German submarine U-48 (1939)

German submarine U-48 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II, and the most successful that was commissioned. During her two years of active service, U-48 sank 55 ships for a total of 321,000 tons; she also damaged two more for a total of 12,000 tons over twelve war patrols conducted during the opening stages of the Battle of the Atlantic.

U-48 was built at the Germaniawerft in Kiel as yard number 583 during 1938 and 1939, being completed a few months before the outbreak of war in September 1939 and given to Kapitänleutnant (Kptlt.) Herbert Schultze. When war was declared, she was already in position in the North Atlantic, and received the news via radio, allowing her to operate immediately against Allied shipping.

U 52
U-52, a typical Type VIIB boat
History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-48
Ordered: 21 November 1936[1]
Builder: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Cost: 4,439,000 Reichsmark
Yard number: 583[1]
Laid down: 10 March 1937[1]
Launched: 8 March 1939[1]
Commissioned: 22 April 1939[1]
Decommissioned: October 1943
Fate: Scuttled, 3 May 1945 off Neustadt[1]
General characteristics
Class and type: Type VIIB U-boat
Displacement:
  • 753 t (741 long tons) surfaced
  • 857 t (843 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power:
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Range:
  • 8,700 nmi (16,112 km; 10,012 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)surfaced
  • 90 nmi (170 km; 100 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph)
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft). Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 4 officers, 40–56 enlisted
Sensors and
processing systems:
Gruppenhorchgerät
Armament:
Service record
Part of:
Identification codes: M 27 354
Commanders:
  • Kptlt. Herbert Schultze
  • 22 April 1939 – 20 May 1940
  • K.Kapt. Hans-Rudolf Rösing
  • 21 May – 3 September 1940
  • Heinrich Bleichrodt
  • 4 September – 16 December 1940
  • Kptlt. Herbert Schultze
  • 17 December – 27 July 1941
  • Oblt.z.S. Siegfried Atzinger
  • August 1941 – September 1942
  • Oblt.z.S. Diether Todenhagen
  • 26 September – October 1943
Operations:
  • Twelve:
  • 1st patrol: 19 August – 17 September 1939
  • 2nd patrol: 4–25 October 1939
  • 3rd patrol: 20 November – 20 December 1939
  • 4th patrol: 24 January – 26 February 1940
  • 5th patrol: 3–20 April 1940
  • 6th patrol: 26 May – 29 June 1940
  • 7th patrol: 7–28 August 1940
  • 8th patrol: 8–25 September 1940
  • 9th patrol: 5–27 October 1940
  • 10th patrol: 20 January – 27 February 1941
  • 11th patrol: 17 March – 8 April
  • 12th patrol:
  • a. 22 May – 1 June 1941
  • b. 19–21 June 1941
Victories:
  • 51 ships sunk for a total of 306,875 GRT
  • one warship sunk for a total of 1,060 tons
  • three ships damaged for a total of 20,480 GRT

Design

German Type VIIB submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIA submarines. U-48 had a displacement of 753 tonnes (741 long tons) when at the surface and 857 tonnes (843 long tons) while submerged.[2] She had a total length of 66.50 m (218 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 48.80 m (160 ft 1 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.50 m (31 ft 2 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8-276 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.9 knots (33.2 km/h; 20.6 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph).[2] When submerged, the boat could operate for 90 nautical miles (170 km; 100 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,700 nautical miles (16,100 km; 10,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-48 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and one 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[2]

Service history

She was a member of two wolfpacks. Seven former crew members of U-48 earned the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during their military career, these were the commanders Herbert Schultze, Hans-Rudolf Rösing and Heinrich Bleichrodt, the first watch officer Reinhard Suhren, the second watch Otto Ites, the chief engineer Erich Zürn and the coxswain Horst Hofmann.

U-48 survived most of the war and was scuttled by her own crew on 3 May 1945 off Neustadt in order to keep the submarine out of the hands of the advancing allies.

1st patrol (19 August – 17 September 1939)

U-48 left her home port of Kiel on 19 August 1939, before World War II began,[3] for a period of 30 days. The submarine travelled north of the British Isles, into the North Atlantic and eventually into the Bay of Biscay. She then proceeded to cruise to the west of the Western Approaches, two days after Britain and France declared war on Germany. It was here that she spotted her first target, the 5,000-ton SS Royal Sceptre. U-48 attacked the merchant ship with her deck gun on 5 September 1939.[4] All of the crew took to the lifeboats except the Radio Officer who remained transmitting "SOS". He was taken prisoner by U-48, but then released to the lifeboats as Schultze praised his courage. He verified that the lifeboats were provisioned with food and water. U-48 then stopped the SS Browning. The crew abandoned their vessel, but Schultze told them to return to their ship and pick up the crew of Royal Sceptre. However Browning was en route to Brazil, so it was not immediately realised that they had survived. Winston Churchill, then First Lord of The Admiralty, assumed the worst, that the crew and sixty passengers were lost.[5] He declared the sinking to be

an odious act of bestial piracy on the high seas[6]

U-48 stopped, searched and released several neutral ships before encountering and sinking Winkleigh on 8 September 1939 after her crew had taken to the lifeboats.[7]

On 11 September U-48 sank Firby. Some of the crew required medical attention following the sinking. U-48 provisioned the lifeboats, gave medical assistance and radioed:

Transmit to Mr Churchill. I have sunk the British steamer Firby. Posit 59°40'N 13°50'W. Save the crew if you please. German submarine[8]

Churchill, wrongly, told the House of Commons that the U-boat captain who had sent the message had been captured.[5] After 30 days at sea, U-48 returned to Kiel on 17 September 1939. During her first war patrol, she sank three ships for a total of 14,777 tons.[3]

2nd patrol (4–25 October 1939)

U-48's second patrol was even more successful. Having left Kiel on 4 October, she proceeded to follow the same course as her previous voyage. During her second patrol, U-48 sank a total of five enemy ships, including the large French tanker SS Emile Miguet on 12 October, Heronspool and Louisiane on 13 October, Sneaton on 14 October and Clan Chisholm on 17 October. Following the sinking of Clan Chisholm, U-48 attacked the British steamer Rockpool with fire from her deck gun on 19 October at 1:32 pm. However, the steamer returned fire. In order to avoid being hit, U-48 crash-dived. She subsequently re-surfaced and attempted to sink the steamer again when an Allied destroyer came upon the engagement. U-48 then broke off the fight with Rockpool and submerged once more to leave the area. Following the sinking of five enemy merchant ships for a total of 37,153 tons as well as the engagement with Rockpool, U-48 returned to the safety of Kiel on 25 October 1939 after spending 22 days at sea.[9]

3rd patrol (20 November – 20 December 1939)

U-48 left Kiel for her third patrol on 20 November 1939. During this voyage, she sank a total of four vessels including two merchant ships from neutral nations. The first ship to fall victim to the U-boat was the 6,336-ton neutral Swedish motor tanker MT Gustaf E. Reuter. She was attacked by U-48 on 27 November 14 nmi (26 km; 16 mi) west-northwest of Fair Isle. The wreck was later sunk by an escort vessel. One person died, 33 of her crew survived. The tug HMS St. Mellons attempted to salvage her, however Gustaf E. Reuter eventually had to be sent to the bottom by HMS Kingston Beryl on 28 November. Following the sinking of Gustaf E. Reuter, U-48 sank the British freighter Brandon on 8 December off the southern coast of Ireland. The next day, she attacked the British tanker San Alberto. The ship was so badly damaged that she had to be sunk by HMS Mackay.[10] Finally on 15 December 1939 U-48 stopped the neutral Greek freighter Germaine which had been chartered by Ireland and was also neutral, to carry maize to Cork. Schultze maintained that she was going to England, so he sank her. U-48 returned to Kiel on 20 December 1939 after sinking a total of 25,618 tons and spent a total of 31 days at sea.

4th patrol (24 January – 26 February 1940)

After a break over the Christmas period, the boat put to sea again, sinking the British Blue Star Line liner SS Sultan Star in the Western Approaches, it was only carrying freight.[11] She laid a string of mines off St Abb's Head which failed to have any effect, but two neutral Dutch ships were added to her tally shortly afterwards, as well as a Finnish ship, all of them operating in the North Atlantic in cooperation with the Allied convoy system.

5th and 6th patrols (April 1940 and June 1940)

Her fifth patrol, in June 1940 was one of her most successful, making full use of the situation in Europe following the Fall of France. U-48 was commanded by Hans Rudolf Rösing, as Herbert Schultze was hospitalised with a kidney and stomach complaint.[12] She attacked three ships off the Donegal coast; Stancor carrying fish from Iceland, Eros carrying 200 tons of small arms from America and Frances Massey with iron ore. 34 sailors lost their lives on Frances Massey. The cargo on Eros was particularly important following the losses at Dunkirk. The badly damaged Eros was taken in tow by HMS Berkeley, assisted by HMS Bandit and Volunteer and headed to the Irish coast, where Muirchú and Fort Rannoch were waiting for them. The Eros was beached on Errarooey strand. While she was being repaired, Irish troops guarded the site.[13]

Germany learned that a troop convoy, including RMS Queen Mary and Mauretania were bringing 25,000 Australian soldiers to Britain. U-48 was ordered to Cape Finisterre where a U-boat 'wolfpack' was being assembled to intercept the convoy. However the U-boats attacked other ships in the vicinity, alerting the convoy to their presence, so they altered direction, avoiding the 'wolfpack'.[14] On 19 June 1940, Convoy HG-34 was attacked. U-48 sank SS Baron Loudoun (three died), SS British Monarch (all 40 on board died) and MV Tudor (one death). Convoy HX 49 dispersed; U-48 sank Moordrecht, which had been in that convoy; 25 died. Ireland had chartered neutral Greek ships; U-48 sank Violando N. Goulandris (six died) while U-28 sank Adamandios Georgandis (one death). Ireland sought an explanation from Germany "... steamships, the entire cargoes of which comprised grain for exclusive consumption in Éire were sunk by unidentified submarines ..."[15]

U-48 was enjoying an extended patrol, thanks to the newly established refuelling facilities available at Trondheim in Norway. In all, she claimed eight ships from the convoys in the Eastern Atlantic on this cruise and bagged five more on her sixth patrol in August, which finished with her stationed at Lorient on the French Atlantic coast, greatly extending her raiding abilities.

7th and 8th patrols (August 1940 and September 1940)

In September, on her seventh patrol she shocked the world by sinking the SS City of Benares, one of eight ships in six days from Convoys SC 3 and OB 213. On board the liner were 90 children being evacuated to Canada under the Children's Overseas Reception Board's initiative.

The sinking ship took on an immediate list, thus preventing the launching of many of the life-rafts and trapping numerous crew and passengers below decks. As a result, many of the 400 people on board were unable to escape. As hundreds of survivors struggled in the water, the U-boat's powerful searchlight swept once over the chaotic scene, before she left the area. The survivors in the boats were not rescued for nearly 24 hours. In that time dozens of children and adults died from exposure or drowned, leaving only 148 survivors. One boat was not recovered for a further eight days. In total 258 people,[16] including 77 of the evacuees, died in the disaster, which effectively ended the overseas evacuation programme.[16]

The controversy of City of Benares disaster has been debated ever since. It has been suggested that had the British openly declared that the ship was carrying evacuees, then the Germans would have taken pains not to sink it, recognising the potential for a propaganda crisis, which indeed occurred. However, the ship was not only travelling unlit at night in an Allied convoy, but it was also the flagship of Rear-Admiral Edmund Mackinnon, the convoy commander.[17] Other historians have argued that the Germans would have attacked any large liners at the time, no matter what cargo was being carried or who was on the passenger list.

One of U-48's crew, Corporal Solm, described the sinking after his capture, "“We knew there were kiddies on board before the tinfish were fired. We bagged a kiddie ship! Six thousand tons. We heard on the radio what was on board. No one survived.”[18] Among the other sinkings was the British frigate HMS Dundee.

The U-boat's eighth patrol was also highly successful, sinking seven ships out of Atlantic convoys, including one from SC 7. The operating zone for both these patrols was far to the north of her previous areas, being south of Greenland.

9th, 10th, 11th and 12th patrols (October 1940, February 1941, March 1941 and June 1941)

On her ninth and tenth patrols, U-48 claimed two and five victims respectively, but she was clearly becoming obsolete in the face of improving technology on both sides, despite a winter refit. Her range and torpedo capacity were too small for the widening nature of the sea war, and she would be a risk to her crew and other U-boats if she continued much longer in the main battlefield of the North Atlantic. On her final patrol she sank five more ships, the boat was also boosted by the award of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross to Erich Zürn, the boat's executive officer, for his success and judgement during the ship's career.

Retirement and fate

U-48 returned to Kiel on 22 June 1941, where her crew disembarked and she was transferred to a training flotilla operating exclusively in the Baltic Sea. Unlike many of her contemporaries, U-48 never sailed on patrols against Soviet targets following Operation Barbarossa the following month. In 1943 she was deemed unfit even for this reduced service, being laid up at Neustadt in Holstein with only a skeleton crew performing minor maintenance. It was there that she remained for the next two years, until the maintenance crew, realising that the war was ending and the boat would be captured, scuttled her in the Bay of Lübeck on 3 May 1945, where she remains.

German submarine U-48 (1939) is located in North Atlantic
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
Locations of the 55 ships sunk by U-48 during her career

Wolfpacks

U-48 took part in two wolfpacks, namely:

Summary of raiding history

Date Ship Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate Location Deaths
5 September 1939 Royal Sceptre  United Kingdom 4,853 Sunk 46°23′N 14°59′W / 46.383°N 14.983°W
1
8 September 1939 Winkleigh  United Kingdom 5,055 Sunk 48°06′N 18°12′W / 48.100°N 18.200°W
0
11 September 1939 Firby  Canada 4,869 Sunk 59°40′N 13°50′W / 59.667°N 13.833°W
0
12 October 1939 Emile Miguet  France 14,115 Sunk 50°15′N 14°50′W / 50.250°N 14.833°W
2
12 October 1939 Heronspool  United Kingdom 5,202 Sunk 50°13′N 14°48′W / 50.217°N 14.800°W
0
13 October 1939 Louisiane  France 6,903 Sunk 50°14′N 15°20′W / 50.233°N 15.333°W
1
14 October 1939 Sneaton  United Kingdom 3,677 Sunk 49°05′N 13°05′W / 49.083°N 13.083°W
1
17 October 1939 Clan Chisholm  United Kingdom 7,256 Sunk 44°57′N 13°40′W / 44.950°N 13.667°W
4
26 November 1939 Gustaf E. Reuter  Sweden 6,336 Sunk 59°38′N 02°03′W / 59.633°N 2.050°W
1
8 December 1939 Brandon  United Kingdom 6,668 Sunk 50°28′N 08°28′W / 50.467°N 8.467°W
9
9 December 1939 San Alberto  United Kingdom 7,397 Damaged, scuttled by HMS Mackay 49°20′N 09°45′W / 49.333°N 9.750°W
1
15 December 1939 Germaine  Greece 5,217 Sunk 51°00′N 12°18′W / 51.000°N 12.300°W
0
10 February 1940 Burgerdijk  Netherlands 6,853 Sunk 49°45′N 06°30′W / 49.750°N 6.500°W
0
14 February 1940 Sultan Star  United Kingdom 12,306 Sunk 48°54′N 10°03′W / 48.900°N 10.050°W
1
15 February 1940 Den Haag  Netherlands 8,971 Sunk 48°02′N 08°26′W / 48.033°N 8.433°W
26
17 February 1940 Wilja  Finland 3,392 Sunk 49°00′N 06°33′W / 49.000°N 6.550°W
0
6 June 1940 Stancor  United Kingdom 798 Sunk 58°48′N 08°45′W / 58.800°N 8.750°W
0
6 June 1940 Frances Massey  United Kingdom 4,212 Sunk 55°33′N 08°26′W / 55.550°N 8.433°W
34
7 June 1940 Eros  United Kingdom 5,888 Damaged 55°33′N 08°26′W / 55.550°N 8.433°W
0
11 June 1940 Violando N Goulandris  Greece 2,375 Sunk 44°04′N 12°30′W / 44.067°N 12.500°W
6
19 June 1940 Tudor  Norway 6,607 Sunk 45°10′N 11°50′W / 45.167°N 11.833°W
1
19 June 1940 Baron Loudoun  United Kingdom 3,164 Sunk 45°00′N 11°21′W / 45.000°N 11.350°W
3
19 June 1940 British Monarch  United Kingdom 5,661 Sunk 45°00′N 11°21′W / 45.000°N 11.350°W
40
20 June 1940 Moerdrecht  Netherlands 7,493 Sunk 43°34′N 14°20′W / 43.567°N 14.333°W
25
16 August 1940 Hedrun  Sweden 2,325 Sunk 57°10′N 16°37′W / 57.167°N 16.617°W
8
19 August 1940 Ville de Gand  Belgium 7,590 Sunk 55°28′N 15°10′W / 55.467°N 15.167°W
15
24 August 1940 La Brea  United Kingdom 6,666 Sunk 57°24′N 11°21′W / 57.400°N 11.350°W
2
25 August 1940 Empire Merlin  United Kingdom 5,763 Sunk 58°30′N 10°15′W / 58.500°N 10.250°W
35
25 August 1940 Athelcrest  United Kingdom 6,825 Sunk 58°24′N 11°25′W / 58.400°N 11.417°W
30
15 September 1940 Alexandros  Greece 4,343 Sunk 56°30′N 16°30′W / 56.500°N 16.500°W
5
15 September 1940 HMS Dundee  Royal Navy 1,060 Sunk 56°45′N 14°14′W / 56.750°N 14.233°W
12
15 September 1940 Empire Volunteer  United Kingdom 5,319 Sunk 56°43′N 15°17′W / 56.717°N 15.283°W
6
15 September 1940 Kenordoc  United Kingdom 1,780 Sunk
18 September 1940 City of Benares  United Kingdom 11,081 Sunk 56°43′N 21°15′W / 56.717°N 21.250°W
260
18 September 1940 Marina  United Kingdom 5,088 Sunk 56°46′N 21°15′W / 56.767°N 21.250°W
2
18 September 1940 Magdalena  United Kingdom 3,118 Sunk 57°20′N 20°16′W / 57.333°N 20.267°W
31
21 September 1940 Blairangus  United Kingdom 4,409 Sunk 55°18′N 22°21′W / 55.300°N 22.350°W
6
21 September 1940 Broompark  United Kingdom 5,136 Damaged 49°02′N 40°26′W / 49.033°N 40.433°W
1
11 October 1940 Brandanger  Norway 4,624 Sunk 57°10′N 17°42′W / 57.167°N 17.700°W
6
11 October 1940 Port Gisborne  United Kingdom 8,390 Sunk 56°38′N 16°40′W / 56.633°N 16.667°W
26
12 October 1940 Davanger  Norway 7,102 Sunk 57°00′N 19°10′W / 57.000°N 19.167°W
17
17 October 1940 Languedoc  United Kingdom 9,512 Sunk 59°14′N 17°51′W / 59.233°N 17.850°W
0
17 October 1940 Scoresby  United Kingdom 3,843 Sunk 59°14′N 17°51′W / 59.233°N 17.850°W
0
18 October 1940 Sandend  United Kingdom 3,612 Sunk 58°12′N 21°29′W / 58.200°N 21.483°W
5
20 October 1940 Shirak  United Kingdom 6,023 Damaged by U-47, Sunk by U-48 57°00′N 16°53′W / 57.000°N 16.883°W
0
1 February 1941 Nicolaos Angelos  Greece 4,351 Sunk 59°00′N 17°00′W / 59.000°N 17.000°W
all
24 February 1941 Nailsea Lass  United Kingdom 4,289 Sunk 50°06′N 10°23′W / 50.100°N 10.383°W
5
29 March 1941 Germanic  United Kingdom 5,352 Sunk 61°18′N 22°05′W / 61.300°N 22.083°W
5
29 March 1941 Limbourg  Belgium 2,483 Sunk 61°18′N 22°05′W / 61.300°N 22.083°W
22
29 March 1941 Eastlea  United Kingdom 4,267 Sunk
29 March 1941 Hylton  United Kingdom 5,197 Sunk 60°20′N 18°10′W / 60.333°N 18.167°W
0
2 April 1941 Beaverdale  United Kingdom 9,957 Sunk 60°50′N 29°19′W / 60.833°N 29.317°W
21
3 June 1941 Inversuir  United Kingdom 9,456 Damaged by U-48, sunk by U-75 48°30′N 28°30′W / 48.500°N 28.500°W
0
5 June 1941 Wellfield  United Kingdom 6,054 Sunk 48°34′N 31°34′W / 48.567°N 31.567°W
8
6 June 1941 Tregathen  United Kingdom 5,201 Sunk 46°17′N 36°20′W / 46.283°N 36.333°W
45
8 June 1941 Pendrecht  Netherlands 10,746 Sunk 45°18′N 36°40′W / 45.300°N 36.667°W
0
12 June 1941 Empire Dew  United Kingdom 7,005 Sunk 51°09′N 30°16′W / 51.150°N 30.267°W
23

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIB boat U-48". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, pp. 43–44.
  3. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-48 (First patrol)". U-boat patrols - uboat.net. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Royal Sceptre (British Steam merchant)". Allied Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  5. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Korvettenkapitän Herbert Schultze". German U-boat Commanders of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  6. ^ Tildesley, Kate. "Voices from the Battle of the Atlantic". The Second World War Experience Centre. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  7. ^ Blair, page 80
  8. ^ Blair, page 85
  9. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-48 (Second patrol)". U-boat patrols - uboat.net. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  10. ^ Blair, page 120
  11. ^ "Blue Star's S.S. "Sultan Star"". Blue Star Ships. Blue Star on the Web. 3 February 2012.
  12. ^ Blair, page 161
  13. ^ Kennedy, Michael (2008). "G2, the Coastwatching Service and the Battle of the Atlantic" (PDF). Maritime Institute of Ireland. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  14. ^ Blair, page 169
  15. ^ Duggan page 111
  16. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "City of Benares (Steam passenger ship)". Allied Ships hit by U-boats - uboat.net. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  17. ^ Mackinnon did not evacuate the sinking ship; he drowned on board.
  18. ^ Mirror.co.uk (21 September 2012). ""I liked to shoot women pushing prams": Secret Nazi tapes shocking Germany". mirror.co.uk.

Bibliography

  • Blair, Clay (1996). Hitler's U-Boat War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84076-2.
  • Bridgland, Tony (2002). Waves of Hate. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-822-4.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
  • Duggan, John P (2003). Herr Hempel. Sallins: Irish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7165-2757-X.
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
  • Sharpe, Peter (1998). U-Boat Fact File. Leicester: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-072-9.

External links

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIB boat U-48". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U 48". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 1 February 2015.

Coordinates: 54°07′N 10°50′E / 54.117°N 10.833°E

Firby

Firby or Fritheby is an English toponymic surname, with its original location now registered in modern government as Firby, Hambleton. It is not to be confused with Firby in Ryedale, that has separate origins and etymology, along with Fearby, North Ferriby and South Ferriby, also different in these natures; each has had its own variants causing confusion.

German submarine U-48

U-48 may refer to one of the following German submarines:

SM U-48, a Type U 43 submarine launched in 1915 and that served in the First World War until scuttled on 24 November 1917

During the First World War, Germany also had these submarines with similar names:

SM UB-48, a Type UB III submarine launched in 1917 and scuttled on 28 October 1918

SM UC-48, a Type UC II submarine launched in 1916 and interned in Spain on 23 March 1918

German submarine U-48 (1939), a Type VIIB submarine that served in the Second World War until scuttled on 3 May 1945

Index of World War II articles (G)

G and H-class destroyer

G for George

G-H (navigation)

G-Men vs the Black Dragon

Gęsiówka

G. B. Pegram

G. Mennen Williams

G. N. Glasoe

G. Warren Nutter

G. I. American Universities

G.I. Robot

G.I. Stories

G.I. Wanna Home

G7a torpedo

G7e torpedo

G7es torpedo

Gabby Gabreski

Gabe Jones

Gabe Paul

Gabriel Anton

Gabriel Auguste Ferdinand Ducuing

Gabriel Auphan

Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné

Gabriel Calderón

Gabriel de Broglie

Gabriel De Michele

Gabriel Fielding

Gabriel François Doyen

Gabriel Hanotaux

Gabriel Heinze

Gabriel Lafayette Dennis

Gabriel Naudé

Gabriel Paul Othenin de Cléron, comte d'Haussonville

Gabriel Péri

Gabriel Tarde

Gabriel-Henri Gaillard

Gabriel-Marie Garrone

Gabriel-Marie Legouvé

Gabriele Seyfert

Gabriele Veneziano

Gabrielle Colonna-Romano

Gabrielle de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac

Gabrielle Weidner

Gaël Danic

Gaëlle Comparat

Gaetano Giallanza

Gainesville Municipal Airport

Gainesville Regional Airport

Gaje Ghale

Galbraith Lowry-Corry, 7th Earl Belmore

Galeazzo Ciano

Galerie de paléontologie et d’anatomie comparée

Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume

Galeries Lafayette

Galina Kulakova

Galinard

Gallieni (Paris Métro)

Gambetta (Paris Métro)

Gammon bomb

Gandhi Brigade (Regiment)

Gando Special Force

Gangut-class battleship

Ganju Lama

Gao Shuxun

Gaoyou-Shaobo Campaign

Gardelegen (war crime)

Garden City Regional Airport

Gardner Army Airfield

Gardy Ruder

Gare d'Austerlitz (Paris Métro)

Gare d'Évreux Embranchement

Gare d'Orsay

Gare de Bercy

Gare de Cergy - Préfecture

Gare de Cergy - Saint-Christophe

Gare de Cergy-le-Haut

Gare de Denfert-Rochereau

Gare de Grenoble-Universités-Gières

Gare de Javel

Gare de l'Est (Paris Métro)

Gare de l'Est

Gare de La Bastille

Gare de Lyon (Paris Métro)

Gare de Lyon

Gare de Pont Cardinet

Gare de Saint Germain-en-Laye Grande-Ceinture

Gare du Champ de Mars

Gare du Nord (Paris Métro)

Gare du Nord

Gare RER de Saint Germain-en-Laye

Garibaldi (Paris Métro)

GARIOA

Garner H. Tullis

Garrison H. Davidson

Garrison's Gorillas

Gary Merrill

Gary Sheffield (historian)

Gary Visconti

Gas chamber

Gas van

Gaspard Abeille

Gaspard de Chabrol

Gaspard Monge

Gaston Defferre

Gaston Heuet

Gaston Monnerville

Gaston Paris

Gaston Ragueneau

Gaston-Armand Amaudruz

Gato (computer game)

Gato-class submarine

Gatow Airport

Gau (administrative division)

Gaubildstelle

Gauleiter

Gavin Long

Gavin Maxwell

Gay Purr-ee

Gaylord Nelson

GAZ-64

GB-4

GB-8

Gdańsk-Nowy Port

Gebirgsflak 38

Gebirgsjäger

GEE (navigation)

Geert Lotsij

Geist (Marvel comics)

Gejus van der Meulen

Gellu Naum

Gelsenberg Lager

Geltungsjude

Gene Autry

Gene de Paul

Gene Derricotte

Gene Desautels

Gene Olaff

Gene Roddenberry

Gene Stack

General Assault Badge

General Defense Command

General della Rovere

General G. O. Squier-class transport ship

General Glory

General Government

General Leopold von Flockenstuffen

General Order No. 1

General Russell Maxwell

General Von Klinkerhoffen

General Walker Hotel

General Zahl

Generalplan Ost

Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz

Genevieve

Genocide (The World at War episode)

Genrikh Lyushkov

Genyōsha

Géo André

Geoff Barkway

Geoff Edrich

Geoffrey Appleyard

Geoffrey Arbuthnot

Geoffrey Baker

Geoffrey Bingham

Geoffrey Blake (Royal Navy officer)

Geoffrey Bourne, Baron Bourne

Geoffrey Bridgeman

Geoffrey Charles Evans

Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes

Geoffrey Cox (journalist)

Geoffrey Fisken

Geoffrey Gledhill Turner

Geoffrey Hallowes

Geoffrey Harold Woolley

Geoffrey Ingram Taylor

Geoffrey John Kirkby

Geoffrey Jourdren

Geoffrey Keynes

Geoffrey Lane, Baron Lane

Geoffrey Lawrence, 1st Baron Oaksey

Geoffrey Layton

Geoffrey Nares

Geoffrey Page

Geoffrey Pyke

Geoffrey Rawson

Geoffrey Scoones

Geoffrey Wellum

Geophysical Tomography Group

Georg Alexander Pick

Georg Bochmann

Georg Dragičević

Georg Elser

Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz

Georg Gärtner

Georg Groscurth

Georg Keppler

Georg Konrad Morgen

Georg Lassen

Georg Leibbrandt

Georg Lindemann

Georg Ludwig von Trapp

Georg Martin Schädlich

Georg Quistgaard

Georg Schafer

Georg Schumann (resistance fighter)

Georg Solti

Georg Stumme

Georg Thomas

Georg Tintner

Georg von Boeselager

Georg von Küchler

Georg Werner

Georg-Hans Reinhardt

Georg-Peter Eder

Georg-Wilhelm Postel

Georg-Wilhelm Schulz

George A. Burton

George A. Drew

George A. Economou

George A. Taylor

George Alan Vasey

George Albert Cairns

George Allan Mitchell

George Andrew Davis, Jr.

George Arthur Knowland

George Ashmore Fitch

George B. Simler

George B. Turner

George Barclay (RAF officer)

George Bell Timmerman, Jr.

George Bellew

George Bennions

George Beurling

George Bolt

George Borba

George Brady

George Brett (military)

George Brink

George Buchanan

George Burns (British Army officer)

George C. Axtell

George Cafego

George Cameron Wylie

George Charles Grey

George Cowan

George Currie (Northern Irish politician)

George D. Keathley

George D. Murray

George de Cardonnel Elmsall Findlay

George Dickey

George Dixon (rugby player)

George Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Selkirk

George du Maurier

George Dupre

George E. Danielson

George E. Stratemeyer

George Edward Wahlen

George Elliott Howard

George Emerson Conklin

George Enescu

George F. Moore (US Army officer)

George Fleming Davis

George Francis Grady

George G. Blackburn

George Giffard

George Gordon (Civil War General)

George Gordon-Lennox

George Gristock

George Grunert

George H. Cannon

George H. Gay, Jr.

George H. O'Brien, Jr.

George H. Ramer

George H. W. Bush

George H. Wilson

George Haig, 2nd Earl Haig

George Harkus

George Harold Eardley

George Henry Vanderbilt Cecil

George Herbert Goodman

George Hermonymus

George Heyliger

George Hogg (adventurer)

George Howard, Baron Howard of Henderskelfe

George I. Falgout

George I. Nakamura

George II of Greece

George Imlach McIntosh

George Ishiyama

George J. Burke

George J. Dufek

George J. Eade

George J. Hall

George J. Peters

George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe

George K. MacKenzie

George Kariotis

George Kennedy

George Kenney

George Kettmann

George Kistiakowsky

George Koval

George L. Brown

George L. Fox

George L. Mabry, Jr.

George Lambert, 2nd Viscount Lambert

George Lammie

George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood

George Laurence

George Lee Butler

George Lincoln Rockwell

George Louis McGhee

George M. Jones

George M. Seignious

George MacDonald Fraser

George MacKay (rower)

George Maduro

George Mann

George Marshall

George Martin

George McAfee

George McGovern

George Millar

George Montegu Black II

George Montgomery (actor)

George Mosse

George Nakashima

George Noel Keith

George O'Brien (actor)

George Onions

George Oppen

George Orton

George Orwell

George Osmond

George Owen Johnson

George P. Broussard

George P. Putnam

George P. Shultz

George Paget, 7th Marquess of Anglesey

George Papandreou (senior)

George Peter Nanos

George Peterson (Medal of Honor recipient)

George Philip Bradley Roberts

George Phillips (USMC)

George Placzek

George Porteous

George Poschner

George Preddy

George Preston Stronach

George Psychoundakis

George R. Mather

George Ray Tweed

George Reeves

George Reginald Starr

George Renwick

George Rodocanachi

George Rowland Patrick Roupell

George Roy Hill

George S. Blanchard

George S. Patton

George S. Rentz

George Salaman

George Sand

George Sauer

George Savalas

George Schaefer (director)

George Scratchley Brown

George Sewell

George Silk

George Sluizer

George Smathers

George Stainforth

George Reginald Starr

George Stephen Morrison

George Svendsen

George T. Sakato

George T. Tamura

George Takei

George Thomas Dorrell

George Thompson (VC)

George Tressler

George Unwin

George V (Paris Métro)

George Van Horn Moseley, Jr.

George Vernot

George VI of the United Kingdom

George W. Collins

George W. Dunaway

George W. G. Boyce, Jr.

George W. Grider

George W. Shannon

George Walter Inwood

George Ward Gunn

George Watson (U.S. Army Air Corps)

George Watson (U.S. Army)

George Weah

George W. Webber (minister)

George Welch (pilot)

George Wilkinson (water polo)

George William Casey, Sr.

George Wootten

George Young (football executive)

Georges Bégué

Georges Bernanos

Georges Bidault

Georges Biscot

Georges Bizet

Georges Carnus

Georges Charpak

Georges Clemenceau

Georges Clément

Georges Corraface

Georges Cuvier

Georges de Feure

Georges de la Falaise

Georges de Porto-Riche

Georges de Scudéry

Georges Duby

Georges Duhamel

Georges Dumézil

Georges Eo

Georges Garnier

Georges Garvarentz

Georges Gorse

Georges Hayem

Georges Loustaunau-Lacau

Georges Mandel

Georges Méliès

Georges Miez

Georges Ohnet

Georges Oltramare

Georges Perec

Georges Périnal

Georges Petit

Georges Peyroche

Georges Piot

Georges Rodenbach

Georges Speicher

Georges Taillandier

Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu

Georges Touquet-Daunis

Georges Valois

Georges van Vrekhem

Georges Vedel

Georges Wilson

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

Georges-Pierre Seurat

Georgian Legion (1941-1945)

Georgian Uprising of Texel

Georgios Moraitinis

Georgios Poulos

Georgios Siantos

Georgios Tsolakoglou

Georgiy Zakharov

Georgy Zhukov

Geraint Morgan

Gerald Bridgeman, 6th Earl of Bradford

Gerald C. Thomas

Gerald Davis (philatelist)

Gerald Desmond

Gerald Edelman

Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Duke of Leinster

Gerald Ford

Gerald Fredrick Töben

Gerald Götting

Gerald Graze

Gerald Krause

Gerald L. Endl

Gerald Lathbury

Gerald MacIntosh Johnston

Gerald O'Brien

Gerald S. Graham

Gerald Smallwood

Gerald Stapleton

Gerald Templer

Gerald Upjohn, Baron Upjohn

Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington

Geraldine Doyle

Gérard Berry

Gérard Blitz (sportsman)

Gerard Bosch van Drakestein

Gérard Bouchard

Gerard Broadmead Roope

Gerard Bucknall

Gérard Buscher

Gerard Callenburgh-class destroyer

Gerard de Kruijff

Gérard de Lally-Tollendal

Gérard de Nerval

Gérard de Vaucouleurs

Gérard Debreu

Gérard Fussman

Gerard Glaister

Gérard Houllier

Gérard Janvion

Gerard Ross Norton

Gerard Wodarz

Gerardus 't Hooft

Gerardus Johannes Berenschot

Gerardus Mooyman

Gerd Honsik

Gerd Suhren

Gerd von Rundstedt

Gerda Christian

Gerda Steinhoff

Gerda Taro

Gerda Weissmann Klein

Gerdenau

Gerhard Barkhorn

Gerhard Fieseler

Gerhard Flesch

Gerhard Friedrich

Gerhard Homuth

Gerhard Klopfer

Gerhard Michalski

Gerhard Ritter

Gerhard Rose

Gerhard Roßbach

Gerhard Schmidhuber

Gerhard Schöpfel

Gerhard Sommer

Gerhard Stoltenberg

Gerhard Thyben

Gerhard von Schwerin

Gerhard Wagner

Gerhard Wessel

Gerhard Wilck

Gerhard Boldt

Germain Jousse

Germaine Lubin

Germaine Tailleferre

Germaine Tillion

German AB-Aktion operation in Poland

German AFVs of World War II

German Air Fleets in World War II

German Air Force Regiment

German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin

German aircraft production during World War II

German aircraft production during WW2

German American Bund

German American National Political Action Committee

German anti-aircraft cruiser Niobe

German armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

German armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

German Army Detachment Kempf

German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis

German auxiliary cruiser Hansa

German auxiliary cruiser Komet

German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

German auxiliary cruiser Michel

German auxiliary cruiser Orion

German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin

German auxiliary cruiser Stier

German auxiliary cruiser Thor

German auxiliary cruiser Widder

German battleship Bismarck

German battleship Gneisenau

German battleship Scharnhorst

German battleship Schlesien

German battleship Schleswig-Holstein

German battleship Tirpitz

German Bestelmeyer

German Blood Certificate

German camps in occupied Poland during World War II

German Christians

German Cross

German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee

German cruiser Admiral Hipper

German cruiser Admiral Scheer

German cruiser Blücher

German cruiser Deutschland

German cruiser Emden

German cruiser Karlsruhe

German cruiser Köln

German cruiser Königsberg

German cruiser Leipzig

German cruiser Lützow (1931)

German cruiser Nürnberg

German cruiser Prinz Eugen

German cruiser Seydlitz

German declaration of war against the Netherlands

German destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maass

German Division Nr. 157

German Division Nr. 188

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

German Faith Movement

German Forced Labour Compensation Programme

German fortification of Guernsey

German Fortress Division Swinemünde

German heavy tank battalions

German hospital ship Berlin

German Instrument of Surrender

German Labour Front

German military technology during World War II

German Motorized Company

German National Movement in Liechtenstein

German National Prize for Art and Science

German night fighter direction vessel Togo

German nuclear energy project

German occupation of Belgium during World War II

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

German occupation of France during World War II

German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II

German occupation of the Channel Islands

German Order (decoration)

German order of battle for Operation Fall Weiss

German Party (Romania)

German People's Party (Romania)

German Resistance

German Restitution Laws

German searchlights of World War II

German submarine U-1 (1935)

German submarine U-2 (1935)

German submarine U-3 (1935)

German submarine U-4 (1935)

German submarine U-5 (1935)

German submarine U-6 (1935)

German submarine U-7 (1935)

German submarine U-8 (1935)

German submarine U-9 (1935)

German submarine U-10 (1935)

German submarine U-11 (1935)

German submarine U-12 (1935)

German submarine U-13 (1935)

German submarine U-14 (1936)

German submarine U-15 (1936)

German submarine U-16 (1936)

German submarine U-17 (1935)

German submarine U-18 (1936)

German submarine U-19 (1936)

German submarine U-20 (1936)

German submarine U-22 (1936)

German submarine U-23 (1936)

German submarine U-24 (1936)

German submarine U-25 (1936)

German submarine U-26 (1936)

German submarine U-27 (1936)

German submarine U-28 (1936)

German submarine U-30 (1936)

German submarine U-31 (1936)

German submarine U-32 (1914)

German submarine U-32 (1937)

German submarine U-33 (1936)

German submarine U-34 (1936)

German submarine U-35 (1936)

German submarine U-36 (1936)

German submarine U-37 (1938)

German submarine U-38 (1938)

German submarine U-39 (1938)

German submarine U-40 (1939)

German submarine U-41 (1939)

German submarine U-42 (1939)

German submarine U-43 (1939)

German submarine U-47 (1938)

German submarine U-48 (1939)

German submarine U-49 (1939)

German submarine U-50 (1939)

German submarine U-51 (1938)

German submarine U-54 (1939)

German submarine U-63 (1940)

German submarine U-66 (1940)

German submarine U-68 (1940)

German submarine U-69 (1940)

German submarine U-70 (1940)

German submarine U-72 (1940)

German submarine U-74 (1940)

German submarine U-75 (1940)

German submarine U-78 (1940)

German submarine U-79 (1941)

German submarine U-81 (1941)

German submarine U-83 (1941)

German submarine U-85 (1941)

German submarine U-86 (1941)

German submarine U-88 (1941)

German submarine U-89 (1941)

German submarine U-94 (1940)

German submarine U-95 (1940)

German submarine U-96 (1940)

German submarine U-98 (1940)

German submarine U-99 (1940)

German submarine U-100 (1940)

German submarine U-101 (1940)

German submarine U-102 (1940)

German submarine U-103 (1940)

German submarine U-106 (1940)

German submarine U-107 (1940)

German submarine U-110 (1940)

German submarine U-116 (1941)

German submarine U-120 (1940)

German submarine U-122 (1939)

German submarine U-123 (1940)

German submarine U-124 (1940)

German submarine U-125 (1940)

German submarine U-128 (1941)

German submarine U-131 (1941)

German submarine U-134 (1941)

German submarine U-137 (1940)

German submarine U-144 (1940)

German submarine U-155 (1941)

German submarine U-156 (1941)

German submarine U-166 (1941)

German submarine U-171

German submarine U-172

German submarine U-175

German submarine U-176

German submarine U-180

German submarine U-181

German submarine U-183

German submarine U-184

German submarine U-185

German submarine U-190

German submarine U-195

German submarine U-196

German submarine U-214

German submarine U-215

German submarine U-217

German submarine U-218

German submarine U-219

German submarine U-221

German submarine U-227

German submarine U-228

German submarine U-234

German submarine U-238

German submarine U-253

German submarine U-254

German submarine U-255

German submarine U-256

German submarine U-259

German submarine U-260

German submarine U-262

German submarine U-268

German submarine U-269

German submarine U-273

German submarine U-280

German submarine U-298

German submarine U-300

German submarine U-301

German submarine U-303

German submarine U-309

German submarine U-317

German submarine U-324

German submarine U-325

German submarine U-333

German submarine U-337

German submarine U-340

German submarine U-346

German submarine U-352

German submarine U-353

German submarine U-362

German submarine U-365

German submarine U-371

German submarine U-383

German submarine U-388

German submarine U-400

German submarine U-405

German submarine U-413

German submarine U-429

German submarine U-434

German submarine U-438

German submarine U-441

German submarine U-443

German submarine U-455

German submarine U-459

German submarine U-460

German submarine U-461

German submarine U-462

German submarine U-463

German submarine U-468

German submarine U-470

German submarine U-479

German submarine U-481

German submarine U-487

German submarine U-488

German submarine U-489

German submarine U-490

German submarine U-501

German submarine U-502

German submarine U-503

German submarine U-505

German submarine U-507

German submarine U-509

German submarine U-511

German submarine U-512

German submarine U-515

German submarine U-518

German submarine U-520

German submarine U-521

German submarine U-523

German submarine U-529

German submarine U-530

German submarine U-531

German submarine U-533

German submarine U-534

German submarine U-535

German submarine U-537

German submarine U-539

German submarine U-549

German submarine U-550

German submarine U-552

German submarine U-553

German submarine U-556

German submarine U-557

German submarine U-559

German submarine U-570

German submarine U-571

German submarine U-573

German submarine U-596

German submarine U-625

German submarine U-627

German submarine U-656

German submarine U-691

German submarine U-701

German submarine U-718

German submarine U-735

German submarine U-736

German submarine U-745

German submarine U-754

German submarine U-759

German submarine U-760

German submarine U-765

German submarine U-772

German submarine U-777

German submarine U-821

German submarine U-843

German submarine U-844

German submarine U-852

German submarine U-853

German submarine U-859

German submarine U-862

German submarine U-864

German submarine U-869

German submarine U-884

German submarine U-889

German submarine U-953

German submarine U-957

German submarine U-958

German submarine U-961

German submarine U-964

German submarine U-973

German submarine U-978

German submarine U-1000

German submarine U-1021

German submarine U-1059

German submarine U-1060

German submarine U-1061

German submarine U-1062

German submarine U-1063

German submarine U-1105

German submarine U-1227

German submarine U-1230

German submarine U-1234

German submarine U-1235

German submarine U-1276

German submarine U-1302

German submarine U-2321

German submarine U-2322

German submarine U-2323

German submarine U-2324

German submarine U-2331

German submarine U-2342

German submarine U-2501

German submarine U-2511

German submarine U-2513

German submarine U-3008

German submarine U-3519

German tank production during World War II

German tanker Altmark

German tanks in World War II

German torpedoboats of World War II

German Type I submarine

German Type II submarine

German Type VII submarine

German Type IX submarine

German Type X submarine

German Type XIV submarine

German Type XVIIB submarine

German Type XXI submarine

German Type XXIII submarine

German War Graves Commission

German Weapons Act

German weather ship Lauenburg

German World War II destroyers

German World War II strongholds

German WWII strongholds

German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty

German-trained divisions in the National Revolutionary Army

German–occupied Europe

Germanic-SS

Germanische Leitstelle

Germany Must Perish!

Germany Year Zero

Germar Rudolf

Gerry H. Kisters

Gerry Parsky

Gershon Sirota

Gerstein Report

Gert Fröbe

Gert-Dietmar Klause

Gertrud Scholtz-Klink

Gertrude (Code name)

Gertrude Nelson

Gertrude Sanford Legendre

Gertrude Stein

Geschwaderkommodore

Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front

Gestapo-NKVD Conferences

Gestapo

Getúlio Vargas

Gewehr 41

Gewehr 43

Géza Lakatos

GFM cloche

Gheorghe Apostol

Gheorghe Argeşanu

Gheorghe Gaston Marin

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej

Gheorghe I. Brătianu

Gheorghe Manoliu

Gheorghe Mironescu

Gheorghe Pănculescu

Gheorghe Plagino

Gheorghe Răscănescu

Gheorghe Tătărescu

Gheorghe Ursu

Ghetto Fighters' House

Ghetto Litzmannstadt

Ghetto uprising

Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939-1944)

Ghislain Gimbert

Gholam-Hossein Saedi

Ghost Soldiers

GHQ Liaison Regiment

GHQ Line

Giacomo Acerbo

Giacomo Appiotti

Gian Singh

Giancarlo Pajetta

Gianfranco Gaspari

Gianfranco Gazzana-Priaroggia

Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon

Gianni Rodari

Gianpiero Combi

Gideon Force

Gideon Greif

Gideon Klein

Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris RER)

Giffard LeQuesne Martel

Gig Young

Gil Hodges

Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field

Gila River War Relocation Center

Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign

Gilbert Bayiha N'Djema

Gilbert Bécaud

Gilbert Bostsarron

Gilbert Cavan

Gilbert de Greenlaw

Gilbert Duprez

Gilbert Gérintès

Gilbert Gude

Gilbert Hackforth-Jones

Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster

Gilbert Johnson

Gilbert Jonathan Rowcliff

Gilbert Le Chenadec

Gilbert Monckton, 2nd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley

Gilbert Montagné

Gilbert Norman

Gilbert Renault

Gilbert Stork

Gilbert Stuart Martin Insall

Giles Cooper

Giles McCrary

Giles Romilly

Giles Vandeleur

Gillean Maclaine

Gilles Boileau

Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Lamontagne

Gilles Ménage

Gilles Quénéhervé

Gilles Rampillon

Gilles Yapi Yapo

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

Gilliam-class attack transport

Gillis William Long

Gin Drinkers Line

Gino J. Merli

Gino Marchetti

Gino Sopracordevole

Gioachino Rossini

Giorgio Amendola

Giorgio Bassani

Giorgio Napolitano

Giorgio Parisi

Giorgio Perlasca

Giorgio Zampori

Giovanna Zangrandi

Giovanni De Prà

Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Giorgio Trissino

Giovanni Graber

Giovanni Messe

Giovanni Palatucci

Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz

Giovanni Scatturin

Giretsu

Gisela Bock

Gisella Perl

Gitta Sereny

GIUK gap

Giulio de Florian

Giulio Gaudini

Giulio Martinat

Giuseppe Colacicco

Giuseppe Crivelli

Giuseppe Di Vittorio

Giuseppe Dossetti

Giuseppe Fioravanzo

Giuseppe Paris

Giuseppe Saragat

Giuseppe Siri

Giuseppe Tonani

Giustizia e Libertà

Glacier Girl

Glacière (Paris Métro)

Gladys Carson

Glamour Gal

Glasmine 43

Glass House (Budapest)

Gleichschaltung

Gleiwitz incident

Glen Bell

Glen D. Johnson

Glen Edwards (pilot)

Glen Graham

Glencree German war cemetery

Glendon Swarthout

Glenn Ford

Glenn Hartranft

Glenn Miller

Glenn T. Seaborg

Glina massacre

Glinciszki massacre

Glorious-class aircraft carrier

Glossary of German military terms

Glossary of Nazi Germany

Glossary of the Third Reich

Gloster E.28/39

Gloster Meteor

Glynn R. Donaho

Gnevny-class destroyer

Go For Broke Monument

Go for Broke! (1951 film)

Gobelins (school of image)

Gobelins manufactory

God Is My Co-Pilot (film)

Godfrey Hounsfield

Godwin Okpara

Goebbels Diaries

Goering's Green Folder

Gold Beach

Gold Star Mothers Club

Gold Star Wives

Golden Party Badge

Golf Disneyland

Goliath tracked mine

Gonars concentration camp

Gonars

Goncourt (Paris Métro)

Gongzhutun Campaign

Gonzalo Quesada

Good Germans

Goodbye Holland

Goodbye Japan

Göppingen Gö 9

Goralenvolk

Göran Claeson

Goran Rubil

Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague

Gordie Drillon

Gordon A. Craig

Gordon Bennett (Australian soldier)

Gordon Bridson

Gordon Browning

Gordon Campbell, Baron Campbell of Croy

Gordon Charles Steele

Gordon Churchill

Gordon Donaldson (journalist)

Gordon Gollob

Gordon Goodwin (athlete)

Gordon H. Sato

Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hultquist

Gordon Killick

Gordon MacWhinnie

Gordon McGregor

Gordon Nornable

Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon

Gordon Prange

Gordon R. Dickson

Gordon Waite Underwood

Gösta Persson

Gotha G.I

Gotha G.II

Gotha G.III

Gotha G.IV

Gotha G.IX

Gotha G.V

Gotha G.VII

Gotha Go 145

Gotha Go 149

Gotha Go 242

Gotha Go 244

Gotha Go 345

Gotha LD.1

Gotha WD.2

Gotha WD.3

Gotha WD.7

Gotha WD.11

Gotha WD.14

Gotha WD.27

Gotha Ka 430

Gothic Line order of battle

Gothic Line

Gottfried E. Noether

Gottfried Feder

Gottfried Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen

Gottfried Ochshorn

Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Einem

Gotthard Handrick

Gotthard Heinrici

Gottlob Berger

Gottorp

Götz Aly

Goumier

Goutte d'Or

Government Aircraft Factories

Government Delegate's Office at Home

Government of National Unity (Hungary)

Goya (ship)

Grace Hopper

Grace McKenzie

Gracias Amigos

Grady A. Dugas

Grady McMurtry

Grady McWhiney

Graf Zeppelin-class aircraft carrier

Grafeneck Castle

Grafeneck

Graham Bladon

Graham Greene

Graham Leslie Parish

Grampus-class submarine

Gran Sasso raid

Granada War Relocation Center

Granatwerfer 36

Granatwerfer 42

Grand Cross of the German Eagle

Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

Grand Director

Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia

Grand Guignol

Grand Han Righteous Army

Grand Palais

Grand Slam bomb

Grand Wizard

Granddi Ngoyi

Grande Arche

Grande Ceinture line

Grande ceinture Ouest

Grande Odalisque

Grands Boulevards (Paris Métro)

Grands Magasins du Louvre

Grant County International Airport

Grant F. Timmerman

Granville Raid

Grave of the Fireflies (novel)

Grave of the Fireflies

Gravedigger (comics)

Graves B. Erskine

Great Bend Municipal Airport

Great Depression in Canada

Great Japan Youth Party

Great Patriotic War (term)

Great Synagogue of London

Great Western Railway War Memorial

Greater Britain Movement

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Greater Hungary (political concept)

Grebbe line

Greco-Italian War

Greek battleship Kilkis

Greek battleship Lemnos

Greek cruiser Elli (1912)

Greek cruiser Georgios Averof

Greek destroyer Adrias

Greek destroyer Aetos

Greek destroyer Aspis

Greek destroyer Hydra (D 97)

Greek destroyer Ierax

Greek destroyer Kountouriotis (D 99)

Greek destroyer Leon

Greek destroyer Niki

Greek destroyer Panthir

Greek destroyer Psara (D 96)

Greek destroyer Spetsai (D 98)

Greek destroyer Thyella

Greek destroyer Vasilefs Georgios (D 14)

Greek destroyer Vasilissa Olga (D 15)

Greek National Socialist Party

Greek People's Liberation Army

Greek Resistance

Greek submarine Katsonis (Y-1)

Greek submarine Papanikolis (Y-2)

Greek torpedo boat Kios

Greek torpedo boat Kydonia

Greek torpedo boat Kyzikos

Greek torpedo boat Pergamos

Greek torpedo boat Proussa

Green box barrage

Green Gang

Green Line (Italy)

Green report

Green Skull

Green St. Bunker, West End

Greenock Blitz

Greensboro massacre

Grégoire Laurent

Gregor Strasser

Gregorij Rožman

Gregory Arnolin

Gregory Breit

Grégory Paisley

Grégory Pujol

Gregory Rabassa

Grégory Wimbée

Grenelle

Grenoble Cathedral

Grenoble Foot 38

Grenoble Institute of Technology

Grenoble

Greta Bösel

Greta Ferusic

Greta Keller

Grey Ranks (role-playing game)

Greyshirts

Gribovski G-11

Grigore Cugler

Grigore Gafencu

Grigore Preoteasa

Grigory Stelmakh

Grigory Vorozheikin

Grill (cryptology)

Grille (artillery)

Grini concentration camp

Grits Gresham

Grivnik brigade

Grob G 115

Groesbeek Canadian War Cemetery

Grojanowski Report

Grønsvik coastal battery

Gross-Rosen concentration camp

Großdeutschland Division

Groton-New London Airport

Ground Observer Corps

Group 13

Group Army

Groupe de Chasse I/3

Grumman Goose

Gruppenführer

Gruppenkommandeur

Grzegorz Timofiejew

Gu Zhutong

Guadalcanal (1992 game)

Guadalcanal Campaign

Guadalcanal Diary (book)

Guadalcanal Diary (film)

Gualberto Villarroel

Guan Linzheng

Guangzhou Military Region

Guangzhou Uprising

Guards Armoured Division

Guards Mixed Brigade

Gudrun Burwitz

Guenther Podola

Guépard-class destroyer

Guerlain

Guglielmo Nasi

Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target

Guide Gift Week

Guido Castelnuovo

Guido Knopp

Guildhall, London

Guillaume Apollinaire

Guillaume Budé

Guillaume de Baillou

Guillaume Dubois

Guillaume Gallienne

Guillaume Norbert

Guillaume Postel

Guillaume Rippert

Guillaume Sarkozy

Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes

Guillermo Hayden Wright

Guilty Men

Guimet Museum

Guinea Pig Club

Guinguette

Guizhou JL-9

Gulbrand Oscar Johan Lunde

Gumbinnen Operation

Gun politics in Germany

Gunbatsu

Gung Ho! (1943 film)

Gunichi Mikawa

Gunnar Holmberg

Gunnar Jahn

Gunnar Larsson (cross-country skier)

Gunnar Lindström

Gunnar Sköld

Gunnar Sønsteby

Günter Bialas

Gunter d'Alquen

Günter Deckert

Günter Grass

Gunter Jahn

Günter Kießling

Günter Reimann

Günter Steinhausen

Günter Zöller

Günther Anhalt

Günther Blumentritt

Günther Freiherr von Maltzahn

Günther Josten

Günther Korten

Günther Krappe

Günther Lütjens

Günther Lützow

Günther Pancke

Günther Prien

Günther Rall

Günther Schack

Günther Scheel

Günther Schwägermann

Günther Seeger

Günther Smend

Günther Specht

Günther Viezenz

Günther von Kluge

Günther-Eberhardt Wisliceny

Guo Boxiong

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon

Gurli Ewerlund

Gus George Bebas

Gus Kefurt

Gus Savage

Gust J. Swenning

Gustaf Carlsson

Gustaf Dyrssen

Gustaf Hagelin

Gustaf Söderström

Gustaf Weijnarth

Gustav Adolf Scheel

Gustav Adolf von Götzen

Gustav Anton von Wietersheim

Gustav Flatow

Gustav Goßler

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Gustav Moths

Gustav Rau

Gustav Richter

Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Gustav Rödel

Gustav Schwarzenegger

Gustav Simon

Gustav Sprick

Gustav Sturm

Gustav V of Sweden

Gustav Victor Rudolf Born

Gustav von Vaerst

Gustav Wagner (soldier)

Gustav Weler

Gustáv Wendrinský

Gustav-Adolf Blancbois

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen

Gustave Bertrand

Gustave Biéler

Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave de Molinari

Gustave Doré

Gustave Gilbert

Gustave Hervé

Gustave Lanctot

Gustave Moreau

Gustave Sandras

Gustave Thuret

Gustavo Poyet

Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

Gustaw Holoubek

Gustaw Morcinek

Gusztáv Vitéz Jány

Guy Armoured Car

Guy Butler (athlete)

Guy D'Artois

Guy Gabaldon

Guy Gibson

Guy Gregson

Guy Lacombe

Guy Lizard

Guy Madison

Guy Menzies

Guy Môquet (Paris Métro)

Guy Môquet

Guy Russell

Guy S. Meloy, Jr.

Guy Sajer

Guy Salisbury-Jones

Guy Simonds

Gwardia Ludowa WRN

Gwardia Ludowa

Gwido Langer

Győző Haberfeld

Gyokuon-hōsō

György Beifeld

György Gábori

Gyorshadtest

Gyula Cseszneky

Gyula Halasy

Gyula Kakas

Gyula Strausz

List of shipwrecks in the mid-Atlantic Ocean

This is a list of shipwrecks located in the main body of the Atlantic Ocean, rather than in one of its marginal seas.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
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