine U-280

German submarine U-298

German submarine U-300

German submarine U-301

German submarine U-303

German submarine U-309

German submarine U-317

German submarine U-324

German submarine U-325

German submarine U-333

German submarine U-337

German submarine U-340

German submarine U-346

German submarine U-352

German submarine U-353

German submarine U-362

German submarine U-365

German submarine U-371

German submarine U-383

German submarine U-388

German submarine U-400

German submarine U-405

German submarine U-413

German submarine U-429

German submarine U-434

German submarine U-438

German submarine U-441

German submarine U-443

German submarine U-455

German submarine U-459

German submarine U-460

German submarine U-461

German submarine U-462

German submarine U-463

German submarine U-468

German submarine U-470

German submarine U-479

German submarine U-481

German submarine U-487

German submarine U-488

German submarine U-489

German submarine U-490

German submarine U-501

German submarine U-502

German submarine U-503

German submarine U-505

German submarine U-507

German submarine U-509

German submarine U-511

German submarine U-512

German submarine U-515

German submarine U-518

German submarine U-520

German submarine U-521

German submarine U-523

German submarine U-529

German submarine U-530

German submarine U-531

German submarine U-533

German submarine U-534

German submarine U-535

German submarine U-537

German submarine U-539

German submarine U-549

German submarine U-550

German submarine U-552

German submarine U-553

German submarine U-556

German submarine U-557

German submarine U-559

German submarine U-570

German submarine U-571

German submarine U-573

German submarine U-596

German submarine U-625

German submarine U-627

German submarine U-656

German submarine U-691

German submarine U-701

German submarine U-718

German submarine U-735

German submarine U-736

German submarine U-745

German submarine U-754

German submarine U-759

German submarine U-760

German submarine U-765

German submarine U-772

German submarine U-777

German submarine U-821

German submarine U-843

German submarine U-844

German submarine U-852

German submarine U-853

German submarine U-859

German submarine U-862

German submarine U-864

German submarine U-869

German submarine U-884

German submarine U-889

German submarine U-953

German submarine U-957

German submarine U-958

German submarine U-961

German submarine U-964

German submarine U-973

German submarine U-978

German submarine U-1000

German submarine U-1021

German submarine U-1059

German submarine U-1060

German submarine U-1061

German submarine U-1062

German submarine U-1063

German submarine U-1105

German submarine U-1227

German submarine U-1230

German submarine U-1234

German submarine U-1235

German submarine U-1276

German submarine U-1302

German submarine U-2321

German submarine U-2322

German submarine U-2323

German submarine U-2324

German submarine U-2331

German submarine U-2342

German submarine U-2501

German submarine U-2511

German submarine U-2513

German submarine U-3008

German submarine U-3519

German tank production during World War II

German tanker Altmark

German tanks in World War II

German torpedoboats of World War II

German Type I submarine

German Type II submarine

German Type VII submarine

German Type IX submarine

German Type X submarine

German Type XIV submarine

German Type XVIIB submarine

German Type XXI submarine

German Type XXIII submarine

German War Graves Commission

German Weapons Act

German weather ship Lauenburg

German World War II destroyers

German World War II strongholds

German WWII strongholds

German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty

German-trained divisions in the National Revolutionary Army

German–occupied Europe

Germanic-SS

Germanische Leitstelle

Germany Must Perish!

Germany Year Zero

Germar Rudolf

Gerry H. Kisters

Gerry Parsky

Gershon Sirota

Gerstein Report

Gert Fröbe

Gert-Dietmar Klause

Gertrud Scholtz-Klink

Gertrude (Code name)

Gertrude Nelson

Gertrude Sanford Legendre

Gertrude Stein

Geschwaderkommodore

Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front

Gestapo-NKVD Conferences

Gestapo

Getúlio Vargas

Gewehr 41

Gewehr 43

Géza Lakatos

GFM cloche

Gheorghe Apostol

Gheorghe Argeşanu

Gheorghe Gaston Marin

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej

Gheorghe I. Brătianu

Gheorghe Manoliu

Gheorghe Mironescu

Gheorghe Pănculescu

Gheorghe Plagino

Gheorghe Răscănescu

Gheorghe Tătărescu

Gheorghe Ursu

Ghetto Fighters' House

Ghetto Litzmannstadt

Ghetto uprising

Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939-1944)

Ghislain Gimbert

Gholam-Hossein Saedi

Ghost Soldiers

GHQ Liaison Regiment

GHQ Line

Giacomo Acerbo

Giacomo Appiotti

Gian Singh

Giancarlo Pajetta

Gianfranco Gaspari

Gianfranco Gazzana-Priaroggia

Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon

Gianni Rodari

Gianpiero Combi

Gideon Force

Gideon Greif

Gideon Klein

Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris RER)

Giffard LeQuesne Martel

Gig Young

Gil Hodges

Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field

Gila River War Relocation Center

Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign

Gilbert Bayiha N'Djema

Gilbert Bécaud

Gilbert Bostsarron

Gilbert Cavan

Gilbert de Greenlaw

Gilbert Duprez

Gilbert Gérintès

Gilbert Gude

Gilbert Hackforth-Jones

Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster

Gilbert Johnson

Gilbert Jonathan Rowcliff

Gilbert Le Chenadec

Gilbert Monckton, 2nd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley

Gilbert Montagné

Gilbert Norman

Gilbert Renault

Gilbert Stork

Gilbert Stuart Martin Insall

Giles Cooper

Giles McCrary

Giles Romilly

Giles Vandeleur

Gillean Maclaine

Gilles Boileau

Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Lamontagne

Gilles Ménage

Gilles Quénéhervé

Gilles Rampillon

Gilles Yapi Yapo

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

Gilliam-class attack transport

Gillis William Long

Gin Drinkers Line

Gino J. Merli

Gino Marchetti

Gino Sopracordevole

Gioachino Rossini

Giorgio Amendola

Giorgio Bassani

Giorgio Napolitano

Giorgio Parisi

Giorgio Perlasca

Giorgio Zampori

Giovanna Zangrandi

Giovanni De Prà

Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Giorgio Trissino

Giovanni Graber

Giovanni Messe

Giovanni Palatucci

Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz

Giovanni Scatturin

Giretsu

Gisela Bock

Gisella Perl

Gitta Sereny

GIUK gap

Giulio de Florian

Giulio Gaudini

Giulio Martinat

Giuseppe Colacicco

Giuseppe Crivelli

Giuseppe Di Vittorio

Giuseppe Dossetti

Giuseppe Fioravanzo

Giuseppe Paris

Giuseppe Saragat

Giuseppe Siri

Giuseppe Tonani

Giustizia e Libertà

Glacier Girl

Glacière (Paris Métro)

Gladys Carson

Glamour Gal

Glasmine 43

Glass House (Budapest)

Gleichschaltung

Gleiwitz incident

Glen Bell

Glen D. Johnson

Glen Edwards (pilot)

Glen Graham

Glencree German war cemetery

Glendon Swarthout

Glenn Ford

Glenn Hartranft

Glenn Miller

Glenn T. Seaborg

Glina massacre

Glinciszki massacre

Glorious-class aircraft carrier

Glossary of German military terms

Glossary of Nazi Germany

Glossary of the Third Reich

Gloster E.28/39

Gloster Meteor

Glynn R. Donaho

Gnevny-class destroyer

Go For Broke Monument

Go for Broke! (1951 film)

Gobelins (school of image)

Gobelins manufactory

God Is My Co-Pilot (film)

Godfrey Hounsfield

Godwin Okpara

Goebbels Diaries

Goering's Green Folder

Gold Beach

Gold Star Mothers Club

Gold Star Wives

Golden Party Badge

Golf Disneyland

Goliath tracked mine

Gonars concentration camp

Gonars

Goncourt (Paris Métro)

Gongzhutun Campaign

Gonzalo Quesada

Good Germans

Goodbye Holland

Goodbye Japan

Göppingen Gö 9

Goralenvolk

Göran Claeson

Goran Rubil

Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague

Gordie Drillon

Gordon A. Craig

Gordon Bennett (Australian soldier)

Gordon Bridson

Gordon Browning

Gordon Campbell, Baron Campbell of Croy

Gordon Charles Steele

Gordon Churchill

Gordon Donaldson (journalist)

Gordon Gollob

Gordon Goodwin (athlete)

Gordon H. Sato

Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hultquist

Gordon Killick

Gordon MacWhinnie

Gordon McGregor

Gordon Nornable

Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon

Gordon Prange

Gordon R. Dickson

Gordon Waite Underwood

Gösta Persson

Gotha G.I

Gotha G.II

Gotha G.III

Gotha G.IV

Gotha G.IX

Gotha G.V

Gotha G.VII

Gotha Go 145

Gotha Go 149

Gotha Go 242

Gotha Go 244

Gotha Go 345

Gotha LD.1

Gotha WD.2

Gotha WD.3

Gotha WD.7

Gotha WD.11

Gotha WD.14

Gotha WD.27

Gotha Ka 430

Gothic Line order of battle

Gothic Line

Gottfried E. Noether

Gottfried Feder

Gottfried Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen

Gottfried Ochshorn

Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Einem

Gotthard Handrick

Gotthard Heinrici

Gottlob Berger

Gottorp

Götz Aly

Goumier

Goutte d'Or

Government Aircraft Factories

Government Delegate's Office at Home

Government of National Unity (Hungary)

Goya (ship)

Grace Hopper

Grace McKenzie

Gracias Amigos

Grady A. Dugas

Grady McMurtry

Grady McWhiney

Graf Zeppelin-class aircraft carrier

Grafeneck Castle

Grafeneck

Graham Bladon

Graham Greene

Graham Leslie Parish

Grampus-class submarine

Gran Sasso raid

Granada War Relocation Center

Granatwerfer 36

Granatwerfer 42

Grand Cross of the German Eagle

Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

Grand Director

Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia

Grand Guignol

Grand Han Righteous Army

Grand Palais

Grand Slam bomb

Grand Wizard

Granddi Ngoyi

Grande Arche

Grande Ceinture line

Grande ceinture Ouest

Grande Odalisque

Grands Boulevards (Paris Métro)

Grands Magasins du Louvre

Grant County International Airport

Grant F. Timmerman

Granville Raid

Grave of the Fireflies (novel)

Grave of the Fireflies

Gravedigger (comics)

Graves B. Erskine

Great Bend Municipal Airport

Great Depression in Canada

Great Japan Youth Party

Great Patriotic War (term)

Great Synagogue of London

Great Western Railway War Memorial

Greater Britain Movement

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Greater Hungary (political concept)

Grebbe line

Greco-Italian War

Greek battleship Kilkis

Greek battleship Lemnos

Greek cruiser Elli (1912)

Greek cruiser Georgios Averof

Greek destroyer Adrias

Greek destroyer Aetos

Greek destroyer Aspis

Greek destroyer Hydra (D 97)

Greek destroyer Ierax

Greek destroyer Kountouriotis (D 99)

Greek destroyer Leon

Greek destroyer Niki

Greek destroyer Panthir

Greek destroyer Psara (D 96)

Greek destroyer Spetsai (D 98)

Greek destroyer Thyella

Greek destroyer Vasilefs Georgios (D 14)

Greek destroyer Vasilissa Olga (D 15)

Greek National Socialist Party

Greek People's Liberation Army

Greek Resistance

Greek submarine Katsonis (Y-1)

Greek submarine Papanikolis (Y-2)

Greek torpedo boat Kios

Greek torpedo boat Kydonia

Greek torpedo boat Kyzikos

Greek torpedo boat Pergamos

Greek torpedo boat Proussa

Green box barrage

Green Gang

Green Line (Italy)

Green report

Green Skull

Green St. Bunker, West End

Greenock Blitz

Greensboro massacre

Grégoire Laurent

Gregor Strasser

Gregorij Rožman

Gregory Arnolin

Gregory Breit

Grégory Paisley

Grégory Pujol

Gregory Rabassa

Grégory Wimbée

Grenelle

Grenoble Cathedral

Grenoble Foot 38

Grenoble Institute of Technology

Grenoble

Greta Bösel

Greta Ferusic

Greta Keller

Grey Ranks (role-playing game)

Greyshirts

Gribovski G-11

Grigore Cugler

Grigore Gafencu

Grigore Preoteasa

Grigory Stelmakh

Grigory Vorozheikin

Grill (cryptology)

Grille (artillery)

Grini concentration camp

Grits Gresham

Grivnik brigade

Grob G 115

Groesbeek Canadian War Cemetery

Grojanowski Report

Grønsvik coastal battery

Gross-Rosen concentration camp

Großdeutschland Division

Groton-New London Airport

Ground Observer Corps

Group 13

Group Army

Groupe de Chasse I/3

Grumman Goose

Gruppenführer

Gruppenkommandeur

Grzegorz Timofiejew

Gu Zhutong

Guadalcanal (1992 game)

Guadalcanal Campaign

Guadalcanal Diary (book)

Guadalcanal Diary (film)

Gualberto Villarroel

Guan Linzheng

Guangzhou Military Region

Guangzhou Uprising

Guards Armoured Division

Guards Mixed Brigade

Gudrun Burwitz

Guenther Podola

Guépard-class destroyer

Guerlain

Guglielmo Nasi

Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target

Guide Gift Week

Guido Castelnuovo

Guido Knopp

Guildhall, London

Guillaume Apollinaire

Guillaume Budé

Guillaume de Baillou

Guillaume Dubois

Guillaume Gallienne

Guillaume Norbert

Guillaume Postel

Guillaume Rippert

Guillaume Sarkozy

Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes

Guillermo Hayden Wright

Guilty Men

Guimet Museum

Guinea Pig Club

Guinguette

Guizhou JL-9

Gulbrand Oscar Johan Lunde

Gumbinnen Operation

Gun politics in Germany

Gunbatsu

Gung Ho! (1943 film)

Gunichi Mikawa

Gunnar Holmberg

Gunnar Jahn

Gunnar Larsson (cross-country skier)

Gunnar Lindström

Gunnar Sköld

Gunnar Sønsteby

Günter Bialas

Gunter d'Alquen

Günter Deckert

Günter Grass

Gunter Jahn

Günter Kießling

Günter Reimann

Günter Steinhausen

Günter Zöller

Günther Anhalt

Günther Blumentritt

Günther Freiherr von Maltzahn

Günther Josten

Günther Korten

Günther Krappe

Günther Lütjens

Günther Lützow

Günther Pancke

Günther Prien

Günther Rall

Günther Schack

Günther Scheel

Günther Schwägermann

Günther Seeger

Günther Smend

Günther Specht

Günther Viezenz

Günther von Kluge

Günther-Eberhardt Wisliceny

Guo Boxiong

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon

Gurli Ewerlund

Gus George Bebas

Gus Kefurt

Gus Savage

Gust J. Swenning

Gustaf Carlsson

Gustaf Dyrssen

Gustaf Hagelin

Gustaf Söderström

Gustaf Weijnarth

Gustav Adolf Scheel

Gustav Adolf von Götzen

Gustav Anton von Wietersheim

Gustav Flatow

Gustav Goßler

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Gustav Moths

Gustav Rau

Gustav Richter

Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Gustav Rödel

Gustav Schwarzenegger

Gustav Simon

Gustav Sprick

Gustav Sturm

Gustav V of Sweden

Gustav Victor Rudolf Born

Gustav von Vaerst

Gustav Wagner (soldier)

Gustav Weler

Gustáv Wendrinský

Gustav-Adolf Blancbois

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen

Gustave Bertrand

Gustave Biéler

Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave de Molinari

Gustave Doré

Gustave Gilbert

Gustave Hervé

Gustave Lanctot

Gustave Moreau

Gustave Sandras

Gustave Thuret

Gustavo Poyet

Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

Gustaw Holoubek

Gustaw Morcinek

Gusztáv Vitéz Jány

Guy Armoured Car

Guy Butler (athlete)

Guy D'Artois

Guy Gabaldon

Guy Gibson

Guy Gregson

Guy Lacombe

Guy Lizard

Guy Madison

Guy Menzies

Guy Môquet (Paris Métro)

Guy Môquet

Guy Russell

Guy S. Meloy, Jr.

Guy Sajer

Guy Salisbury-Jones

Guy Simonds

Gwardia Ludowa WRN

Gwardia Ludowa

Gwido Langer

Győző Haberfeld

Gyokuon-hōsō

György Beifeld

György Gábori

Gyorshadtest

Gyula Cseszneky

Gyula Halasy

Gyula Kakas

Gyula Strausz

Jøssingfjord

Jøssingfjorden is a fjord in Sokndal municipality in Rogaland county, Norway. The 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) long fjord is narrow and deep and is surrounded by mountains. It sits about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) southeast of the municipal centre of Hauge. There is some settlement on the southeastern side of the fjord: the villages of Li, Vinterstø, and Bu. There is a road that runs along the southeast coast of the fjord, with sharp hairpin turns leading down from the mountains to the shore of the fjord both heading north and south from the fjord.The Tellnes mine, one of Norway's largest titanium mines, is located in the mountains about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) northeast of the fjord. The mine is run by a company called Titania, and the fjord is used as the shipping port for the company. The Nedre Helleren Power Plant is located at the head of the fjord. The electricity is generated by water from lakes located high in the mountains and the water is piped down to the sea level power plant the force of the falling water produces the electricity.

At the head of the fjord is the small Helleren farm which is now abandoned. It sits in a narrow valley with steep rock cliffs on two sides, a rock scree on the third side, and the fjord on the fourth side. The base of one of the rock cliffs stops about 8 metres (26 ft) above the ground forming a rock shelter, or heller (hence the name of the farm). The farm is preserved and is now owned by the Dalane folk museum.

Jøssingfjord is the place of iconic importance in history of Norwegian antifascism.

Kampf um Norwegen – Feldzug 1940

Kampf um Norwegen – Feldzug 1940 (Battle for Norway - 1940 Campaign) is a 1940 Nazi propaganda film directed by Martin Rikli and Dr. Werner Buhre under orders of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht. The documentary film follows the Invasion of Denmark and Norway in the spring of 1940.

Redoutable-class submarine (1928)

The Redoutable-class submarines were a group of 31 submarines built between 1924 and 1937 for the French Navy. Most of the class saw service during the Second World War. The class is also known in French as the Classe 1 500 tonnes, and they were designated as "First Class submarines", or "large submarine cruisers". They are known as the Redoutable class in reference to the lead boat Redoutable, in service from 1931 to 1942. The class is divided into two sub-class series, Type I, known as Le Redoutable and Type II, Pascal.

Modern submarines when they were designed, they quickly became outdated, and were approaching obsolescence by the beginning of the Second World War. The conditions of the Armistice of 22 June 1940 prevented the Vichy government from carrying out a modernization programme. 24 out of the 29 units that served in the war were lost. Used in the defence of the Second French colonial empire under the Vichy regime, submarines of the class saw action against Allied offensives at the Battles of Dakar, Libreville and Madagascar. Many of the submarines of the class came under Allied control after the Allied landings in North Africa. Few however saw much further active service after this due to a period of refitting and alterations done in the United States between February 1943 and March 1945. One exception was Casabianca, which took part in the liberation of Corsica. The surviving submarines were largely used for training purposes after the war, with the last of them being disarmed in 1952.

SS Uhenfels

SS Uhenfels was a steam merchant ship operated initially by the German shipping firm Deutsche Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft Hansa, and then shortly after the start of the Second World War by the British Elder Dempster Lines Ltd, as SS Empire Ability. She was sunk under this name in 1941 by a German U-boat.

Tribal-class destroyer (1936)

The Tribal class, or Afridi class, were a class of destroyers built for the Royal Navy, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Australian Navy that saw service in World War II. Originally conceived during design studies for a light fleet cruiser, the Tribals evolved into fast, powerful destroyers, with greater emphasis on guns over torpedoes than previous destroyers, in response to new designs by Japan, Italy, and Germany. The Tribals were well admired by their crews and the public when they were in service due to their power, often becoming symbols of prestige while in service.As some of the Royal Navy's most modern and powerful escort ships, the Tribal class served with distinction in nearly all theatres of World War II. Only a handful of Royal Navy Tribals survived the war, all of which were subsequently scrapped from hard use, while Commonwealth Tribals continued to serve into the Cold War, serving with distinction in the Korean War. Only one Tribal survives to this day: HMCS Haida, which is now a museum ship in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada.

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