German battleship Gneisenau

Gneisenau was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship and battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. She was the second vessel of her class, which included one other ship, Scharnhorst. The ship was built at the Deutsche Werke dockyard in Kiel; she was laid down on 6 May 1935 and launched on 8 December 1936. Completed in May 1938, the ship was armed with a main battery of nine 28 cm (11 in) C/34 guns in three triple turrets, though there were plans to replace these weapons with six 38 cm (15 in) SK C/34 guns in twin turrets.

Gneisenau and Scharnhorst operated together for much of the early portion of World War II, including sorties into the Atlantic to raid British merchant shipping. During their first operation, the two ships sank the British auxiliary cruiser HMS Rawalpindi in a short battle. Gneisenau and Scharnhorst participated in Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Norway. During operations off Norway, the two ships engaged the battlecruiser HMS Renown and sank the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious. Gneisenau was damaged in the action with Renown and later torpedoed by a British submarine, HMS Clyde, off Norway. After a successful raid in the Atlantic in 1941, Gneisenau and her sister put in at Brest, France. The two battleships were the subject of repeated bombing raids by the RAF; Gneisenau was hit several times during the raids, though she was ultimately repaired.

In early 1942, the two ships made a daylight dash up the English Channel from occupied France to Germany. After reaching Kiel in early February, the ship went into drydock. On the night of 26 February, the British launched an air attack on the ship; one bomb penetrated her armored deck and exploded in the forward ammunition magazine, causing serious damage and a large number of casualties. The repairs necessitated by the damage were so time-consuming that it was determined to rebuild the ship to accommodate the 38 cm guns as originally intended. The 28 cm guns were removed and used as shore batteries. In 1943, Hitler ordered the cessation of conversion work, and on 27 March 1945, she was sunk as a blockship in Gotenhafen (Gdynia) in German-occupied Poland. She was eventually broken up for scrap in 1951.

Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-21, Schlachtschiff "Gneisenau"
Gneisenau
History
Nazi Germany
Name: Gneisenau
Namesake: August Neidhardt von Gneisenau[1]
Builder: Deutsche Werke
Laid down: 6 May 1935
Launched: 8 December 1936
Commissioned: 21 May 1938
Decommissioned: 1 July 1942
Fate: Sunk as a blockship 23 March 1945 and scrapped after the war.
General characteristics
Class and type: Scharnhorst-class battleship
Displacement:
  • Standard: 32,100 long tons (32,600 t)
  • Full load: 38,100 long tons (38,700 t)
Length: 234.9 m (771 ft)
Beam: 30 m (98 ft)
Draft: 9.9 m (32 ft)
Installed power: 165,930 PS (163,660 shp; 122,040 kW)
Propulsion: 3 Germania geared steam turbines
Speed: 31 knots (57 km/h; 36 mph)
Range: 6,200 nmi (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) at 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph)
Complement:
  • 56 officers
  • 1,613 enlisted
Armament:
Armor:
Aircraft carried: 3 Arado Ar 196A
Aviation facilities: 1 catapult

Construction and configuration

Gneisenau1942
Gneisenau as she appeared in February 1942

Gneisenau was ordered as Ersatz Hessen as a replacement for the old pre-dreadnought Hessen, under the contract name "E."[2] The Deutsche Werke in Kiel was awarded the contract, where the keel was laid on 6 May 1935.[3] The ship was launched on 8 December 1936, after which fitting-out work was begun.[4] The ship was completed in May 1938 and commissioned for sea trials on the 21st,[5] under the command of Kapitän zur See (KzS) Erich Förste.[6][5] The trials revealed a dangerous tendency to ship considerable amounts of water in heavy seas. This caused flooding in the bow and damaged electrical systems in the forward gun turret. As a result, she went back to the dockyard for extensive modification of the bow. The original straight stem was replaced with a raised "Atlantic bow."[7] A diagonal cap was fitted to the smoke stack to keep the main mast free of smoke.[8] The modifications were completed by September 1939, by which time the ship was finally fully operational.[7]

Gneisenau displaced 32,100 long tons (32,600 t; 36,000 short tons) as built and 38,100 long tons (38,700 t; 42,700 short tons) fully loaded, with a length of 234.9 m (770 ft 8 in), a beam of 30 m (98 ft 5 in) and a maximum draft of 9.9 m (32 ft 6 in). She was powered by three Germania geared steam turbines, which developed a total of 165,930 metric horsepower (163,660 shp; 122,041 kW) and yielded a maximum speed of 31.3 knots (58.0 km/h; 36.0 mph) on speed trials. Her standard crew numbered 56 officers and 1,613 enlisted men, though during the war this was augmented up to 60 officers and 1,780 men. While serving as a squadron flagship, Gneisenau carried an additional ten officers and 61 enlisted men.[2]

She was armed with nine 28 cm (11.1 in) L/54.5 guns arranged in three triple gun turrets: two superfiring turrets forward—Anton and Bruno—and one aft—Caesar. Her secondary armament consisted of twelve 15 cm (5.9 in) L/55 guns, fourteen 10.5 cm (4.1 in) L/65 and sixteen 3.7 cm (1.5 in) SK C/30 L/83, and initially ten 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The number of 2 cm guns was eventually increased to thirty-eight. Six 53.3 cm (21.0 in) above-water torpedo tubes, taken from the light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig, were installed in 1942.[2]

Service history

Gneisenau left Germany for a round of trials in the Atlantic in June 1939. As it was peacetime, the ship carried primarily practice ammunition, with only a small number of live rounds. She was back in Germany when war began in September 1939. On the 4th, the day after the British declaration of war, Gneisenau was attacked by fourteen Wellington bombers, though they made no hits.[9] In November, KzS Förste was replaced by KzS Harald Netzbandt.[6] The ship's first combat operation, under the command of Admiral Wilhelm Marschall, began on 21 November 1939;[9] the ship, in company with her sister Scharnhorst, the light cruiser Köln, and nine destroyers, was to patrol the area between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. The intent of the operation was to draw out British units and ease the pressure on the heavy cruiser Admiral Graf Spee, which was being pursued in the South Atlantic. Two days later, the German flotilla intercepted the auxiliary cruiser Rawalpindi.[10]

Scharnhorst fired first, followed by Gneisenau eight minutes later. The ship was quickly reduced to a burning wreck; Marschall ordered Scharnhorst to pick up survivors while he stood by in Gneisenau. The cruiser Newcastle arrived on the scene, which prompted Marschall to halt rescue operations and flee. Four allied capital ships, the British Hood, Nelson, Rodney, and the French Dunkerque followed in pursuit. The Germans reached Wilhelmshaven on 27 November, and on the trip both battleships incurred significant damage from heavy seas and winds.[9] After returning to Kiel, Gneisenau went into drydock for repairs for the storm damage. During the repairs, the bow was remodeled a second time to incorporate additional flare and sheer, in an attempt to improve her seaworthiness. Gneisenau went into the Baltic for trials on 15 January 1940, after the completion of the refit. Her voyage back to the North Sea was blocked by ice in the Kiel Canal until 4 February.[11]

Operation Weserübung

Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-11, Schlachtschiff "Gneisenau"
Gneisenau in port

Gneisenau was assigned to the forces participating in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Denmark and Norway. She and her sister were the covering force for the assaults on Narvik and Trondheim (Flag Officer Vize Admiral Günther Lütjens). The two ships left Wilhelmshaven on the morning of 7 April, along with the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper and fourteen destroyers. The cruiser and destroyers carried the assault forces for Narvik and Trondheim, while Gneisenau and Scharnhorst provided cover for them.[11] Later that day, at around 14:30, the three ships came under attack by a force of British bombers, though the bombers failed to make any hits.[12] On the morning of 8 April, the destroyer Z11 Bernd von Arnim encountered the British destroyer Glowworm. Before being sunk, Glowworm rammed Admiral Hipper, though the latter was not seriously damaged. The crews of the two battleships went to battle stations, though they did not take part in the brief engagement. At 21:00, Gneisenau and Scharnhorst took up a position west of the Vestfjorden to provide distant cover to both of the landings at Narvik and Trondheim.[11]

At 04:30 on the 9th, Gneisenau located the British battlecruiser Renown with her Seetakt radar; the call to battle stations rang out on both Gneisenau and Scharnhorst, though it was Renown that fired first, at 05:05.[11] Gneisenau scored two hits on Renown; the first failed to explode and the second exploded on her upper deck and damaged the radio equipment. Gneisenau and Scharnhorst then turned to disengage.[13] Almost simultaneously, two of Renown's 15 in (38 cm) shells struck Gneisenau. One shell hit the director tower and passed through it without exploding; regardless, it cut several cables and killed one officer and five enlisted men. The second shell disabled the rear turret. This prompted Gneisenau to cease firing and increase speed in order to break away from Renown. Vice Admiral Lütjens feared that the destroyers escorting Renown could be used to make torpedo attacks against his unescorted battleships.[11] In the course of the action, Gneisenau fired sixty 28 cm and eight 15 cm rounds. During the high-speed escape, both Gneisenau and Scharnhorst were flooded by significant quantities of water over their bows, which caused problems in both of their forward gun turrets.[14]

Admiral Hipper rejoined the two battleships off Trondheim on the morning of 11 April, and the three ships returned to Wilhelmshaven, arriving the following day. There, the damage incurred during the engagement with Renown was repaired. She was then drydocked in Bremerhaven for periodic maintenance on 26–29 April.[15] The ship was to go to the Baltic following the completion of repairs,[16] but on the morning of 5 May, while steaming at 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) off the Elbe estuary, Gneisenau detonated a magnetic mine about 21 m (69 ft) off the port rear quarter and 24 m (79 ft) below the hull. The explosion caused significant damage to the hull and flooded several compartments, which caused the ship to take on a half-degree list to port. The concussive shock from the blast damaged many internal and topside components, including the starboard low-pressure turbine and the rear rangefinders. Repairs were effected in a floating drydock in Kiel from 6 to 21 May. A brief shakedown cruise followed in the Baltic, and by the 27th, she was back in Kiel at full combat readiness.[15]

Gneisenau and Scharnhorst left Wilhelmshaven on 4 June to return to Norway. They were joined by Admiral Hipper and four destroyers.[15] The purpose of the sortie (Operation Juno) was to interrupt Allied resupply efforts to the Norwegians and to relieve the pressure on German troops fighting in Norway.[17] On 7 June, the squadron rendezvoused with the tanker Dithmarschen to refuel Admiral Hipper and the four destroyers.[15] The next day, the trawler Juniper was discovered and sunk, along with the oil tanker Oil Pioneer.[18] The Germans then launched their Arado 196 float planes to search for more Allied vessels. Admiral Hipper and the destroyers were sent to destroy Orama, a 19,500-long-ton (19,800 t; 21,800-short-ton) passenger ship, while Atlantis, a hospital ship, was allowed to proceed unmolested. Admiral Marschall, who had returned from sick leave to command the sortie, detached Admiral Hipper and the four destroyers to refuel in Trondheim, while he would steam to the Harstad area.[15]

HMS Glorious last picture
HMS Glorious photographed in May 1940 operating off Norway

At 17:45, the German battleships spotted the British aircraft carrier Glorious and two escorting destroyers, Ardent and Acasta, at a range of some 50,000 m (55,000 yd). Scharnhorst was closer and therefore fired first.[15] Scharnhorst had some boiler difficulty, which reduced her speed to 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph). This allowed Gneisenau to overtake her sister during the action.[19] Although the destroyers attempted to cover Glorious with smoke screens, the German battleships used their Seetakt radar to assist the gunlaying. In less than an hour's shooting, Glorious was reduced to a burning hulk. Gneisenau then turned her fire on Acasta, while Scharnhorst dispatched Ardent. Before Acasta was sunk, she fired a spread of torpedoes at Gneisenau, which the latter successfully evaded. One of them struck Scharnhorst, however, and caused serious damage. After all three British ships had been sunk, Marschall withdrew his force to Trondheim to conduct emergency repairs to Scharnhorst. In the meantime, Marschall sortied with Gneisenau, Admiral Hipper, and four destroyers, though after two days he returned to Trondheim when it became clear that the British convoys were too heavily guarded.[20]

Admiral Günther Lütjens replaced Marschall as the commander of the squadron permanently, and on 20 June he sortied with Gneisenau, Admiral Hipper, and four destroyers in the direction of Iceland. His intention was to give the impression he was attempting to break out into the Atlantic, to draw British attention away from Scharnhorst as she made the return voyage to Germany. About 40 nmi (74 km; 46 mi) northwest of Halten, however, the submarine Clyde torpedoed Gneisenau. The torpedo hit the ship in the bow, just forward of the splinter belt, and caused serious damage. The ship took on a significant amount of water in the two forward watertight compartments, and she was forced to return to Trondheim at reduced speed.[21] In Trondheim, the repair ship Huascaran effected temporary repairs that permitted the ship to return to Kiel on 25–27 July, escorted by Admiral Hipper,Nürnberg, four destroyers, and six torpedo boats. A strong force from the British Home Fleet attempted to intercept the flotilla, but it failed to find it. Upon arrival, Gneisenau went into drydock at the Howaldtswerke dockyard for five months of repair work.[22] In August, the ship's commander was replaced by KzS Otto Fein, who would captain the ship for the majority of her active wartime career.[6]

Operation Berlin

Scharnhorst joined Gneisenau, in preparation for Operation Berlin, the planned breakout into the Atlantic Ocean designed to wreak havoc on the Allied shipping lanes.[22] Severe storms caused damage to Gneisenau, though Scharnhorst was undamaged. The two ships were forced to put into port during the storm: Gneisenau went to Kiel for repairs while Scharnhorst put into Gdynia (Gotenhafen). Repairs were quickly completed, and on 22 January 1941, the two ships, again under the command of Admiral Lütjens, left port for the North Atlantic. They were detected in the Skagerrak and the heavy units of the British Home Fleet deployed to cover the passage between Iceland and the Faroes. The Germans' radar detected the British at long range, which allowed Lütjens to avoid the British patrols, with the aid of a squall. By 3 February, the two battleships had evaded the last British cruiser patrol, and had broken into the open Atlantic.[23]

Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-01, Schlachtschiff "Gneisenau"
Gneisenau after her second bow alteration in 1942.

On 6 February, the two ships refueled from the tanker Schlettstadt south of Cape Farewell. Shortly after 08:30 on 8 February, lookouts spotted convoy HX 106, though it was escorted by the battleship Ramillies. Lütjens' orders prohibited him from engaging Allied capital ships, and so the attack was called off. Scharnhorst's commander, KzS Hoffmann, however, closed to 23,000 m (25,000 yd) in an attempt to lure Ramillies away from the convoy so that Gneisenau could attack the convoy. Lütjens ordered Hoffmann to rejoin the flagship immediately. The two battleships steamed off to the northwest to search for more shipping. On 22 February, the pair spotted an empty convoy sailing west, though it dispersed at the appearance of the battleships. Gneisenau sank three ships, and along with a fourth destroyed by Scharnhorst, the pair accounted for 25,784 GRT of Allied shipping.[23]

Lütjens then decided to move to a new area, as the surviving members of the dispersed convoy had sent distress signals. He chose the Cape Town-Gibraltar convoy route, and positioned himself to the northwest of Cape Verde. The two ships encountered another convoy, escorted by the battleship Malaya, on 8 March. Lütjens again forbade an attack, though he shadowed the convoy and directed U-boats to attack it. A pair of U-boats sank a total of 28,488 GRT of shipping on the night of 7–8 March. Malaya turned on the two battleships and closed to 24,000 m (26,000 yd), well within the range of the Germans' guns, but Lütjens refused to be drawn into an engagement.[24] He instead turned toward the mid-Atlantic, where the two ships refueled from the tankers Uckermark and Ermland on 12 March.[25]

On 15 March, the two battleships, with the two tankers in company, encountered a dispersed convoy in the mid-Atlantic. Gneisenau captured three tankers and sank a fourth, totaling 20,139 GRT of shipping. The next day, stragglers from a convoy were sighted. Gneisenau sank seven ships for 26,693 GRT, while her sister accounted for six vessels for 35,088 long tons (35,651 t).[26] One of the surviving ships radioed the location of the German battleships, which summoned the powerful British battleships Rodney and King George V. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau used their high speed to escape in a squall, and the intervention by the British battleships convinced Lütjens that the chances of further success were small. He therefore decided to head for Brest in occupied France, which the ships reached on 22 March. She then entered drydock for periodic maintenance.[27]

Air attacks in Brest

After arriving in Brest, Gneisenau was the subject of repeated British air raids. The first attack took place on the night of 30–31 March, and a second occurred on 4–5 April. During this second raid, a 227 kg (500 lb) armor-piercing (AP) bomb narrowly missed the ship. As a result of the attacks, the ship was moved out of the dry dock and moved to the harbor.[27] On 6 April, Gneisenau was attacked by British torpedo bombers, which managed to score a single hit.[28] The Bristol Beaufort that struck the ship was piloted by Flying Officer Kenneth Campbell.[29] The torpedo struck Gneisenau in the vicinity of the rear main battery turret. Some 3,050 t (3,000 long tons) of water flooded the ship and caused a 2 degree list to starboard. The flooding also disabled several components of the ship's propulsion system. The explosion caused significant destruction to the side plating as well as the starboard and centerline propeller shafts. The concussive shock also caused widespread damage to the ship's electronic components. A salvage tug came alongside to assist in the pumping effort. Following the attack, Gneisenau returned to the drydock for repairs.[30]

Three days later, on the night of 9–10 April, several British bombers dropped around 25 t (25 long tons) of 227 kg AP bombs on the ship, four of which hit. All four hit the starboard side of the forward superstructure. Two of the bombs exploded on the main armor deck while the other two failed to detonate. The attack killed 72 initially and wounded 90, of whom 16 later died of their injuries. The bombs slightly damaged the main armor deck and caused some structural damage on the starboard side. It was decided to make alterations to the ship while she was drydocked for repairs; these included the installation of fourteen additional 2 cm anti-aircraft guns and six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes amidships. The aircraft hangar was rearranged, and the catapult that had been mounted on top of it was removed. The length of repairs and modifications precluded participation in Operation Rheinübung, the sortie by the new battleship Bismarck in May 1941. The British continued to attack the ship in drydock, though no further damage was done.[31] On 6 February 1942, a bomb fell close to Gneisenau, but caused no damage.[32]

Operation Cerberus

On 12 January 1942, the German Naval Command, in a conference with Hitler, made the decision to return Gneisenau, Scharnhorst, and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen to Germany. The intention was to deploy the vessels to Norway to interdict Allied convoys to the Soviet Union. The so-called "Channel Dash", codenamed Operation Cerberus, would avoid the increasingly effective Allied radar and patrol aircraft in the Atlantic. Vice Admiral Otto Ciliax was given command of the operation. In early February, minesweepers swept a route through the English Channel, though the British failed to detect the activity.[33]

Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-52, Schlachtschiff "Gneisenau"
Gneisenau at sea

At 23:00 on 11 February, Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen left Brest. They entered the Channel an hour later; the three ships sped at 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph), hugging the French coast along the voyage.[33] The British failed to detect their departure, as the submarine that had been tasked with observing the port had withdrawn to recharge its batteries.[34] By 06:30, they had passed Cherbourg, at which point they were joined by a flotilla of torpedo boats.[33] The torpedo boats were led by Kapitän Erich Bey, aboard the destroyer Z29. General der Jagdflieger (General of Fighter Force) Adolf Galland directed Luftwaffe fighter and bomber forces (Operation Donnerkeil) during Cerberus.[35] The fighters flew at masthead-height to avoid detection by the British radar network. Liaison officers were present on all three ships. German aircraft arrived later to jam British radar with chaff.[33] By 13:00, the ships had cleared the Strait of Dover, though half an hour later, a flight of six Swordfish torpedo bombers, with Spitfire escort, attacked the Germans. The British failed to penetrate the Luftwaffe fighter shield and all six Swordfish were destroyed.[36][37] Several more attacks were launched over the next two hours, but the Luftwaffe screen repulsed them all.[38]

Five British destroyers mounted an attack on the German squadron at 16:17. The ships attempted to close to torpedo range, though heavy seas and overcast conditions hampered their attack. Gneisenau and Prinz Eugen inflicted serious damage to the destroyer Worcester.[39] At 19:55, Gneisenau detonated a magnetic mine off Terschelling. The mine exploded just forward of the rear gun turret but caused only minor damage. Slight flooding was quickly stopped, though the shock disabled the center turbine. The ship stopped for less than 30 minutes before resuming the voyage; by 03:50, Gneisenau and two destroyers reached Helgoland. After being joined there by Prinz Eugen, the ships left for Kiel, but thick ice in the canal forced the ships to stop in Brunsbüttel. While maneuvering in port, Gneisenau struck a submerged wreck. The collision tore a hole in the hull and caused some minor flooding.[40] Gneisenau reached Kiel the following day, where she went into a floating dry dock at the Deutsche Werke dockyard.[32]

Fate

Top:Aerial reconnaissance photo of Gneisenau in dry dock, March 1942, after the air attack. Bottom: Gneisenau's 28 cm turret Caesar at Austrått Fort, Norway.

Gneisenau in dry dock at Kiel March 1942
Gneisenau-1

Repair work on Gneisenau was completed by 26 February 1942, and she was scheduled to deploy to Norway on 6 March. Despite the fact that she was still in dry dock, her ammunition stores had been restocked and she was prepared for a short round of trials before her departure. On the night of 26–27 February, however, the British launched a heavy air raid on the ship.[41] The ship was hit by a single bomb in her forecastle that penetrated the armored deck and exploded.[42] Red-hot bomb fragments ignited propellant charges in the forward turret and caused a tremendous explosion. The turret was thrown off its mount and the entire bow section was burned out.[32] The crew partially flooded the magazine to prevent a more catastrophic explosion. The blast killed 112 men and wounded 21 others.[43]

The extensive damage convinced the Naval Staff to rebuild Gneisenau to mount the six 38 cm guns originally planned, rather than repair the ship. The damaged bow section was removed in order to attach a lengthened bow, which would correct the decrease in freeboard that would have been caused by the heavier 38 cm guns.[44] On 4 April, the ship went to Gotenhafen, escorted by the training ship Schlesien and the icebreaker Castor.[32] She was formally decommissioned on 1 July.[42] Her crew were paid off and redeployed to the U-boat arm.[45]

By early 1943, the ship had been sufficiently repaired to begin the conversion process, but Hitler, angered by the failure of German surface raiders at the Battle of the Barents Sea in December 1942 ordered the cessation of all work.[46] Gneisenau was disarmed and her 28 cm and 15 cm gun turrets were used in shore batteries.[42] Turret Caesar was installed in Austrått Fort in Trondheim as the coastal battery Orlandet.[5]

Gneisenau remained unused in Gotenhafen until the end of the war. As the Red Army advanced on the city, the remaining crew took the ship out to the entrance of the harbor and sank the vessel as a blockship on 27 March 1945. In 1947, the Polish government ordered the ship be removed, and initial salvage operations began.[46][5] The ship was sealed and refloated on 12 September 1951 then completely scrapped,[32] though it is believed that some of her steel was used in the construction of Polish merchant vessels.[47] She was the largest ship raised at the time. Norway offered to return the turret from Trondheim in 1979, though the offer was rejected.[5] The gun turret was instead preserved as a museum in Norway.[42]

Notes

  1. ^ Schmalenbach, p. 221.
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner, p. 31.
  3. ^ Campbell, p. 43.
  4. ^ Williamson, pp. 14–15.
  5. ^ a b c d e Gröner, p. 32.
  6. ^ a b c Williamson, p. 19.
  7. ^ a b Williamson, p. 15.
  8. ^ Breyer, p. 15.
  9. ^ a b c Garzke & Dulin, p. 134.
  10. ^ Williamson, pp. 8–9.
  11. ^ a b c d e Garzke & Dulin, p. 135.
  12. ^ Williamson, p. 9.
  13. ^ Konstam, p. 39.
  14. ^ Garzke & Dulin, p. 136.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Garzke & Dulin, p. 137.
  16. ^ Williamson, p. 16.
  17. ^ Williamson, p. 10.
  18. ^ Rohwer, p. 26.
  19. ^ Howland.
  20. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 137–138.
  21. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 138–139.
  22. ^ a b Garzke & Dulin, p. 139.
  23. ^ a b Garzke & Dulin, p. 140.
  24. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 140–142.
  25. ^ Garzke & Dulin, p. 142.
  26. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 142–143.
  27. ^ a b Garzke & Dulin, p. 143.
  28. ^ Breyer, p. 30.
  29. ^ Ashworth, p. 33.
  30. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 143–144.
  31. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 144–145.
  32. ^ a b c d e Breyer, p. 34.
  33. ^ a b c d Garzke & Dulin, p. 146.
  34. ^ Williamson, pp. 11–12.
  35. ^ Hooton, pp. 114–115.
  36. ^ Hooton, p. 114.
  37. ^ Weal, p. 17.
  38. ^ Garzke & Dulin, p. 147.
  39. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 147–148.
  40. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 148–149.
  41. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 149–150.
  42. ^ a b c d Williamson, p. 18.
  43. ^ Garzke & Dulin, p. 150.
  44. ^ Garzke & Dulin, pp. 150–151.
  45. ^ Garrett, p. 120, 122.
  46. ^ a b Garzke & Dulin, p. 153.
  47. ^ Garrett, p. 121.

References

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  • Breyer, Siegfried (1990). The German Battleship Gneisenau. West Chester, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-290-6.
  • Campbell, John (1987). "Germany 1906–1922". In Sturton, Ian (ed.). Conway's All the World's Battleships: 1906 to the Present. London: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 28–49. ISBN 978-0-85177-448-0.
  • Garzke, William H.; Dulin, Robert O. (1985). Battleships: Axis and Neutral Battleships in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-101-0.
  • Garrett, Richard (1978). Scharnhorst and Gneisenau: The Elusive Sisters. London: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7153-7628-4.
  • Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-790-6. OCLC 22101769.
  • Hooton, E. R. (1997). Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe. London: Brockhampton. ISBN 978-1-86019-995-0.
  • Howland, Vernon W., Captain, RCN (1994). "The Loss of HMS Glorious: An Analysis of the Action". Warship International. Toledo, OH: International Naval Research Organization. XXXI (1): 47–62. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  • Konstam, Angus (2003). British Battlecruisers: 1939–1945. Oxford: Osprey Books. ISBN 978-1-84176-633-1.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis: US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-119-8.
  • Schmalenbach, Paul (1973). "German Battlecruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau". Warship Profile 33. Windsor, Berks, UK: Profile Pubs. pp. 201–224. OCLC 20229353.
  • Weal, John (1996). Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Aces of the Western Front. Oxford: Osprey Books. ISBN 978-1-85532-595-1.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2003). German Battleships 1939–45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-498-6.
Austrått Fort

Austrått Fort is a disused coastal artillery site located at Austrått in Ørland, Norway. It was constructed in 1942 by the German Wehrmacht to protect the Trondheimsfjord during the German occupation of Norway during World War II. The fort's centrepiece is a triple 28 cm SK C/34 (11-inch) gun turret from the German battleship Gneisenau, which was damaged in Kiel. The three-gun turret weighs 800 tons and was capable of firing 730-pound shells 38 kilometres (24 mi). The last firing took place in 1953 and the fort was decommissioned in 1968. It opened as a museum in 1991.Like its sister battery at Sotra near Bergen, a shaft was cut out of the rocks for the huge former Gneisenau battleship gun turret. The triple 28cm SK C/34 turret became available after the discontinuation of the Kriegsmarine battleships building programme in 1942. Turret Anton was split up in three separate barrels and placed at Fort Rozenburg in the Netherlands. Turret Bruno was installed in a shaft on Sotra, Norway. Turret Caesar was emplaced halfway up occupied Norway. About 650 Yugoslavian slave laborers, mostly Serbs (Partisans and Chetniks) worked under awful conditions on the tunnels and bunkers around the hill. In a short time, a large underground system with supporting bunkers was finished. In August 1943 the guns were test-fired. No real engagements occurred during the remainder of the war, however.

The underground barracks and turret shaft with its ammunition rooms are open to the public. Because the Norwegians kept the site in operating condition until 1968, it remains in a good state of preservation. Today it is one of the most complete examples of a World

War II German coastal battery extant.

In addition, the site still has its infantry defenses consisting of trenches and a recently renovated 4.7cm French-made anti-tank gun in working condition. The gun covers an anti-tank wall through the woods intended to protect the entrance of the complex.

German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin

The German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin was the lead ship in a class of two carriers of the same name ordered by the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany. She was the only aircraft carrier launched by Germany and represented part of the Kriegsmarine's attempt to create a well-balanced oceangoing fleet, capable of projecting German naval power far beyond the narrow confines of the Baltic and North Seas. The carrier would have had a complement of 42 fighters and dive bombers.

Construction on Graf Zeppelin began on 28 December 1936, when her keel was laid down at the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel. Named in honor of Graf (Count) Ferdinand von Zeppelin, the ship was launched on 8 December 1938, and was 85% complete by the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. Graf Zeppelin was not completed and was never operational due to shifting construction priorities necessitated by the war. She remained in the Baltic for the duration of the war; with Germany's defeat imminent, the ship's custodian crew scuttled her just outside Stettin in March 1945. The Soviet Union raised the ship in March 1946, and she was ultimately sunk in weapons tests north of Poland 17 months later. The wreck was discovered by a Polish survey ship in July 2006.

Gneisenau

Gneisenau may refer to:

August von Gneisenau (1760–1831), Prussian field marshal

One of the German naval ships named after him:SMS Gneisenau, iron-hulled three-masted frigate, launched in 1879 and wrecked in 1900

SMS Gneisenau, World War I armoured cruiser, launched in 1906 and sunk in 1914

SS Gneisenau, a Norddeutscher Lloyd ocean liner launched in 1935

German battleship Gneisenau, a World War II battleship launched in 1936 and scuttled as a blockship in 1945; sister ship to Scharnhorst.

Gneisenau Nord-deutscher Lloyd Imperial Mail steamer sailing between Australia and Bremen 1907. Fares advertised in New Zealand. Twin screw steamer.Gneisenaustraße (Berlin U-Bahn), station on the Berliner U-Bahn (underground railway)

Gwyn Martin

Gwyn Martin DFM (1921–2001) was a Welsh photographer and pharmacist. He was born in the Rhondda in 1921 and died in 2001 in Aberystwyth.

HMS Clyde (N12)

HMS Clyde was a submarine of the River class. She was built by Vickers Armstrong, Barrow and launched on 15 March 1934. Building was completed on 12 April 1935.

HMS Thames (N71)

HMS Thames (N71) was an ocean-going type of submarine of the River Class. She was built by Vickers Armstrong, Barrow and launched on 26 February 1932. She was completed on 14 September 1932, and after commissioning was assigned to the Mediterranean, stationed at Malta.

Index of World War II articles (G)

G and H-class destroyer

G for George

G-H (navigation)

G-Men vs the Black Dragon

Gęsiówka

G. B. Pegram

G. Mennen Williams

G. N. Glasoe

G. Warren Nutter

G. I. American Universities

G.I. Robot

G.I. Stories

G.I. Wanna Home

G7a torpedo

G7e torpedo

G7es torpedo

Gabby Gabreski

Gabe Jones

Gabe Paul

Gabriel Anton

Gabriel Auguste Ferdinand Ducuing

Gabriel Auphan

Gabriel Brunet de Sairigné

Gabriel Calderón

Gabriel de Broglie

Gabriel De Michele

Gabriel Fielding

Gabriel François Doyen

Gabriel Hanotaux

Gabriel Heinze

Gabriel Lafayette Dennis

Gabriel Naudé

Gabriel Paul Othenin de Cléron, comte d'Haussonville

Gabriel Péri

Gabriel Tarde

Gabriel-Henri Gaillard

Gabriel-Marie Garrone

Gabriel-Marie Legouvé

Gabriele Seyfert

Gabriele Veneziano

Gabrielle Colonna-Romano

Gabrielle de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac

Gabrielle Weidner

Gaël Danic

Gaëlle Comparat

Gaetano Giallanza

Gainesville Municipal Airport

Gainesville Regional Airport

Gaje Ghale

Galbraith Lowry-Corry, 7th Earl Belmore

Galeazzo Ciano

Galerie de paléontologie et d’anatomie comparée

Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume

Galeries Lafayette

Galina Kulakova

Galinard

Gallieni (Paris Métro)

Gambetta (Paris Métro)

Gammon bomb

Gandhi Brigade (Regiment)

Gando Special Force

Gangut-class battleship

Ganju Lama

Gao Shuxun

Gaoyou-Shaobo Campaign

Gardelegen (war crime)

Garden City Regional Airport

Gardner Army Airfield

Gardy Ruder

Gare d'Austerlitz (Paris Métro)

Gare d'Évreux Embranchement

Gare d'Orsay

Gare de Bercy

Gare de Cergy - Préfecture

Gare de Cergy - Saint-Christophe

Gare de Cergy-le-Haut

Gare de Denfert-Rochereau

Gare de Grenoble-Universités-Gières

Gare de Javel

Gare de l'Est (Paris Métro)

Gare de l'Est

Gare de La Bastille

Gare de Lyon (Paris Métro)

Gare de Lyon

Gare de Pont Cardinet

Gare de Saint Germain-en-Laye Grande-Ceinture

Gare du Champ de Mars

Gare du Nord (Paris Métro)

Gare du Nord

Gare RER de Saint Germain-en-Laye

Garibaldi (Paris Métro)

GARIOA

Garner H. Tullis

Garrison H. Davidson

Garrison's Gorillas

Gary Merrill

Gary Sheffield (historian)

Gary Visconti

Gas chamber

Gas van

Gaspard Abeille

Gaspard de Chabrol

Gaspard Monge

Gaston Defferre

Gaston Heuet

Gaston Monnerville

Gaston Paris

Gaston Ragueneau

Gaston-Armand Amaudruz

Gato (computer game)

Gato-class submarine

Gatow Airport

Gau (administrative division)

Gaubildstelle

Gauleiter

Gavin Long

Gavin Maxwell

Gay Purr-ee

Gaylord Nelson

GAZ-64

GB-4

GB-8

Gdańsk-Nowy Port

Gebirgsflak 38

Gebirgsjäger

GEE (navigation)

Geert Lotsij

Geist (Marvel comics)

Gejus van der Meulen

Gellu Naum

Gelsenberg Lager

Geltungsjude

Gene Autry

Gene de Paul

Gene Derricotte

Gene Desautels

Gene Olaff

Gene Roddenberry

Gene Stack

General Assault Badge

General Defense Command

General della Rovere

General G. O. Squier-class transport ship

General Glory

General Government

General Leopold von Flockenstuffen

General Order No. 1

General Russell Maxwell

General Von Klinkerhoffen

General Walker Hotel

General Zahl

Generalplan Ost

Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz

Genevieve

Genocide (The World at War episode)

Genrikh Lyushkov

Genyōsha

Géo André

Geoff Barkway

Geoff Edrich

Geoffrey Appleyard

Geoffrey Arbuthnot

Geoffrey Baker

Geoffrey Bingham

Geoffrey Blake (Royal Navy officer)

Geoffrey Bourne, Baron Bourne

Geoffrey Bridgeman

Geoffrey Charles Evans

Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes

Geoffrey Cox (journalist)

Geoffrey Fisken

Geoffrey Gledhill Turner

Geoffrey Hallowes

Geoffrey Harold Woolley

Geoffrey Ingram Taylor

Geoffrey John Kirkby

Geoffrey Jourdren

Geoffrey Keynes

Geoffrey Lane, Baron Lane

Geoffrey Lawrence, 1st Baron Oaksey

Geoffrey Layton

Geoffrey Nares

Geoffrey Page

Geoffrey Pyke

Geoffrey Rawson

Geoffry Scoones

Geoffrey Wellum

Geophysical Tomography Group

Georg Alexander Pick

Georg Bochmann

Georg Dragičević

Georg Elser

Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz

Georg Gärtner

Georg Groscurth

Georg Keppler

Georg Konrad Morgen

Georg Lassen

Georg Leibbrandt

Georg Lindemann

Georg Ludwig von Trapp

Georg Martin Schädlich

Georg Quistgaard

Georg Schafer

Georg Schumann (resistance fighter)

Georg Solti

Georg Stumme

Georg Thomas

Georg Tintner

Georg von Boeselager

Georg von Küchler

Georg Werner

Georg-Hans Reinhardt

Georg-Peter Eder

Georg-Wilhelm Postel

Georg-Wilhelm Schulz

George A. Burton

George A. Drew

George A. Economou

George A. Taylor

George Alan Vasey

George Albert Cairns

George Allan Mitchell

George Andrew Davis, Jr.

George Arthur Knowland

George Ashmore Fitch

George B. Simler

George B. Turner

George Barclay (RAF officer)

George Bell Timmerman, Jr.

George Bellew

George Bennions

George Beurling

George Bolt

George Borba

George Brady

George Brett (military)

George Brink

George Buchanan

George Burns (British Army officer)

George C. Axtell

George Cafego

George Cameron Wylie

George Charles Grey

George Cowan

George Currie (Northern Irish politician)

George D. Keathley

George D. Murray

George de Cardonnel Elmsall Findlay

George Dickey

George Dixon (rugby player)

George Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Selkirk

George du Maurier

George Dupre

George E. Danielson

George E. Stratemeyer

George Edward Wahlen

George Elliott Howard

George Emerson Conklin

George Enescu

George F. Moore (US Army officer)

George Fleming Davis

George Francis Grady

George G. Blackburn

George Giffard

George Gordon (Civil War General)

George Gordon-Lennox

George Gristock

George Grunert

George H. Cannon

George H. Gay, Jr.

George H. O'Brien, Jr.

George H. Ramer

George H. W. Bush

George H. Wilson

George Haig, 2nd Earl Haig

George Harkus

George Harold Eardley

George Henry Vanderbilt Cecil

George Herbert Goodman

George Hermonymus

George Heyliger

George Hogg (adventurer)

George Howard, Baron Howard of Henderskelfe

George I. Falgout

George I. Nakamura

George II of Greece

George Imlach McIntosh

George Ishiyama

George J. Burke

George J. Dufek

George J. Eade

George J. Hall

George J. Peters

George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe

George K. MacKenzie

George Kariotis

George Kennedy

George Kenney

George Kettmann

George Kistiakowsky

George Koval

George L. Brown

George L. Fox

George L. Mabry, Jr.

George Lambert, 2nd Viscount Lambert

George Lammie

George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood

George Laurence

George Lee Butler

George Lincoln Rockwell

George Louis McGhee

George M. Jones

George M. Seignious

George MacDonald Fraser

George MacKay (rower)

George Maduro

George Mann

George Marshall

George Martin

George McAfee

George McGovern

George Millar

George Montegu Black II

George Montgomery (actor)

George Mosse

George Nakashima

George Noel Keith

George O'Brien (actor)

George Onions

George Oppen

George Orton

George Orwell

George Osmond

George Owen Johnson

George P. Broussard

George P. Putnam

George P. Shultz

George Paget, 7th Marquess of Anglesey

George Papandreou (senior)

George Peter Nanos

George Peterson (Medal of Honor recipient)

George Philip Bradley Roberts

George Phillips (USMC)

George Placzek

George Porteous

George Poschner

George Preddy

George Preston Stronach

George Psychoundakis

George R. Mather

George Ray Tweed

George Reeves

George Reginald Starr

George Renwick

George Rodocanachi

George Rowland Patrick Roupell

George Roy Hill

George S. Blanchard

George S. Patton

George S. Rentz

George Salaman

George Sand

George Sauer

George Savalas

George Schaefer (director)

George Scratchley Brown

George Sewell

George Silk

George Sluizer

George Smathers

George Stainforth

George Reginald Starr

George Stephen Morrison

George Svendsen

George T. Sakato

George T. Tamura

George Takei

George Thomas Dorrell

George Thompson (VC)

George Tressler

George Unwin

George V (Paris Métro)

George Van Horn Moseley, Jr.

George Vernot

George VI of the United Kingdom

George W. Collins

George W. Dunaway

George W. G. Boyce, Jr.

George W. Grider

George W. Shannon

George Walter Inwood

George Ward Gunn

George Watson (U.S. Army Air Corps)

George Watson (U.S. Army)

George Weah

George W. Webber (minister)

George Welch (pilot)

George Wilkinson (water polo)

George William Casey, Sr.

George Wootten

George Young (football executive)

Georges Bégué

Georges Bernanos

Georges Bidault

Georges Biscot

Georges Bizet

Georges Carnus

Georges Charpak

Georges Clemenceau

Georges Clément

Georges Corraface

Georges Cuvier

Georges de Feure

Georges de la Falaise

Georges de Porto-Riche

Georges de Scudéry

Georges Duby

Georges Duhamel

Georges Dumézil

Georges Eo

Georges Garnier

Georges Garvarentz

Georges Gorse

Georges Hayem

Georges Loustaunau-Lacau

Georges Mandel

Georges Méliès

Georges Miez

Georges Ohnet

Georges Oltramare

Georges Perec

Georges Périnal

Georges Petit

Georges Peyroche

Georges Piot

Georges Rodenbach

Georges Speicher

Georges Taillandier

Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu

Georges Touquet-Daunis

Georges Valois

Georges van Vrekhem

Georges Vedel

Georges Wilson

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

Georges-Pierre Seurat

Georgian Legion (1941-1945)

Georgian Uprising of Texel

Georgios Moraitinis

Georgios Poulos

Georgios Siantos

Georgios Tsolakoglou

Georgiy Zakharov

Georgy Zhukov

Geraint Morgan

Gerald Bridgeman, 6th Earl of Bradford

Gerald C. Thomas

Gerald Davis (philatelist)

Gerald Desmond

Gerald Edelman

Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Duke of Leinster

Gerald Ford

Gerald Fredrick Töben

Gerald Götting

Gerald Graze

Gerald Krause

Gerald L. Endl

Gerald Lathbury

Gerald MacIntosh Johnston

Gerald O'Brien

Gerald S. Graham

Gerald Smallwood

Gerald Stapleton

Gerald Templer

Gerald Upjohn, Baron Upjohn

Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington

Geraldine Doyle

Gérard Berry

Gérard Blitz (sportsman)

Gerard Bosch van Drakestein

Gérard Bouchard

Gerard Broadmead Roope

Gerard Bucknall

Gérard Buscher

Gerard Callenburgh-class destroyer

Gerard de Kruijff

Gérard de Lally-Tollendal

Gérard de Nerval

Gérard de Vaucouleurs

Gérard Debreu

Gérard Fussman

Gerard Glaister

Gérard Houllier

Gérard Janvion

Gerard Ross Norton

Gerard Wodarz

Gerardus 't Hooft

Gerardus Johannes Berenschot

Gerardus Mooyman

Gerd Honsik

Gerd Suhren

Gerd von Rundstedt

Gerda Christian

Gerda Steinhoff

Gerda Taro

Gerda Weissmann Klein

Gerdenau

Gerhard Barkhorn

Gerhard Fieseler

Gerhard Flesch

Gerhard Friedrich

Gerhard Homuth

Gerhard Klopfer

Gerhard Michalski

Gerhard Ritter

Gerhard Rose

Gerhard Roßbach

Gerhard Schmidhuber

Gerhard Schöpfel

Gerhard Sommer

Gerhard Stoltenberg

Gerhard Thyben

Gerhard von Schwerin

Gerhard Wagner

Gerhard Wessel

Gerhard Wilck

Gerhard Boldt

Germain Jousse

Germaine Lubin

Germaine Tailleferre

Germaine Tillion

German AB-Aktion operation in Poland

German AFVs of World War II

German Air Fleets in World War II

German Air Force Regiment

German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin

German aircraft production during World War II

German aircraft production during WW2

German American Bund

German American National Political Action Committee

German anti-aircraft cruiser Niobe

German armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

German armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

German Army Detachment Kempf

German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis

German auxiliary cruiser Hansa

German auxiliary cruiser Komet

German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

German auxiliary cruiser Michel

German auxiliary cruiser Orion

German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin

German auxiliary cruiser Stier

German auxiliary cruiser Thor

German auxiliary cruiser Widder

German battleship Bismarck

German battleship Gneisenau

German battleship Scharnhorst

German battleship Schlesien

German battleship Schleswig-Holstein

German battleship Tirpitz

German Bestelmeyer

German Blood Certificate

German camps in occupied Poland during World War II

German Christians

German Cross

German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee

German cruiser Admiral Hipper

German cruiser Admiral Scheer

German cruiser Blücher

German cruiser Deutschland

German cruiser Emden

German cruiser Karlsruhe

German cruiser Köln

German cruiser Königsberg

German cruiser Leipzig

German cruiser Lützow (1931)

German cruiser Nürnberg

German cruiser Prinz Eugen

German cruiser Seydlitz

German declaration of war against the Netherlands

German destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maass

German Division Nr. 157

German Division Nr. 188

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

German Faith Movement

German Forced Labour Compensation Programme

German fortification of Guernsey

German Fortress Division Swinemünde

German heavy tank battalions

German hospital ship Berlin

German Instrument of Surrender

German Labour Front

German military technology during World War II

German Motorized Company

German National Movement in Liechtenstein

German National Prize for Art and Science

German night fighter direction vessel Togo

German nuclear energy project

German occupation of Belgium during World War II

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

German occupation of France during World War II

German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II

German occupation of the Channel Islands

German Order (decoration)

German order of battle for Operation Fall Weiss

German Party (Romania)

German People's Party (Romania)

German Resistance

German Restitution Laws

German searchlights of World War II

German submarine U-1 (1935)

German submarine U-2 (1935)

German submarine U-3 (1935)

German submarine U-4 (1935)

German submarine U-5 (1935)

German submarine U-6 (1935)

German submarine U-7 (1935)

German submarine U-8 (1935)

German submarine U-9 (1935)

German submarine U-10 (1935)

German submarine U-11 (1935)

German submarine U-12 (1935)

German submarine U-13 (1935)

German submarine U-14 (1936)

German submarine U-15 (1936)

German submarine U-16 (1936)

German submarine U-17 (1935)

German submarine U-18 (1936)

German submarine U-19 (1936)

German submarine U-20 (1936)

German submarine U-22 (1936)

German submarine U-23 (1936)

German submarine U-24 (1936)

German submarine U-25 (1936)

German submarine U-26 (1936)

German submarine U-27 (1936)

German submarine U-28 (1936)

German submarine U-30 (1936)

German submarine U-31 (1936)

German submarine U-32 (1914)

German submarine U-32 (1937)

German submarine U-33 (1936)

German submarine U-34 (1936)

German submarine U-35 (1936)

German submarine U-36 (1936)

German submarine U-37 (1938)

German submarine U-38 (1938)

German submarine U-39 (1938)

German submarine U-40 (1939)

German submarine U-41 (1939)

German submarine U-42 (1939)

German submarine U-43 (1939)

German submarine U-47 (1938)

German submarine U-48 (1939)

German submarine U-49 (1939)

German submarine U-50 (1939)

German submarine U-51 (1938)

German submarine U-54 (1939)

German submarine U-63 (1940)

German submarine U-66 (1940)

German submarine U-68 (1940)

German submarine U-69 (1940)

German submarine U-70 (1940)

German submarine U-72 (1940)

German submarine U-74 (1940)

German submarine U-75 (1940)

German submarine U-78 (1940)

German submarine U-79 (1941)

German submarine U-81 (1941)

German submarine U-83 (1941)

German submarine U-85 (1941)

German submarine U-86 (1941)

German submarine U-88 (1941)

German submarine U-89 (1941)

German submarine U-94 (1940)

German submarine U-95 (1940)

German submarine U-96 (1940)

German submarine U-98 (1940)

German submarine U-99 (1940)

German submarine U-100 (1940)

German submarine U-101 (1940)

German submarine U-102 (1940)

German submarine U-103 (1940)

German submarine U-106 (1940)

German submarine U-107 (1940)

German submarine U-110 (1940)

German submarine U-116 (1941)

German submarine U-120 (1940)

German submarine U-122 (1939)

German submarine U-123 (1940)

German submarine U-124 (1940)

German submarine U-125 (1940)

German submarine U-128 (1941)

German submarine U-131 (1941)

German submarine U-134 (1941)

German submarine U-137 (1940)

German submarine U-144 (1940)

German submarine U-155 (1941)

German submarine U-156 (1941)

German submarine U-166 (1941)

German submarine U-171

German submarine U-172

German submarine U-175

German submarine U-176

German submarine U-180

German submarine U-181

German submarine U-183

German submarine U-184

German submarine U-185

German submarine U-190

German submarine U-195

German submarine U-196

German submarine U-214

German submarine U-215

German submarine U-217

German submarine U-218

German submarine U-219

German submarine U-221

German submarine U-227

German submarine U-228

German submarine U-234

German submarine U-238

German submarine U-253

German submarine U-254

German submarine U-255

German submarine U-256

German submarine U-259

German submarine U-260

German submarine U-262

German submarine U-268

German submarine U-269

German submarine U-273

German submarine U-280

German submarine U-298

German submarine U-300

German submarine U-301

German submarine U-303

German submarine U-309

German submarine U-317

German submarine U-324

German submarine U-325

German submarine U-333

German submarine U-337

German submarine U-340

German submarine U-346

German submarine U-352

German submarine U-353

German submarine U-362

German submarine U-365

German submarine U-371

German submarine U-383

German submarine U-388

German submarine U-400

German submarine U-405

German submarine U-413

German submarine U-429

German submarine U-434

German submarine U-438

German submarine U-441

German submarine U-443

German submarine U-455

German submarine U-459

German submarine U-460

German submarine U-461

German submarine U-462

German submarine U-463

German submarine U-468

German submarine U-470

German submarine U-479

German submarine U-481

German submarine U-487

German submarine U-488

German submarine U-489

German submarine U-490

German submarine U-501

German submarine U-502

German submarine U-503

German submarine U-505

German submarine U-507

German submarine U-509

German submarine U-511

German submarine U-512

German submarine U-515

German submarine U-518

German submarine U-520

German submarine U-521

German submarine U-523

German submarine U-529

German submarine U-530

German submarine U-531

German submarine U-533

German submarine U-534

German submarine U-535

German submarine U-537

German submarine U-539

German submarine U-549

German submarine U-550

German submarine U-552

German submarine U-553

German submarine U-556

German submarine U-557

German submarine U-559

German submarine U-570

German submarine U-571

German submarine U-573

German submarine U-596

German submarine U-625

German submarine U-627

German submarine U-656

German submarine U-691

German submarine U-701

German submarine U-718

German submarine U-735

German submarine U-736

German submarine U-745

German submarine U-754

German submarine U-759

German submarine U-760

German submarine U-765

German submarine U-772

German submarine U-777

German submarine U-821

German submarine U-843

German submarine U-844

German submarine U-852

German submarine U-853

German submarine U-859

German submarine U-862

German submarine U-864

German submarine U-869

German submarine U-884

German submarine U-889

German submarine U-953

German submarine U-957

German submarine U-958

German submarine U-961

German submarine U-964

German submarine U-973

German submarine U-978

German submarine U-1000

German submarine U-1021

German submarine U-1059

German submarine U-1060

German submarine U-1061

German submarine U-1062

German submarine U-1063

German submarine U-1105

German submarine U-1227

German submarine U-1230

German submarine U-1234

German submarine U-1235

German submarine U-1276

German submarine U-1302

German submarine U-2321

German submarine U-2322

German submarine U-2323

German submarine U-2324

German submarine U-2331

German submarine U-2342

German submarine U-2501

German submarine U-2511

German submarine U-2513

German submarine U-3008

German submarine U-3519

German tank production during World War II

German tanker Altmark

German tanks in World War II

German torpedoboats of World War II

German Type I submarine

German Type II submarine

German Type VII submarine

German Type IX submarine

German Type X submarine

German Type XIV submarine

German Type XVIIB submarine

German Type XXI submarine

German Type XXIII submarine

German War Graves Commission

German Weapons Act

German weather ship Lauenburg

German World War II destroyers

German World War II strongholds

German WWII strongholds

German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty

German-trained divisions in the National Revolutionary Army

German–occupied Europe

Germanic-SS

Germanische Leitstelle

Germany Must Perish!

Germany Year Zero

Germar Rudolf

Gerry H. Kisters

Gerry Parsky

Gershon Sirota

Gerstein Report

Gert Fröbe

Gert-Dietmar Klause

Gertrud Scholtz-Klink

Gertrude (Code name)

Gertrude Nelson

Gertrude Sanford Legendre

Gertrude Stein

Geschwaderkommodore

Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front

Gestapo-NKVD Conferences

Gestapo

Getúlio Vargas

Gewehr 41

Gewehr 43

Géza Lakatos

GFM cloche

Gheorghe Apostol

Gheorghe Argeşanu

Gheorghe Gaston Marin

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej

Gheorghe I. Brătianu

Gheorghe Manoliu

Gheorghe Mironescu

Gheorghe Pănculescu

Gheorghe Plagino

Gheorghe Răscănescu

Gheorghe Tătărescu

Gheorghe Ursu

Ghetto Fighters' House

Ghetto Litzmannstadt

Ghetto uprising

Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939-1944)

Ghislain Gimbert

Gholam-Hossein Saedi

Ghost Soldiers

GHQ Liaison Regiment

GHQ Line

Giacomo Acerbo

Giacomo Appiotti

Gian Singh

Giancarlo Pajetta

Gianfranco Gaspari

Gianfranco Gazzana-Priaroggia

Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon

Gianni Rodari

Gianpiero Combi

Gideon Force

Gideon Greif

Gideon Klein

Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris RER)

Giffard LeQuesne Martel

Gig Young

Gil Hodges

Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field

Gila River War Relocation Center

Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign

Gilbert Bayiha N'Djema

Gilbert Bécaud

Gilbert Bostsarron

Gilbert Cavan

Gilbert de Greenlaw

Gilbert Duprez

Gilbert Gérintès

Gilbert Gude

Gilbert Hackforth-Jones

Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster

Gilbert Johnson

Gilbert Jonathan Rowcliff

Gilbert Le Chenadec

Gilbert Monckton, 2nd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley

Gilbert Montagné

Gilbert Norman

Gilbert Renault

Gilbert Stork

Gilbert Stuart Martin Insall

Giles Cooper

Giles McCrary

Giles Romilly

Giles Vandeleur

Gillean Maclaine

Gilles Boileau

Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Lamontagne

Gilles Ménage

Gilles Quénéhervé

Gilles Rampillon

Gilles Yapi Yapo

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

Gilliam-class attack transport

Gillis William Long

Gin Drinkers Line

Gino J. Merli

Gino Marchetti

Gino Sopracordevole

Gioachino Rossini

Giorgio Amendola

Giorgio Bassani

Giorgio Napolitano

Giorgio Parisi

Giorgio Perlasca

Giorgio Zampori

Giovanna Zangrandi

Giovanni De Prà

Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Giorgio Trissino

Giovanni Graber

Giovanni Messe

Giovanni Palatucci

Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz

Giovanni Scatturin

Giretsu

Gisela Bock

Gisella Perl

Gitta Sereny

GIUK gap

Giulio de Florian

Giulio Gaudini

Giulio Martinat

Giuseppe Colacicco

Giuseppe Crivelli

Giuseppe Di Vittorio

Giuseppe Dossetti

Giuseppe Fioravanzo

Giuseppe Paris

Giuseppe Saragat

Giuseppe Siri

Giuseppe Tonani

Giustizia e Libertà

Glacier Girl

Glacière (Paris Métro)

Gladys Carson

Glamour Gal

Glasmine 43

Glass House (Budapest)

Gleichschaltung

Gleiwitz incident

Glen Bell

Glen D. Johnson

Glen Edwards (pilot)

Glen Graham

Glencree German war cemetery

Glendon Swarthout

Glenn Ford

Glenn Hartranft

Glenn Miller

Glenn T. Seaborg

Glina massacre

Glinciszki massacre

Glorious-class aircraft carrier

Glossary of German military terms

Glossary of Nazi Germany

Glossary of the Third Reich

Gloster E.28/39

Gloster Meteor

Glynn R. Donaho

Gnevny-class destroyer

Go For Broke Monument

Go for Broke! (1951 film)

Gobelins (school of image)

Gobelins manufactory

God Is My Co-Pilot (film)

Godfrey Hounsfield

Godwin Okpara

Goebbels Diaries

Goering's Green Folder

Gold Beach

Gold Star Mothers Club

Gold Star Wives

Golden Party Badge

Golf Disneyland

Goliath tracked mine

Gonars concentration camp

Gonars

Goncourt (Paris Métro)

Gongzhutun Campaign

Gonzalo Quesada

Good Germans

Goodbye Holland

Goodbye Japan

Göppingen Gö 9

Goralenvolk

Göran Claeson

Goran Rubil

Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague

Gordie Drillon

Gordon A. Craig

Gordon Bennett (Australian soldier)

Gordon Bridson

Gordon Browning

Gordon Campbell, Baron Campbell of Croy

Gordon Charles Steele

Gordon Churchill

Gordon Donaldson (journalist)

Gordon Gollob

Gordon Goodwin (athlete)

Gordon H. Sato

Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hultquist

Gordon Killick

Gordon MacWhinnie

Gordon McGregor

Gordon Nornable

Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon

Gordon Prange

Gordon R. Dickson

Gordon Waite Underwood

Gösta Persson

Gotha G.I

Gotha G.II

Gotha G.III

Gotha G.IV

Gotha G.IX

Gotha G.V

Gotha G.VII

Gotha Go 145

Gotha Go 149

Gotha Go 242

Gotha Go 244

Gotha Go 345

Gotha LD.1

Gotha WD.2

Gotha WD.3

Gotha WD.7

Gotha WD.11

Gotha WD.14

Gotha WD.27

Gotha Ka 430

Gothic Line order of battle

Gothic Line

Gottfried E. Noether

Gottfried Feder

Gottfried Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen

Gottfried Ochshorn

Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Einem

Gotthard Handrick

Gotthard Heinrici

Gottlob Berger

Gottorp

Götz Aly

Goumier

Goutte d'Or

Government Aircraft Factories

Government Delegate's Office at Home

Government of National Unity (Hungary)

Goya (ship)

Grace Hopper

Grace McKenzie

Gracias Amigos

Grady A. Dugas

Grady McMurtry

Grady McWhiney

Graf Zeppelin-class aircraft carrier

Grafeneck Castle

Grafeneck

Graham Bladon

Graham Greene

Graham Leslie Parish

Grampus-class submarine

Gran Sasso raid

Granada War Relocation Center

Granatwerfer 36

Granatwerfer 42

Grand Cross of the German Eagle

Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

Grand Director

Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia

Grand Guignol

Grand Han Righteous Army

Grand Palais

Grand Slam bomb

Grand Wizard

Granddi Ngoyi

Grande Arche

Grande Ceinture line

Grande ceinture Ouest

Grande Odalisque

Grands Boulevards (Paris Métro)

Grands Magasins du Louvre

Grant County International Airport

Grant F. Timmerman

Granville Raid

Grave of the Fireflies (novel)

Grave of the Fireflies

Gravedigger (comics)

Graves B. Erskine

Great Bend Municipal Airport

Great Depression in Canada

Great Japan Youth Party

Great Patriotic War (term)

Great Synagogue of London

Great Western Railway War Memorial

Greater Britain Movement

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Greater Hungary (political concept)

Grebbe line

Greco-Italian War

Greek battleship Kilkis

Greek battleship Lemnos

Greek cruiser Elli (1912)

Greek cruiser Georgios Averof

Greek destroyer Adrias

Greek destroyer Aetos

Greek destroyer Aspis

Greek destroyer Hydra (D 97)

Greek destroyer Ierax

Greek destroyer Kountouriotis (D 99)

Greek destroyer Leon

Greek destroyer Niki

Greek destroyer Panthir

Greek destroyer Psara (D 96)

Greek destroyer Spetsai (D 98)

Greek destroyer Thyella

Greek destroyer Vasilefs Georgios (D 14)

Greek destroyer Vasilissa Olga (D 15)

Greek National Socialist Party

Greek People's Liberation Army

Greek Resistance

Greek submarine Katsonis (Y-1)

Greek submarine Papanikolis (Y-2)

Greek torpedo boat Kios

Greek torpedo boat Kydonia

Greek torpedo boat Kyzikos

Greek torpedo boat Pergamos

Greek torpedo boat Proussa

Green box barrage

Green Gang

Green Line (Italy)

Green report

Green Skull

Green St. Bunker, West End

Greenock Blitz

Greensboro massacre

Grégoire Laurent

Gregor Strasser

Gregorij Rožman

Gregory Arnolin

Gregory Breit

Grégory Paisley

Grégory Pujol

Gregory Rabassa

Grégory Wimbée

Grenelle

Grenoble Cathedral

Grenoble Foot 38

Grenoble Institute of Technology

Grenoble

Greta Bösel

Greta Ferusic

Greta Keller

Grey Ranks (role-playing game)

Greyshirts

Gribovski G-11

Grigore Cugler

Grigore Gafencu

Grigore Preoteasa

Grigory Stelmakh

Grigory Vorozheikin

Grill (cryptology)

Grille (artillery)

Grini concentration camp

Grits Gresham

Grivnik brigade

Grob G 115

Groesbeek Canadian War Cemetery

Grojanowski Report

Grønsvik coastal battery

Gross-Rosen concentration camp

Großdeutschland Division

Groton-New London Airport

Ground Observer Corps

Group 13

Group Army

Groupe de Chasse I/3

Grumman Goose

Gruppenführer

Gruppenkommandeur

Grzegorz Timofiejew

Gu Zhutong

Guadalcanal (1992 game)

Guadalcanal Campaign

Guadalcanal Diary (book)

Guadalcanal Diary (film)

Gualberto Villarroel

Guan Linzheng

Guangzhou Military Region

Guangzhou Uprising

Guards Armoured Division

Guards Mixed Brigade

Gudrun Burwitz

Guenther Podola

Guépard-class destroyer

Guerlain

Guglielmo Nasi

Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target

Guide Gift Week

Guido Castelnuovo

Guido Knopp

Guildhall, London

Guillaume Apollinaire

Guillaume Budé

Guillaume de Baillou

Guillaume Dubois

Guillaume Gallienne

Guillaume Norbert

Guillaume Postel

Guillaume Rippert

Guillaume Sarkozy

Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes

Guillermo Hayden Wright

Guilty Men

Guimet Museum

Guinea Pig Club

Guinguette

Guizhou JL-9

Gulbrand Oscar Johan Lunde

Gumbinnen Operation

Gun politics in Germany

Gunbatsu

Gung Ho! (1943 film)

Gunichi Mikawa

Gunnar Holmberg

Gunnar Jahn

Gunnar Larsson (cross-country skier)

Gunnar Lindström

Gunnar Sköld

Gunnar Sønsteby

Günter Bialas

Gunter d'Alquen

Günter Deckert

Günter Grass

Gunter Jahn

Günter Kießling

Günter Reimann

Günter Steinhausen

Günter Zöller

Günther Anhalt

Günther Blumentritt

Günther Freiherr von Maltzahn

Günther Josten

Günther Korten

Günther Krappe

Günther Lütjens

Günther Lützow

Günther Pancke

Günther Prien

Günther Rall

Günther Schack

Günther Scheel

Günther Schwägermann

Günther Seeger

Günther Smend

Günther Specht

Günther Viezenz

Günther von Kluge

Günther-Eberhardt Wisliceny

Guo Boxiong

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon

Gurli Ewerlund

Gus George Bebas

Gus Kefurt

Gus Savage

Gust J. Swenning

Gustaf Carlsson

Gustaf Dyrssen

Gustaf Hagelin

Gustaf Söderström

Gustaf Weijnarth

Gustav Adolf Scheel

Gustav Adolf von Götzen

Gustav Anton von Wietersheim

Gustav Flatow

Gustav Goßler

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Gustav Moths

Gustav Rau

Gustav Richter

Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Gustav Rödel

Gustav Schwarzenegger

Gustav Simon

Gustav Sprick

Gustav Sturm

Gustav V of Sweden

Gustav Victor Rudolf Born

Gustav von Vaerst

Gustav Wagner (soldier)

Gustav Weler

Gustáv Wendrinský

Gustav-Adolf Blancbois

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen

Gustave Bertrand

Gustave Biéler

Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave de Molinari

Gustave Doré

Gustave Gilbert

Gustave Hervé

Gustave Lanctot

Gustave Moreau

Gustave Sandras

Gustave Thuret

Gustavo Poyet

Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

Gustaw Holoubek

Gustaw Morcinek

Gusztáv Vitéz Jány

Guy Armoured Car

Guy Butler (athlete)

Guy D'Artois

Guy Gabaldon

Guy Gibson

Guy Gregson

Guy Lacombe

Guy Lizard

Guy Madison

Guy Menzies

Guy Môquet (Paris Métro)

Guy Môquet

Guy Russell

Guy S. Meloy, Jr.

Guy Sajer

Guy Salisbury-Jones

Guy Simonds

Gwardia Ludowa WRN

Gwardia Ludowa

Gwido Langer

Győző Haberfeld

Gyokuon-hōsō

György Beifeld

György Gábori

Gyorshadtest

Gyula Cseszneky

Gyula Halasy

Gyula Kakas

Gyula Strausz

James Anderton (RAF officer)

Flight Lieutenant James Lawrence Anderton was a company director, motorcycle dealer, pilot and RAF officer.

James Anderton founded Anderton Bros Motor Cycles Ltd of Bolton, Lancashire with his brother Syl Anderton in 1935. He qualified as a pilot before World War II but was drafted into the RAF Volunteer Reserve at the outbreak of hostilities, and remained in RAF service until the surrender of Japan in September 1945. He served in several RAF squadrons and an Operational Training Unit, as a heavy bomber pilot—flying Vickers Wellingtons and B-24 Liberators. While serving in 37 Squadron he participated in the bombing of the German battleship Gneisenau. When an instructor at No. 21 Operational Training Unit he participated in the first Thousand-Bomber Raid over Cologne, Germany. In 1944, he was posted to 99 Squadron in Dhubulia, India. There, he participated in the longest formation mission of the war, to bomb targets in Burma—including the Burma Railway. He was awarded the Air Force Cross and was three-times Mentioned in Despatches.

Kenneth Campbell (VC)

Kenneth Campbell, (21 April 1917 – 6 April 1941) was a Scottish airman who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for an attack that damaged the German battlecruiser Gneisenau, moored in Brest, France, during the Second World War.

Military Organization Lizard Union

Organizacja Wojskowa Związek Jaszczurczy (Military Organization Lizard Union, short form: Związek Jaszczurczy, abbreviated OW ZJ) was an organization of Polish resistance in World War II. Created in 1939 and transformed into National Armed Forces (Narodowe Siły Zbrojne, NSZ) in 1942, it represented the far-right of the Polish political spectrum (related to the National Radical Camp (Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, ONR) political party) and thus refused to recognize the Polish Underground State (although there was some uneasy tactical cooperation for practical reasons).

No. 22 Squadron RAF

No. 22 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operated the Westland Sea King HAR.3 and HAR.3A at three stations in the southern United Kingdom. The squadron was originally formed in 1915 as an aerial reconnaissance unit of the Royal Flying Corps serving on the Western Front during First World War. Becoming part of the Royal Air Force on its formation in 1918, it was disbanded the following year as part of the post-First World War scaling back of the RAF. During the Second World War the squadron operated in the torpedo bomber role over the North Sea and then in the Mediterranean and the Far East. Between 1955 and 2015 the squadron provided military search and rescue over the United Kingdom.

No. 300 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 300 (Polish) "Land of Masovia" Bomber Squadron (Polish: 300 Dywizjon Bombowy "Ziemi Mazowieckiej") was a Polish World War II bomber unit. It fought alongside the Royal Air Force and operated from airfields in the United Kingdom.

No. 90 Squadron RAF

No. 90 Squadron RAF (sometimes written as No. XC Squadron) is a squadron of the Royal Air Force.

RAF St Eval

Royal Air Force St. Eval or RAF St. Eval was a strategic Royal Air Force station for the RAF Coastal Command during the Second World War (situated in Cornwall, England, UK). St Eval's primary role was to provide anti-submarine and anti-shipping patrols off the south west coast. Aircraft from the airfield were also used for photographic reconnaissance missions, meteorological flights, convoy patrols, air-sea rescue missions and protection of the airfield from the Luftwaffe.

RAF Thorney Island

RAF Thorney Island is a former Royal Air Force station located 6.6 miles (10.6 km) west of Chichester, West Sussex, England and 7.1 miles (11.4 km) east of Portsmouth, Hampshire.

Torpedo bomber

A torpedo bomber is a military aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with aerial torpedoes. Torpedo bombers came into existence just before the First World War almost as soon as aircraft were built that were capable of carrying the weight of a torpedo, and remained an important aircraft type until they were rendered obsolete by anti-ship missiles. They were an important element in many famous Second World War battles, notably the British attack at Taranto and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Ørland

Ørland is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Fosen region. Ørland is located at the southwestern tip of the Fosen peninsula at the northern shore of the mouth of Trondheimsfjord where the Stjørnfjorden arm begins. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Brekstad, which declared itself to be a city in 2005. Some of the villages in Ørland include Uthaug, Opphaug, and Ottersbo.

The 73-square-kilometre (28 sq mi) municipality is the 395th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Ørland is the 191st most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 5,351. The municipality's population density is 73.2 inhabitants per square kilometre (190/sq mi) and its population has increased by 6.5% over the last decade.

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