German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin

Pinguin was a German auxiliary cruiser (Hilfskreuzer) which served as a commerce raider in World War II. Pinguin was known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 33, and designated HSK 5. The most successful commerce raider of the war, she was known to the British Royal Navy as Raider F.

Pinguin (Indian Ocean 1941)
Pinguin in the Indian Ocean 1941.
History
Germany
Name: Kandelfels
Owner: DDG Hansa
Builder: Deschimag A.G. Weser
Launched: 1936
Fate: Requisition by Kriegsmarine, 1939
Nazi Germany
Name: Pinguin
Namesake: Penguin
Builder: Deschimag A.G. Weser, Bremen
Yard number: 5
Acquired: 1939
Recommissioned: 6 February 1940
Reclassified: Auxiliary cruiser, 1940
Nickname(s):
  • HSK-5
  • Schiff 33
  • Raider F
Fate: Sunk in the Indian Ocean, 8 May 1941
General characteristics
Displacement: 17,600 long tons (17,900 t)
Length: 155 m (509 ft)
Beam: 18.7 m (61 ft)
Draft: 8.7 m (29 ft)
Installed power: 7,600 hp (5,700 kW)
Propulsion: 2 × 6-cylinder diesel engines
Speed: 17 kn (31 km/h; 20 mph)
Range: 60,000 nmi (110,000 km; 69,000 mi) at 12 kn (22 km/h; 14 mph)
Endurance: 207 days
Complement: 401
Armament:
Aircraft carried:

Early history

Formerly a freighter named Kandelfels, she was built by Deschimag A.G. Weser in 1936, and was owned and operated by the Hansa Line, Bremen. She was the sister-ship of Kybfels, and a half-sister of Goldenfels (built by Bremer Vulkan), which was converted into the raider Atlantis.

In the winter of 1939–40, she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine (KM) and converted to a warship by Deschimag A.G. Weser, Bremen. Her main armament, six 150 mm L/45 C/13 guns was taken from the obsolete battleship Schlesien and she was also fitted with one captured French 75 mm L/36 cannon, one twin 37 mm anti-aircraft mounting, four 20 mm anti-aircraft guns, and two single 53.3 cm torpedo tubes for 16 torpedoes. She was supplied with two Heinkel He 114A-2 seaplanes and 300 sea mines. She also carried 25 G7a torpedoes and 80 U-Boat mines for replenishing U-boats.

Pinguin voyage

Pinguin was one of the first wave of raiders sent out by the Kriegsmarine, sailing on 15 June 1940[1] under the command of Fregattenkapitän (later Kapitän zur See) Ernst-Felix Krüder and disguised as an anonymous naval transport ship with an escort from the minesweeper Nautilus. The escort duties were taken over by Sperrbrecher IV on 18 June and later by the Type 23 torpedo boat Falke and the Type 24 torpedo boat Jaguar. The convoy then sailed through the Great Belt into the Kattegat.

The three-ship convoy passed through the Skagerrak on 19 June with Luftwaffe air cover from a Dornier Do 18 flying boat and two fighters and entered the North Sea. Her escort was reinforced with the minesweepers M17 and M18, and they headed up the coast of Norway, passing Bergen on 20 June where the torpedo boats departed. Schiff 33 and the minesweepers carried on northwards to Sörgulenfjord. In the fjord the grey German auxiliary Schiff 33 was disguised as the black-hulled Soviet cargo ship Petschura with hammer and sickle markings. They emerged from the fjord on 22 June en route to the Denmark Strait. Schiff 33's mission was to rendezvous with and replenish the submarine UA off the Cape Verde and then to disrupt traffic in the Indian Ocean and lay mines off Australian and Indian ports. She was then to head south to seek out the British and Norwegian whaling fleets in the Antarctic.[2][Note 1]

The convoy headed into heavy weather and high winds and the two minesweepers turned back. Sailing westwards at 15 knots a surfacing submarine was spotted and on sighting ′Petschura′ disappeared. Assuming it was British ′Petschura′ headed northwards to give the impression of a Soviet ship headed for Murmansk. Surfacing again the submarine increased speed and gave chase signalling first "What ship?" and on being ignored "Heave to, or we open fire!"[3] ′Petschura′ continued at full speed and left the submarine behind. ′Petschura′ continued northeasterly up the coast of Norway.

On 28 June Pinguin headed south surrounded by icebergs. She inched southwards until 29 June she sailed through the Denmark Strait into the Atlantic on 1 July to rendezvous with UA on 18 July. On 10 July she was re-camouflaged as the Greek Kassos.

On 18 July UA had serious engine troubles and because of bad weather it was not safe to transfer the torpedoes, water and stores. They decided to seek calmer waters to the south transferring 70 tons of diesel fuel to the submarine en route. On 20 July in calmer waters 700 miles south-west of the Cape Verde they started the replenishment. It was first time a submarine was ever re-supplied at sea by a raider. Unable to come alongside because of the risk of damaging her hydroplanes the first day was spent improvising methods to close the gap. The 11 torpedoes had to be ferried across on flotation bags and it was not completed until 25 July. Pinguin then continued south towing UA to save fuel until the shipping lanes off Freetown where the U-Boat unsuccessfully pursued a tanker. Pinguin then towed her again until 28 July.

Domingo de Larrinaga

On 31 July 300 miles (480 km) north-west of Ascension Island, a ship was sighted. It also spotted the raider and turned away, sending a QQQ signal. Trying to jam the distress signals, Pinguin gave chase. She ran up her battle flag and dropped its camouflage, signalling to the vessel to stop and not to use her wireless or she would be fired upon. When the commands were ignored, warning shots were fired across her bows from her 75 mm gun. Four more warning shots were fired, but she did not stop; the distress signals continued and her crew were seen to be manning their stern-mounted gun. Pinguin opened fire with her main armament on the freighter's bridge with several hits. The freighter on fire slowed to a halt and her crew were seen to be abandoning ship. The British freighter Domingo de Larrinaga was on her way from Bahía Blanca to Newcastle with 7,000 tons of grain and a crew of 36. A heavily armed boarding party found eight crewmen dead on the ship. The party included Pinguin's surgeon, and two sick bay attendants were sent to care for the wounded. Scuttling charges were placed in the freighter's engine room. The charges failed to explode and she had to be sunk by a torpedo. The survivors were taken aboard Pinguin.[4]

Filefjell captured

On 20 August Pinguin rounded the Cape of Good Hope. On 26 August south of Madagascar one of Pinguin's seaplanes with RAF markings was launched.[5] It found a tanker and the pilot dropped a message onto its deck ordering her to "Alter course to 180° distance 140 miles on account of vicinity of enemy raider" "From that point take up cours direct to 31°N 37°E" "thence you get further informations" "Do not use wireless".[5] This was to try to lead her straight to Pinguin. The tanker appeared to obey this command later was found trying to escape at top speed. The plane was relaunched. When it found her again it ripped away her radio aerials and strafed her bridge with cannon and machine gun fire.[6] The plane set down and ordered her to "Remain stopping here" "cruiser Cumberland will go with you" and to show her navigation lights. The tanker was loaded with 10,000 tons of high-octane aviation fuel and 500 tons of oil surrendered and switched on its lights.[7] Guided by the lights Pinguin arrived and her boarding party identified the ship as the Norwegian Filefjell chartered by the British Admiralty on her way from the Persian Gulf to Cape Town. A prize crew was placed aboard the tanker. It was decided to take Filefjell to a quiet area to transfer the 500 tons of oil to Pinguin.[8]

British Commander

On 27 August a ship was spotted sailing blacked-out and with no lights. Filefjell was ordered to drop back. Pinguin shadowed the ship for an hour then signalled for her to stop and had a warning shot fired across her bows. The ship obeyed and identifying itself as the tanker British Commander. She then radioed QQQ distress signals giving her position and reported that she was being attacked by a merchant raider.[5] Pinguin's searchlight spotted that the enemy's 4-inch gun mounted on her stern had been manned and ordered its gunners to open fire. The tanker was hit several times and set on fire. The tanker captain stopped the ship and instructed his crew to abandon ship. A torpedo failed to sink her, and 40 150 mm shells were then fired to sink her. Pinguin then picked up the tanker's 45-man crew[7] and headed out into the Indian Ocean at full speed.

Morviken

Another freighter was then spotted. Pinguin came alongside. It signalled to her that she would sink her if she did not stop. A 75 mm warning shot was fired across her bows. The ship then halted with no resistance and no signal sent. It was identified by the boarding party as the Norwegian ship Morviken. It was heading for Calcutta from Cape Town. The crew of 35 was taken aboard along with her motor-cutter then the ship was scuttled.[9]

Filefjell sunk

Pinguin and Filefjell sailed south-east away from the shipping routes to transfer the 500 tons of fuel oil and then scuttling charges were set on Filefjell.[8] The charges detonated but the ship did not explode. 75 mm gunfire was then used to try and sink her, but two 150 mm shells were needed to ignite the petrol in the tanks, sending a massive fireball into the sky.

Trafalgar

It was decided that Pinguin should adopt the identity of the Wilhelmsen cargo-liner Trafalgar.[5] On 31 August the transformation took place at a remote spot. Pinguin drifted for five days until 5 September. Pinguin then launched its seaplane to survey the area but it crashed on take off. The plane burst into flames and sank. The crew were in the water. The ship's only radio telephone was on the plane. It operated on a wavelength undetectable to Allied shipping. Pinguin's technicians needed calm weather to assemble the second aircraft that was stowed below in a crate. Pinguin had lost the ability to silence enemy radios by tearing away their aerials and that future enemy ships that sent signals would have to be fired on, increasing the chance of crews being killed. By 10 September work was completed on Pinguin and it had a black hull with a white band all the way around, white upperworks and a black funnel with two light-blue bands.

Benavon

It was decided to make one more sortie off Madagascar before heading for Australian waters to lay mines. Early on 12 September, a freighter was spotted 330 miles east of the island. Pinguin closed quickly on a deliberate ‘collision course’; the freighter maintained hers in accordance with the International Collision Regulations until the two ships were just over a mile apart. At this point the freighter sounded a long warning blast of its whistle. The freighter turned away from the raider. Pinguin ran up its battle ensign and de-camouflaged. The freighter crew manned her 4-inch gun and increased her speed to escape. The freighter was signalled to stop and a 75 mm warning shot was fired. The freighter fired back, hitting Pinguin with a shell that ricocheted off the surface of the sea and pierced her port side ending up in the crew's quarters close to the storage compartment containing 300 high-explosive mines. The shells fired by Benavon had no fuse caps fitted and it did not explode. One of Pinguin's crew picked up the shell with his cap and threw it through the hole it had made in the ship's hull into the sea. Pinguin fired back, putting the freighter's gun and wireless out of action. It destroyed most of her lifeboats and set her on fire. The freighter's captain gave the order to abandon ship, but the bridge was hit and he was killed along with his deck officers and radio operator. A boarding party found five men aboard, three of them wounded. They and the 24 others that had already abandoned ship were taken aboard Pinguin. The total number of survivors was 28. The ship was identified as the British freighter Benavon on her way to London from Manila and Singapore with a cargo of hemp, jute and rubber.[8] It had a crew of 49 and was armed with one 4-inch and one 3-inch anti-aircraft gun. Three of the wounded died of their injuries after boarding Pinguin, and they were buried with full military honours.

Nordvard

The Seekriegsleitung ordered Pinguin to set course eastward along the busy sea route between Australia and South Africa. Four days later, on 16 September, a ship was sighted and stopped without any signals being sent and no gunfire.[5] The ship was identified by the boarding party as the Norwegian ship Nordvard en route from Fremantle to Port Elizabeth with a cargo of 7,500 tons of Australian grain and a crew of 30.[5] A prize crew was put aboard the ship along with over 100 prisoners and was sent to Bordeaux and arrived there on 22 November.

Storstad

Pinguin headed north-eastwards towards the Sunda Strait to the shipping lanes between India and Australia. On 27 September the sea was calm enough to allow the spare seaplane to be assembled.[5] Ernst-Felix Krüder and his navigation officer Leutnant Wilhelm Michaelsen conceived and developed a plan to lay mines in six Australian and Tasmanian sea lanes, but it would require two ships. On 7 October off Christmas Island a vessel crossing the raider's path was flagged down and ordered to stop with a 75 mm warning shot. The vessel stopped and surrendered. The vessel was identified as the Norwegian motor-tanker Storstad carrying a cargo of 12,000 tons of diesel oil and 500 tons of heavy fuel oil.[8] She was on her way from British North Borneo to Melbourne. Storstad was suitable for use as an auxiliary minelayer.[10] Under a prize crew Storstad was taken to a remote spot between Java and the north-west tip of Australia to be converted into an auxiliary minelayer. Storstad was stripped and her after accommodation space was transformed into a mine deck with launching rails. 110 mines were transferred from Pinguin in the motorboat that was taken from Morviken.[8] 1,200 tons of the diesel oil was transferred from Storstad to Pinguin.[11]

Passat and mine laying

Storstad was commissioned into the German navy as the auxiliary minelayer Passat.[12] Passat was placed under the command of Lieutenant Erich Warning and had a crew of three officers, eight petty officers and 19 ratings plus five members of her original Norwegian crew who volunteered to work in the engine room. On 12 October Passat headed for the Banks Strait off Tasmania and for the east and west ends of the Bass Strait on the approaches to Melbourne. Pinguin headed for the ports of Sydney, Newcastle, Hobart and laid mines also in waters west-south-west of the Neptune Islands off the coast of South Australia.[5][13] Between 28 October and 7 November the two ships laid their mines and arranged to meet again 700 miles west of Perth on 15 November. On 7 November refrigerated cargo liner Cambridge hit one of Passat's mines and sank at the eastern approach to the Bass Strait with the loss of one man.[5] On 9 November at the western end of the strait American freighter City of Rayville hit another of its mines sinking with the loss of only one man.[5] On 5 December mines laid by Pinguin sank the Australian coaster Nimbin with the loss of seven men.[14] On 7 December another Pinguin laid mine exploded badly damaging the large freighter Hertford.[15] On 26 March 1941 the fishing trawler Millimumul sank with the loss of one man.[16] On 15 November the two ships rendezvoused at a point 700 miles west of Perth. The two ships maintained strict radio silence in the month-long operation.

Nowshera

On 16 November Passat was de-commissioned and resumed her original name of Storstad. Her German crew was reduced to 18 and 20 Norwegian volunteers supplementing the five already aboard. Storstad was instructed to act as a scout ship for Pinguin. The two ships headed northwards before swinging westwards and on 17 November smoke was sighted on the horizon ahead of a large freighter. Pinguin pinned the freighter in the beam of her searchlight and a warning shot was put across her bows. The freighter was signalled to stop and maintain radio silence or she would be fired upon. The freighter halted, and a boarding party identified the ship as the British motor ship Nowshera on her way from Adelaide to Durban and the UK.[17] Her cargo was zinc ore, wheat, wool and other assorted piece goods. The freighter had a crew of 113, and was armed with a Japanese-made 4-inch gun on her stern and an even older Lewis machine gun on the bridge. Whatever goods and provisions Pinguin needed were taken from Nowshera and she was then scuttled.[17]

Maimoa

Pinguin then departed southwards. On 20 November smoke was spotted on the horizon. Pinguin established that it was from a large westbound cargo ship. Pinguin launched its newly assembled seaplane in order to snatch the ship's wireless aerials or if necessary to bomb her. The seaplane failed to snatch the aerials on its first attempt. The aircrew then dropped a weighted bag onto the ship's bridge with a message commanding her captain to stop his engines and to maintain radio silence or be attacked. The commands were not obeyed, and the ship's radio operator sent signals reporting that they were being attacked from the air. The seaplane then dropped two small bombs in front of the ship. A second attempt was made to snatch the aerials which succeeded. The seaplane came under machine-gun and rifle fire hitting it several times. The seaplane fired back. The seaplane was forced to land on the water with a perforated petrol tank and one of its floats damaged. The aircrew crouched down in the cockpit, expecting the freighter's gunners to finish them off, which they could easily have done. Pinguin slowed down to half speed and in a risky manoeuvre ‘dropped’ a boat with a three-man crew beside the seaplane then pursued the cargo ship. Pinguin's battle flag was hoisted and at the maximum effective range of 12 nautical miles (22 km) for the 150 mm guns she opened fire. Two salvos were fired, one long and the other falling short, forcing the cargo ship to a halt. A boarding party identified the ship as the coal-burning refrigeration ship Maimoa.[18] The ship was en route to the UK from Fremantle via Durban. Its cargo was 5,000 tons of frozen meat, 1,500 tons of butter, 1,500 tons of grain, 16 million eggs packed and 100 tons of piece goods. The ship was scuttled and her crew of 87 was taken aboard Pinguin. The next morning the seaplane was hoisted back aboard Pinguin.

Port Brisbane

Storstad reported an enemy freighter was nearby.[5] Pinguin closed in on the freighter. When it was pitch dark Pinguin fixed her searchlight beam on the freighter.[8] A warning shot was fired and she was signalled to stop and maintain radio silence. The searchlight beam revealed two manned 6-inch guns on the freighter's after deck so Pinguin opened fire on the freighter. All eight shots of the first salvo registering hits. The freighter's radio room was destroyed killing the radio operator and the bridge was set on fire. The funnel was smashed and the steering gear was jammed sending her around in circles. The crew then abandoned ship. The ship was identified as the refrigerated freighter Port Brisbane.[19] The freighter was on her way from Adelaide to Britain via Durban. She had a cargo of 5,000 tons of frozen meat, butter and cheese and 3,000 tons of wool, lead and piece goods. Port Brisbane had a crew of 87 but only 60 men and one woman passenger were picked up by Pinguin. The other 27 slipped away in a lifeboat in the darkness. Scuttling charges failed to sink Port Brisbane quickly enough so a torpedo was fired to finish her off. After unsuccessfully looking for the missing lifeboat Pinguin headed south-westwards.

Port Wellington

Pinguin headed south and then west followed by Storstad. By 28 November Pinguin's appearance had been altered by being painted black. Two days later Storstad reported a ship on the horizon. Storstad was sent to a rendezvous point. Pinguin closed to within a mile of other ship and opened fire without warning. The first salvo destroying the control centre and the radio room killing the radio operator and mortally wounding the ship's captain. The ship's steering gear was out of action and she was on fire. The ship was identified as the British refrigerated freighter Port Wellington sister ship of Port Brisbane.[20] Port Wellington was bound for England from Adelaide via Durban. She was armed with two 6-inch and one 3-inch gun. Port Wellington was carrying 4,400 tons of frozen meat, butter, eggs, and cheese and 1,750 tons of steel, 1,200 tons of wheat. She had a crew of 82 and seven passengers. 81 of the crewmen including the wounded captain (who would later die from his injuries aboard Pinguin) and the seven passengers, all of whom were women, were picked up by Pinguin. Port Wellington was then scuttled.[5]

Atlantis rendezvous

From 11 ships sunk by Pinguin she had 405 prisoners aboard. Ernst-Felix Krüder notified the Seekriegsleitung that he was sending them to Europe aboard Storstad. Storstad still had 10,800 tons of diesel oil aboard and 3,000 tons of diesel oil was transferred to Pinguin before she left. It was arranged for the Atlantis, Komet and the Orion to be re-fueled by Storstad. On 8 December Pinguin and Atlantis met in the western Indian Ocean. The next day Storstad arrived and the re-fuelling commenced. Pinguin then set course southwards for her rendezvous with the whaling fleets in the Antarctic Ocean south of Bouvet Island.[9]

Norwegian whaling fleet captured

FLK Thorshammer - Sandefjord 1929-08-10
Norwegian factory ship Thorshammer, formerly the Eagle Oil tanker San Nazario

On 17 December the Seekriegsleitung signalled that the whaling fleet was to be found in the area around South Georgia and that the names of the Norwegian factory ships involved were Harpon, Pelagos, Thorshammer, Vestfjord and Ole Wegger. All of the factory ships were under British charter. On Christmas Eve Pinguin intercepted the open-frequency chatter between two of the factory ships Ole Wegger and Pelagos. They learned that the whalers were awaiting a supply ship which was overdue, that Pelagos was short of fuel and that Ole Wegger's whale oil tanks were full to capacity. Ole Wegger offered to transfer some of her surplus fuel to Pelagos.[2] Ernst-Felix Krüder decided that they would wait until the two ships were transferring the oil before making any move on them as they would be unmanoeuverable.[2] Another intercepted signal established that the approaching supply ship was the Norwegian whale-oil tanker Solglimt. Solglimt first attended to Thorshammer which was operating 400 miles to the south-west. Ernst-Felix Krüder then decided to wait for Solglimt to arrive. On 13 January 1941 Solglimt arrived and tied up alongside Ole Wegger.

On 14 January as the two ships lay side by side Pinguin approached from the west.[2] Pinguin slipped alongside Solglimt and the two ships were ordered to maintain radio silence.[2] Pinguin launched two prize crews.[2] Solglimt had 4,000 tons of whale oil and 4,000 tons of fuel. She had a crew of 60. Ole Wegger had 7,000 tons of whale oil and 5,500 tons of fuel.[5] She had a crew of 190. Both ships were captured within 45 minutes. The Norwegian captains were told to continue with their whaling and that the Reich would pay them for their work.[5] Pinguin dispatched a motor boat to round up the whalers, three of which managed to escape. The remaining four, Torlyn, Pol VIII, Pol IX and Pol X, were captured without incident.[2]

A-00642 Hvalkokeri PELAGOS
Norwegian factory ship Pelagos, formerly the White Star Liner SS Athenic

In order to confuse the Norwegians Pinguin sailed in the opposite direction to where the third factory ship was. Once out of sight, she turned and approached the brightly lit vessel in dense fog. Coming in at full speed to within 200 metres, Pinguin signalled warnings and dispatched prize crews.[2] The factory ship Pelagos was captured within minutes.[5] Its several catchers were nearby engaged in their work. Pelagos had 9,500 tons of whale oil and 800 tons of fuel. It had a crew of 210. The captain of Pelagos was instructed to recall his catchers - Star XIV, Star XIX, Star XX, Star XXI, Star XXII, Star XXIII and Star XXIV.[21]

Pinguin's operation against the Norwegian whaling fleet was the single most successful performance by a German auxiliary cruiser in World War II.[5] More than 36,000 tons of shipping, a supply-ship, two factory ships, 11 whalers, 20,000 tons of whale oil with a value of over four million US dollars, and 10,000 tons of fuel oil were captured. This was all done without a single shot being fired and without any casualties. The Norwegians continued to work as if nothing had happened and made no effort to resist. Pinguin then made a five-day dash at top speed to the north-west past Bouvet Island and over half-way to the South Sandwich Islands. Her wireless operators sent a long coded message home knowing that every wireless station in the region would pick it up and discover their position. Pinguin then sailed back to the captured Norwegian fleet, after intercepting various British signals confirming the success of the ploy.

The 15 ships set off eastwards with Pinguin in the lead and the three factory and supply ships at the rear. Pinguin could not provide prize crews for all the ships. Ole Wegger transferred 7,000 tons of whale oil to Solglimt's storage tanks. Solglimt and Pelagos then departed on 25 January with their 10,000 tons of whale oil to France, Pelagos reaching Bordeaux on 11 March and Solglimt on 16 March. The Seekriegsleitung ordered Pinguin to bring Ole Wegger and all 11 of the catchers to a mid-Atlantic rendezvous at Point Andalusia north of the island of Tristan da Cunha. There Pinguin was to meet the tanker Nordmark,[5] which had aboard prize crews for the remaining whalers. This meeting took place on 15 February.[22] Nordmark was towing the refrigerator ship Herzogin, formerly the British ship Duquesa.[8] On 18 February the supply-ship Alstertor arrived as well.[5] It had a fresh supply of torpedoes, mines, a crated Arado Ar-196 seaplane and mail for Pinguin's crew.[8] They then proceeded with the whaling ships to the Kerguelen Islands, where the replenishing could take place in safety.

Herzogin which supplied half the German Navy with meat and eggs had run out of everything that could be burned to keep her refrigeration plant working. Her entire bridge structure, lifeboat derricks, masts and all teak decking had been burned and she was going to have to be sunk. Pinguin was restocked with 360,000 eggs, 47 sides of beef, 410 sheep and 17 sacks of oxtails from Herzogin before the scuttling charges were set. Ole Wegger and ten of the catchers arrived at the rendezvous and they were manned with skeleton crews of armed Germans before departing for Europe. The newest catcher Pol IX, was retained as an auxiliary minelayer and renamed Adjutant.[5] Two of the catchers Star XIX and Star XXIV were stopped by the British sloop HMS Scarborough off Cape Finisterre on 13 March. The German crews scuttled them and were then picked up by the British. Ole Wegger and the other eight catchers arrived at Bordeaux on 20 March.[2]

Replenishment

Pinguin received orders to rendezvous with the Kormoran to the south of Saint Helena on 25 February in order to deliver 210 kilos of the white metal WM80. Pinguin headed south past the Prince Edward Islands and Crozet Island. Pinguin rendezvoused with the Komet 120 miles east of the Kerguelen Islands on 12 March. Adjutant was sent ahead to take soundings at the entrances to the various bays and inlets of the Islands so that Pinguin could steer clear rocks. Pinguin followed Adjutant into Gazelle Bay the sheltered natural harbour at Port Couvreux and tied up alongside her on 13 March. Komet departed on 14 March. The replenishment of Pinguin began and one of the first items to be hoisted out of Alstertor's holds was the Arado Ar-196 seaplane. Adjutant was converted into an auxiliary minelayer for her role in mining the approaches to the port of Karachi.[8] Pinguin's hull was scraped and cleaned of marine growth and barnacles by careening the ship from one side to the other to expose the hull. The new seaplane was assembled and Pinguin's appearance was changed to take on the identity of the Norwegian liner Tamerlane. Pinguin replenished her water supply from a waterfall using a gravity-feed system. By 22 March the replenishing of supplies from Alstertor was complete. Pinguin and Adjutant departed the islands on 25 March.

Empire Light

Pinguin and Adjutant headed north-eastwards for a rendezvous with a former Norwegian tanker and a supply-ship at Point Siberia, unaware that they had both been sunk. They spent a short time cruising the area around the Saya de Malha Bank before heading northwards, then spent the next three weeks searching to the north and south of the Seychelles. Pinguin's seaplane made 35 flights looking for a tanker that would be a suitable auxiliary minelayer, but without success. On 24 April Adjutant searching further to the north off the island of Mahé came across a large freighter.[5] The vessel's course and speed was reported to Pinguin. On the following day Pinguin steamed past Adjutant at full speed and opened fire shooting the freighter's wireless aerials away and crippling her steering gear with the first salvo, bringing her to a halt. Pinguin dispatched a boarding party which identified the vessel as the British freighter Empire Light, on her way from Madras to Durban with a cargo of ore, hides and piece goods and a crew of 70. Her steering had been so badly disabled that it could not be repaired and the ship had to be scuttled.

Clan Buchanan

SS Clan Buchanan SLV Green
Cameron-class steamship Clan Buchanan

On 27 April Pinguin's seaplane spotted a ship, which Pinguin chased for five hours until another freighter was spotted.[23] The first vessel was let go and Pinguin turned after the second one. Pinguin opened fire on the freighter from 5,000 metres (2.7 nmi) the next morning.[5] The freighter's radio room and steering gear were destroyed. The second salvo blew her 4.7-inch gun into the engine room and she was abandoned by her 110-man crew. Signals had been transmitted from an auxiliary wireless but they were weak. The freighter was identified as the British Clan Buchanan,[5] en route from the United States to Madras with a cargo of military equipment. Her steering gear had been destroyed so she was scuttled.[5]

British Emperor

Pinguin altered course towards the shipping routes between the Persian Gulf and Mozambique. Adjutant was given instructions to proceed to Point Violet in the event of enemy activity. Clan Buchanan's signals had been picked up by two stations. This resulted in the mobilisation of powerful naval forces on both sides of the Indian Ocean. Pinguin was searching for a tanker to the north-west of the Indian Ocean near to the entrance of the Persian Gulf. On 7 May a small tanker was spotted. Pinguin signaled to the tanker to heave to, but she refused to obey. Her radio operator transmitted distress signals describing their attacker and identifying herself as the British tanker British Emperor. Pinguin's gunners fired a salvo of deliberate near misses to encourage British Emperor to stop. British Emperor held her course and continued sending SOS messages. Pinguin then fired a salvo that destroyed the tanker's bridge and wheelhouse. British Emperor veered off course and went round in circles trailing dense black smoke as her cargo ignited. British Emperor came to a halt and the crew were seen jumping overboard. Pinguin sent boats to pick them up. While Pinguin's rescue party was alongside British Emperor more distress signals were detected coming from the tanker. When Pinguin's rescue boats hauled off the blazing tanker the raider's guns opened fire again tearing away the bridge structure and silencing the signals. In order to sink British Emperor as quickly as possible a torpedo was fired. The torpedo began to circle requiring Pinguin to turn sharply to her starboard. The torpedo passed 20 metres in front of Pinguin's bows. A second torpedo missed the tanker but the third hit British Emperor square amidships sinking her. Pinguin departed south-eastwards.[9]

Sinking

British Emperor's SOS signals were picked up as far away as Germany. They were also picked up aboard the British cruiser HMS Cornwall 500 nautical miles (930 km) to the south of Pinguin.[24] Cornwall altered course to the north on the assumption that Pinguin would head south, which it was. On 8 May Pinguin spotted the silhouette of a British warship on the horizon. Pinguin immediately altered course away from it at maximum speed in a south-westerly direction. Cornwall's Supermarine Walrus aircraft searching the surrounding seas spotted the disguised Pinguin but was anxious not to attack an innocent ship. The Walrus returned four hours later and circled Pinguin. The aircrew saw what appeared to be a typical Norwegian freighter. Pinguin was flying the Norwegian ensign and displayed the name Tamerlane on both sides of her bridge. Cornwall was just 65 nautical miles (120 km) away from Pinguin. Pinguin's crew were wearing typical merchant marine clothing. The Walrus returned again an hour and a half later requesting the ship's identity, cargo and port of destination. The silhouette outline of Tamerlane shown in Talbot-Booth's Merchant Ships[25] matched what the Walrus's observer had seen. Tamerlane was not among the names on the list of merchant ships known to be in the area at that time.[24] The Walrus aircrew had suspicions. Cornwall at full speed headed south-west and launched seaplanes on the way. Pinguin's lookouts sighted Cornwall rapidly approaching. Pinguin's crew were called to action stations. Pinguin's guns remained concealed as she was still depending on her disguise as long as she could. Pinguin sent raider reports identifying herself as the Norwegian Tamerlane and claiming that she was being attacked by a German warship. Cornwall's wireless operator reported that the signals were being sent on a British Merchant Navy transmitter. Cornwall radioed to the circling Walrus to inform the 'Norwegians' that the ship bearing down on them was British and to order them to heave to. Pinguin adopted the classic defensive response of presenting her stern. Cornwall closed to within 20,000 metres (11 nmi) of Pinguin and signalled to her three times by lamp ordering her to "Heave to, or I fire!". A warning shot was fired from one of Cornwall's 8-inch guns high and to the left of Pinguin. The warning signals were repeated and another warning shot was fired. Cornwall's second Walrus was prepared for launching armed with two 250-pound bombs. It was ordered to drop the first bomb in front of the fleeing Pinguin and if that failed to halt her the second bomb was to be dropped on her forecastle. Cornwall closed to 12,000 metres (6.5 nmi) of Pinguin.[24]

At 17:14 hrs on 8 May 1941 as the range of 8,000 metres (4.3 nmi) Pinguin dropped her disguise, ran up her battle flag, turned sharply to port to bring her full broadside to bear and opened up with five guns simultaneously, straddling Cornwall. Cornwall suffered a failure in the electrical circuit that controlled the training of her main gun turrets. Cornwall broke off and retired out of range of Pinguin's guns to carry out repairs. Cornwall suffered a complete breakdown in the telephone link between the bridge and the guns and the line to the aircraft catapult. An officer was dispatched aft to order the waiting Walrus to bomb Pinguin. However, it had suffered splinter damage and was unable to take off. Pinguin registered her first direct hit putting Cornwall's engine-room telegraph out of action and severing crucial wiring in her steering system. Cornwall was put out of control. Another hit on Cornwall started a small fire. Out of range of Pinguin's guns the damage to her turret circuits on Cornwall had been repaired. The first Walrus was spotting for the Cornwall's gunners who soon began to straddle Pinguin. Cornwall registered her first hit bringing down the foremast. Ernst-Felix Krüder gave the orders to release the prisoners and to set the scuttling charges and abandon ship. At that very moment a four-gun salvo from the Cornwall's 8-inch forward turrets destroyed Pinguin.[8] The first shell struck the foredeck wiping out the two 150 mm guns on the forecastle head and their crews. The second shell hit the meteorological office and shattered the bridge killing Krüder and all but one other instantly. The third shell devastated the engine room. The fourth shell exploded in Hold Number 5 detonating the 130 high-explosive mines stored there, ripping the after part of Pinguin to pieces. Flames were sent thousands of feet into the air. Fragments of Pinguin were scattered across the surface of the sea. Pinguin was gone within five seconds.

From beginning to end the action had lasted just 27 minutes. Pinguin had fired over 200 shells at Cornwall. Cornwall fired 136. Cornwall's boats picked up 60 members of Pinguin's crew and 24 of her former prisoners. Of the 401 Germans aboard Pinguin only three officers, one prize officer and 57 petty officers and men survived. Of the 238 prisoners on Pinguin only nine officers and 15 seamen survived.[9] 214 prisoners and 341 of Pinguin's crew were killed.

Raiding career

Schiff 33, the Pinguin had sailed over 59,000 miles (more than twice the circumference of the Earth) in 357 days at sea. She sank or captured 28 ships, a total of 136,642 gross register tons. 52,000 tons was sent back to Germany under prize crews. A further four ships were sunk by mines, a total of 18,068 tons. Pinguin's grand total amounts to 154,710 gross register tons. Pinguin was the first of the Kriegsmarine's Auxiliary Cruisers to be sunk.

Ships sunk or captured by Pinguin
Date Name Displacement Fate Type Nationality Notes
31 July 1940 Domingo de Larrinaga 5,358 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by torpedo
27 August 1940 Filefjell 6,901 GRT Sunk Tanker  Norway Sunk by explosive charges
27 August 1940 British Commander 5,008 GRT Sunk Tanker  UK Sunk by torpedo
27 August 1940 Morviken 7,616 GRT Sunk Freighter  Norway Sunk by explosive charges
12 September 1940 Benavon 5,872 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by gunfire, 21 dead
16 September 1940 Nordvard 4,111 GRT Captured Freighter  Norway Valuable cargo of wheat, dispatched to Bordeaux with 200 prisoners, safely arrived, later used as a blockade runner
7 October 1940 Storstad 8,998 GRT Captured Tanker  Norway Converted to minelayer, renamed Passat, sent with 100 mines to Bass Strait then dispatched to Bordeaux
19 November 1940 Nowshera 7,920 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by explosive charges, 113 prisoners
20 November 1940 Maimoa 10,123 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Hundreds of tons of frozen meat, butter and eggs transferred to Pinguin, sunk by explosive charges
21 November 1940 Port Brisbane 8,739 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by torpedo
30 November 1940 Port Wellington 8,303 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by gunfire, 82 prisoners including 7 women.
14 January 1941 Ole Wegger 12,201 GRT Captured Whaling Factory Ship  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Solglimt 12,246 GRT Captured Whaling Supply-ship  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Torlyn 247 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Pol VIII 293 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Pol IX 354 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Converted into auxiliary, renamed Adjutant
14 January 1941 Pol X 354 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Pelagos 12,083 GRT Captured Whaling Factory Ship  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Star XIV 247 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Star XIX 249 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Sunk by HMS Scarborough
14 January 1941 Star XX 249 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Star XXI 298 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Star XXII 303 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Star XXIII 357 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Dispatched to Bordeaux
14 January 1941 Star XXIV 361 GRT Captured Whaler  Norway Sunk by HMS Scarborough
25 April 1941 Empire Light 6,828 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by explosive charges
28 April 1941 Clan Buchanan 7,266 GRT Sunk Freighter  UK Sunk by explosive charges
7 May 1941 British Emperor 3,663 GRT Sunk Tanker  UK Sunk by torpedo, prisoners taken aboard
Sunk by mines from Pinguin and Passat
Date Name Displacement Type Nationality
7 November 1940 SS Cambridge 10,846 GRT Passenger Freighter  UK
9 November 1940 MS City of Rayville 5,883 GRT[Note 2] Freighter  United States
5 December 1940 Nimbin 1,052 GRT Freighter  UK
26 March 1941 Millimumul 287 GRT Fishing Trawler  Australia

Notes

  1. ^ This was the reason for the ship being named Pinguin.
  2. ^ First US merchantman sunk by enemy action in World War II.

References

  1. ^ "Indian Ocean, Burma and South East Asia in World War 2". www.naval-history.net. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Norwegian Victims of Pinguin - Norwegian Merchant Fleet 1939-1945". www.warsailors.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  3. ^ Brennecke, Jochen (1955). Cruise of the raider HK-33. Crowell. p. 39.
  4. ^ "SS Domingo De Larrinaga (+1940)". Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Ahoy - Mac's Web Log - 16 Pinguin". ahoy.tk-jk.net. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  6. ^ World War II Database
  7. ^ a b "World War II Day-By-Day". worldwar2daybyday.blogspot.co.uk. August 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j H.J. Brennecke (28 April 2018). "Cruise Of The Raider HK 33". Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Retrieved 28 April 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  9. ^ a b c d Asmussen, John. "Hilfskreuzer (Auxiliary Cruiser / Raider) - Pinquin". www.bismarck-class.dk. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  10. ^ "CAPE OTWAY LIGHTSTATION". Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Norwegian Victims of Pinguin - Norwegian Merchant Fleet 1939-1945". www.warsailors.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  12. ^ 70, Wwii At (6 October 2010). "World War II Day-By-Day: Day 403 October 7, 1940". Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  13. ^ "FAMOUS WARSHIP'S BRIEF SA VISIT; Warspite Off Willunga In 1942". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954). 23 August 1945. p. 4. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  14. ^ The Unsung Heroes of the Sea Archived 20 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Operations of the Pinguin - NZETC". www.nzetc.org. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Battle of Cape Matapan, Mediterranean Fleet, March 1941". www.naval-history.net. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  17. ^ a b "HugeDomains.com - MurrayArmstrong.com is for sale (Murray Armstrong)". www.murrayarmstrong.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Oz-Coupons.com - Coupon codes and discounts for Australian stores". www.merchantnavyofficers.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  19. ^ Duffy, James P (2005). Hitler's Secret Pirate Fleet: The Deadliest Ships of World War II. U of Nebraska Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-8032-6652-9.
  20. ^ "PORT LINE". iancoombe.tripod.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Ahoy - Mac's Web Log - Alberto Johannes Fredrick Collasius". ahoy.tk-jk.net. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Massawa, Red Sea, February 1941". www.naval-history.net. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  23. ^ Duffy, James P (2005). Hitler's Secret Pirate Fleet: The Deadliest Ships of World War II. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-8032-6652-9.
  24. ^ a b c "CHAPTER 7 — Hunting Raiders in the Indian Ocean - NZETC". www.nzetc.org. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  25. ^ Talbot-Booth 1940

Bibliography

  • Brennecke, H J (1954). Ghost Cruiser HK33.
  • Duffy, James P (2005). Hitler's Secret Pirate Fleet: The Deadliest Ships of World War II. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6652-9.
  • Muggenthaler, August Karl (1977). German Raiders of World War II. ISBN 0-7091-6683-4.
  • Roskill, Stephen (1954). The War at Sea 1939–1945. I.
  • Schmalenbach, Paul (1977). German Raiders 1895–1945. ISBN 0-85059-351-4.
  • Talbot-Booth, E.C. (1940) [1936]. Merchant Ships. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co.

External links

External links

Coordinates: 3°30′0″N 57°48′0″E / 3.50000°N 57.80000°E

British Tanker Company

British Tanker Company Limited was the maritime transport arm of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, the forerunner of BP. Formed in 1915 with an initial fleet of seven oil tankers, the British Tanker Company became the BP Tanker Company in 1955.

Cameron-class steamship

The Cameron-class steamers was a class of British cargo steamships. They were designed for Clan Line and were also used by Scottish Shire Line and the Royal Navy.

Clan Macarthur, launched in 1935, sunk in the Indian Ocean by German submarine U-181 in August 1943.

Clan Macaulay, launched in 1936, damaged by bombing at Malta, scrapped in 1963.

Clan Buchanan, launched in 1937, sunk in the Indian Ocean by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin in 1941.

Clan Cameron, launched in 1937, scrapped 1959.

Clan Campbell, launched in 1937, sunk by bombing off Malta 1942.

Clan Chattan, launched in 1937, sunk by bombing off Crete in 1942.

Clan Chisholm, launched in 1937, sailed in convoy from Gibraltar and torpedoed and sunk by U-48 in October 1939.

Clan Cumming, launched in 1937, convoy duties to Malta and Piraeus, torpedoed off Piraeus in January 1941 but reached port, sunk by mine in the Gulf of Athens April 1941.

Clan Ferguson, launched in 1938, torpedoed and sunk by aircraft on a Malta convoy August 1942.

Clan Forbes, launched in 1938, convoy duties to Malta and Piraeus disguised as HMS Maidstone with a dummy funnel, scrapped in 1959.

Clan Fraser, launched in 1938, convoy duties to Malta and Piraeus. Hit by aerial bombs in Piraeus harbour in April 1941 whilst carrying a cargo of ammunition, exploded and sunk.

Clan Menzies, launched in 1938, sunk by torpedo off Ireland in 1940.

Clan Macdonald, launched in 1939, war service as Convoy Commodore ship on Mediterranean convoy to Piraeus 1941, thence to Brisbane and back to United Kingdom, bombed in UK, transferred to Houston Line in 1960, scrapped in China 1970.

Clan Lamont, launched in 1939, served as a Landing Ship Infantry on D-Day making 6 crossings carrying troops, was commissioned as HMS Lamont in July 1944 and served in the Far East. She was restored to Clan Line 1947 and scrapped in Japan in 1961.

Two members of the class were built for Scottish Shire Line, which was closely associated with Clan Line:

Perthshire, launched in 1936 and scrapped in Japan 1964.

Lanarkshire, launched in 1940 and scrapped in Japan 1963.

The Admiralty requisitioned three members of the class for the Royal Navy in 1942 while they were being built:

HMS Athene (seaplane depot ship), launched in 1940, returned to Clan Line in 1946 as Clan Brodie, and scrapped in Hong Kong in 1963.

HMS Engadine (seaplane depot ship), launched in 1941, returned to Clan Line in 1946 and renamed Clan Buchanan, and scrapped in Spain in 1962.

HMS Bonaventure (submarine depot ship for X-craft) launched in 1942, returned to Clan Line in 1948 as Clan Davidson, and scrapped in Hong Kong in 1963.One other ship is a member of this class:

Ocean Courier, launched in 1942, completed at Portland, Maine for the Ministry of War Transport, damaged by E-boat torpedo in English Channel 1944, transferred to Clan Line in 1948 and renamed Clan Macbean, scrapped 1960.

Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau

Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated Deschimag) was a cooperation of eight German shipyards in the period 1926 to 1945. The leading company was the shipyard AG Weser in Bremen.

German auxiliary raider Adjutant

Adjutant was a Kriegsmarine (German Navy) commerce raider that served during in World War II.

Built as the Norwegian whaler Pol IX, she was captured on 14 January 1941 by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin. She was renamed Adjutant and used as a commerce raider. Captained by Adjutant Hemmer and used a first as a scout, she then was used as a minelayer in the South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean. She was scuttled in the Pacific Ocean on 1 July 1941 by the German auxiliary cruiser Komet after suffering engine trouble off the Chatham Islands.

HMAS Durraween

HMAS Durraween (F93) was an auxiliary minesweeper operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) during World War II. The ship was built as a trawler by Collingwood Shipbuilding Company at Collingwood, Ontario, Canada, and launched in 1918 as Seville. The ship served briefly in the Royal Canadian Navy during the last months of World War I, before being laid up and sold to a British company. In 1928, she was sold to Sydney-based fishing company and operated in Australian waters until she was requisitioned by the RAN in mid-1940 for use as an auxiliary minesweeper during World War II. Durraween operated in the Bass Strait as part of Minesweeping Group 54, and was responsible for clearing mines laid by German merchant raiders, and then later operated around the Torres Strait. She was returned to civilian service after paying off in late 1945, and was broken up in 1952.

HMAS Goulburn

HMAS Goulburn (J167/B243/A117), named for the city of Goulburn, New South Wales, was one of 60 Bathurst-class corvettes constructed during World War II, and one of 36 initially manned and commissioned solely by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).

HMS Cornwall (56)

HMS Cornwall, pennant number 56, was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Kent sub-class built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1920s. The ship spent most of her pre-World War II career assigned to the China Station. Shortly after the war began in August 1939, she was assigned to search for German commerce raiders in the Indian Ocean. Cornwall was transferred to the South Atlantic in late 1939 where she escorted convoys before returning to the Indian Ocean in 1941. She then sank the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin in May. After the start of the Pacific War in December 1941, she began escorting convoys until she was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in March 1942. The ship was sunk on 5 April by dive bombers from three Japanese aircraft carriers during the Indian Ocean Raid.

HMS Engadine (1941)

HMS Engadine was a 9,909 GRT cargo ship laid down at the Greenock Dockyard Company, Greenock, Scotland on 16 March 1940, launched on 26 May 1941 and completed on 17 November 1941.

She was ordered by Clan Line, and was to be named Clan Buchanan (the previous Clan Buchanan having been sunk by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin on 28 April 1941). However the Admiralty requisitioned her for the Royal Navy before completion and renamed after the first HMS Engadine for use as a seaplane depot ship.She was loaned to the United States Navy from November 1942 until July 1943. After the war, she was restored to Clan Line in 1946 and given her originally-intended name. The ship was scrapped at Cartagena, Spain in November 1962.

HMS Scarborough (L25)

HMS Scarborough was a Hastings-class sloop of the Royal Navy launched in 1930. She saw active service during the Second World War, especially as a convoy escort in the North Atlantic.

Hertford (1920)

Hertford (formerly Rheinland and Friesland) was a freighter which was built in Germany in 1917 and served with both the Hamburg-Amerika Linie and Federal Steam Navigation Co Ltd before being lost after torpedoing by the German submarine U-571 off the coast of Massachusetts in 1942. She was also extensively damaged after striking a German mine off the Australian coast in 1940.

Index of World War II articles (G)

G and H-class destroyer

G for George

G-H (navigation)

G-Men vs the Black Dragon

Gęsiówka

G. B. Pegram

G. Mennen Williams

G. N. Glasoe

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G7a torpedo

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G7es torpedo

Gabby Gabreski

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Gabriel Hanotaux

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Gabriel Naudé

Gabriel Paul Othenin de Cléron, comte d'Haussonville

Gabriel Péri

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Gabriel-Henri Gaillard

Gabriel-Marie Garrone

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Gabriele Seyfert

Gabriele Veneziano

Gabrielle Colonna-Romano

Gabrielle de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac

Gabrielle Weidner

Gaël Danic

Gaëlle Comparat

Gaetano Giallanza

Gainesville Municipal Airport

Gainesville Regional Airport

Gaje Ghale

Galbraith Lowry-Corry, 7th Earl Belmore

Galeazzo Ciano

Galerie de paléontologie et d’anatomie comparée

Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume

Galeries Lafayette

Galina Kulakova

Galinard

Gallieni (Paris Métro)

Gambetta (Paris Métro)

Gammon bomb

Gandhi Brigade (Regiment)

Gando Special Force

Gangut-class battleship

Ganju Lama

Gao Shuxun

Gaoyou-Shaobo Campaign

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Garden City Regional Airport

Gardner Army Airfield

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Gare d'Austerlitz (Paris Métro)

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GARIOA

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Gary Visconti

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Gato-class submarine

Gatow Airport

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Gauleiter

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General Order No. 1

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General Walker Hotel

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Generalplan Ost

Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz

Genevieve

Genocide (The World at War episode)

Genrikh Lyushkov

Genyōsha

Géo André

Geoff Barkway

Geoff Edrich

Geoffrey Appleyard

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Geoffrey Baker

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Geoffrey Bourne, Baron Bourne

Geoffrey Bridgeman

Geoffrey Charles Evans

Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes

Geoffrey Cox (journalist)

Geoffrey Fisken

Geoffrey Gledhill Turner

Geoffrey Hallowes

Geoffrey Harold Woolley

Geoffrey Ingram Taylor

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Geoffrey Lawrence, 1st Baron Oaksey

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Geophysical Tomography Group

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George de Cardonnel Elmsall Findlay

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George Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Selkirk

George du Maurier

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George Fleming Davis

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George Onions

George Oppen

George Orton

George Orwell

George Osmond

George Owen Johnson

George P. Broussard

George P. Putnam

George P. Shultz

George Paget, 7th Marquess of Anglesey

George Papandreou (senior)

George Peter Nanos

George Peterson (Medal of Honor recipient)

George Philip Bradley Roberts

George Phillips (USMC)

George Placzek

George Porteous

George Poschner

George Preddy

George Preston Stronach

George Psychoundakis

George R. Mather

George Ray Tweed

George Reeves

George Reginald Starr

George Renwick

George Rodocanachi

George Rowland Patrick Roupell

George Roy Hill

George S. Blanchard

George S. Patton

George S. Rentz

George Salaman

George Sand

George Sauer

George Savalas

George Schaefer (director)

George Scratchley Brown

George Sewell

George Silk

George Sluizer

George Smathers

George Stainforth

George Reginald Starr

George Stephen Morrison

George Svendsen

George T. Sakato

George T. Tamura

George Takei

George Thomas Dorrell

George Thompson (VC)

George Tressler

George Unwin

George V (Paris Métro)

George Van Horn Moseley, Jr.

George Vernot

George VI of the United Kingdom

George W. Collins

George W. Dunaway

George W. G. Boyce, Jr.

George W. Grider

George W. Shannon

George Walter Inwood

George Ward Gunn

George Watson (U.S. Army Air Corps)

George Watson (U.S. Army)

George Weah

George W. Webber (minister)

George Welch (pilot)

George Wilkinson (water polo)

George William Casey, Sr.

George Wootten

George Young (football executive)

Georges Bégué

Georges Bernanos

Georges Bidault

Georges Biscot

Georges Bizet

Georges Carnus

Georges Charpak

Georges Clemenceau

Georges Clément

Georges Corraface

Georges Cuvier

Georges de Feure

Georges de la Falaise

Georges de Porto-Riche

Georges de Scudéry

Georges Duby

Georges Duhamel

Georges Dumézil

Georges Eo

Georges Garnier

Georges Garvarentz

Georges Gorse

Georges Hayem

Georges Loustaunau-Lacau

Georges Mandel

Georges Méliès

Georges Miez

Georges Ohnet

Georges Oltramare

Georges Perec

Georges Périnal

Georges Petit

Georges Peyroche

Georges Piot

Georges Rodenbach

Georges Speicher

Georges Taillandier

Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu

Georges Touquet-Daunis

Georges Valois

Georges van Vrekhem

Georges Vedel

Georges Wilson

Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

Georges-Pierre Seurat

Georgian Legion (1941-1945)

Georgian Uprising of Texel

Georgios Moraitinis

Georgios Poulos

Georgios Siantos

Georgios Tsolakoglou

Georgiy Zakharov

Georgy Zhukov

Geraint Morgan

Gerald Bridgeman, 6th Earl of Bradford

Gerald C. Thomas

Gerald Davis (philatelist)

Gerald Desmond

Gerald Edelman

Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Duke of Leinster

Gerald Ford

Gerald Fredrick Töben

Gerald Götting

Gerald Graze

Gerald Krause

Gerald L. Endl

Gerald Lathbury

Gerald MacIntosh Johnston

Gerald O'Brien

Gerald S. Graham

Gerald Smallwood

Gerald Stapleton

Gerald Templer

Gerald Upjohn, Baron Upjohn

Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington

Geraldine Doyle

Gérard Berry

Gérard Blitz (sportsman)

Gerard Bosch van Drakestein

Gérard Bouchard

Gerard Broadmead Roope

Gerard Bucknall

Gérard Buscher

Gerard Callenburgh-class destroyer

Gerard de Kruijff

Gérard de Lally-Tollendal

Gérard de Nerval

Gérard de Vaucouleurs

Gérard Debreu

Gérard Fussman

Gerard Glaister

Gérard Houllier

Gérard Janvion

Gerard Ross Norton

Gerard Wodarz

Gerardus 't Hooft

Gerardus Johannes Berenschot

Gerardus Mooyman

Gerd Honsik

Gerd Suhren

Gerd von Rundstedt

Gerda Christian

Gerda Steinhoff

Gerda Taro

Gerda Weissmann Klein

Gerdenau

Gerhard Barkhorn

Gerhard Fieseler

Gerhard Flesch

Gerhard Friedrich

Gerhard Homuth

Gerhard Klopfer

Gerhard Michalski

Gerhard Ritter

Gerhard Rose

Gerhard Roßbach

Gerhard Schmidhuber

Gerhard Schöpfel

Gerhard Sommer

Gerhard Stoltenberg

Gerhard Thyben

Gerhard von Schwerin

Gerhard Wagner

Gerhard Wessel

Gerhard Wilck

Gerhard Boldt

Germain Jousse

Germaine Lubin

Germaine Tailleferre

Germaine Tillion

German AB-Aktion operation in Poland

German AFVs of World War II

German Air Fleets in World War II

German Air Force Regiment

German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin

German aircraft production during World War II

German aircraft production during WW2

German American Bund

German American National Political Action Committee

German anti-aircraft cruiser Niobe

German armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

German armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

German Army Detachment Kempf

German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis

German auxiliary cruiser Hansa

German auxiliary cruiser Komet

German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

German auxiliary cruiser Michel

German auxiliary cruiser Orion

German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin

German auxiliary cruiser Stier

German auxiliary cruiser Thor

German auxiliary cruiser Widder

German battleship Bismarck

German battleship Gneisenau

German battleship Scharnhorst

German battleship Schlesien

German battleship Schleswig-Holstein

German battleship Tirpitz

German Bestelmeyer

German Blood Certificate

German camps in occupied Poland during World War II

German Christians

German Cross

German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee

German cruiser Admiral Hipper

German cruiser Admiral Scheer

German cruiser Blücher

German cruiser Deutschland

German cruiser Emden

German cruiser Karlsruhe

German cruiser Köln

German cruiser Königsberg

German cruiser Leipzig

German cruiser Lützow (1931)

German cruiser Nürnberg

German cruiser Prinz Eugen

German cruiser Seydlitz

German declaration of war against the Netherlands

German destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maass

German Division Nr. 157

German Division Nr. 188

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

German Faith Movement

German Forced Labour Compensation Programme

German fortification of Guernsey

German Fortress Division Swinemünde

German heavy tank battalions

German hospital ship Berlin

German Instrument of Surrender

German Labour Front

German military technology during World War II

German Motorized Company

German National Movement in Liechtenstein

German National Prize for Art and Science

German night fighter direction vessel Togo

German nuclear energy project

German occupation of Belgium during World War II

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

German occupation of France during World War II

German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II

German occupation of the Channel Islands

German Order (decoration)

German order of battle for Operation Fall Weiss

German Party (Romania)

German People's Party (Romania)

German Resistance

German Restitution Laws

German searchlights of World War II

German submarine U-1 (1935)

German submarine U-2 (1935)

German submarine U-3 (1935)

German submarine U-4 (1935)

German submarine U-5 (1935)

German submarine U-6 (1935)

German submarine U-7 (1935)

German submarine U-8 (1935)

German submarine U-9 (1935)

German submarine U-10 (1935)

German submarine U-11 (1935)

German submarine U-12 (1935)

German submarine U-13 (1935)

German submarine U-14 (1936)

German submarine U-15 (1936)

German submarine U-16 (1936)

German submarine U-17 (1935)

German submarine U-18 (1936)

German submarine U-19 (1936)

German submarine U-20 (1936)

German submarine U-22 (1936)

German submarine U-23 (1936)

German submarine U-24 (1936)

German submarine U-25 (1936)

German submarine U-26 (1936)

German submarine U-27 (1936)

German submarine U-28 (1936)

German submarine U-30 (1936)

German submarine U-31 (1936)

German submarine U-32 (1914)

German submarine U-32 (1937)

German submarine U-33 (1936)

German submarine U-34 (1936)

German submarine U-35 (1936)

German submarine U-36 (1936)

German submarine U-37 (1938)

German submarine U-38 (1938)

German submarine U-39 (1938)

German submarine U-40 (1939)

German submarine U-41 (1939)

German submarine U-42 (1939)

German submarine U-43 (1939)

German submarine U-47 (1938)

German submarine U-48 (1939)

German submarine U-49 (1939)

German submarine U-50 (1939)

German submarine U-51 (1938)

German submarine U-54 (1939)

German submarine U-63 (1940)

German submarine U-66 (1940)

German submarine U-68 (1940)

German submarine U-69 (1940)

German submarine U-70 (1940)

German submarine U-72 (1940)

German submarine U-74 (1940)

German submarine U-75 (1940)

German submarine U-78 (1940)

German submarine U-79 (1941)

German submarine U-81 (1941)

German submarine U-83 (1941)

German submarine U-85 (1941)

German submarine U-86 (1941)

German submarine U-88 (1941)

German submarine U-89 (1941)

German submarine U-94 (1940)

German submarine U-95 (1940)

German submarine U-96 (1940)

German submarine U-98 (1940)

German submarine U-99 (1940)

German submarine U-100 (1940)

German submarine U-101 (1940)

German submarine U-102 (1940)

German submarine U-103 (1940)

German submarine U-106 (1940)

German submarine U-107 (1940)

German submarine U-110 (1940)

German submarine U-116 (1941)

German submarine U-120 (1940)

German submarine U-122 (1939)

German submarine U-123 (1940)

German submarine U-124 (1940)

German submarine U-125 (1940)

German submarine U-128 (1941)

German submarine U-131 (1941)

German submarine U-134 (1941)

German submarine U-137 (1940)

German submarine U-144 (1940)

German submarine U-155 (1941)

German submarine U-156 (1941)

German submarine U-166 (1941)

German submarine U-171

German submarine U-172

German submarine U-175

German submarine U-176

German submarine U-180

German submarine U-181

German submarine U-183

German submarine U-184

German submarine U-185

German submarine U-190

German submarine U-195

German submarine U-196

German submarine U-214

German submarine U-215

German submarine U-217

German submarine U-218

German submarine U-219

German submarine U-221

German submarine U-227

German submarine U-228

German submarine U-234

German submarine U-238

German submarine U-253

German submarine U-254

German submarine U-255

German submarine U-256

German submarine U-259

German submarine U-260

German submarine U-262

German submarine U-268

German submarine U-269

German submarine U-273

German submarine U-280

German submarine U-298

German submarine U-300

German submarine U-301

German submarine U-303

German submarine U-309

German submarine U-317

German submarine U-324

German submarine U-325

German submarine U-333

German submarine U-337

German submarine U-340

German submarine U-346

German submarine U-352

German submarine U-353

German submarine U-362

German submarine U-365

German submarine U-371

German submarine U-383

German submarine U-388

German submarine U-400

German submarine U-405

German submarine U-413

German submarine U-429

German submarine U-434

German submarine U-438

German submarine U-441

German submarine U-443

German submarine U-455

German submarine U-459

German submarine U-460

German submarine U-461

German submarine U-462

German submarine U-463

German submarine U-468

German submarine U-470

German submarine U-479

German submarine U-481

German submarine U-487

German submarine U-488

German submarine U-489

German submarine U-490

German submarine U-501

German submarine U-502

German submarine U-503

German submarine U-505

German submarine U-507

German submarine U-509

German submarine U-511

German submarine U-512

German submarine U-515

German submarine U-518

German submarine U-520

German submarine U-521

German submarine U-523

German submarine U-529

German submarine U-530

German submarine U-531

German submarine U-533

German submarine U-534

German submarine U-535

German submarine U-537

German submarine U-539

German submarine U-549

German submarine U-550

German submarine U-552

German submarine U-553

German submarine U-556

German submarine U-557

German submarine U-559

German submarine U-570

German submarine U-571

German submarine U-573

German submarine U-596

German submarine U-625

German submarine U-627

German submarine U-656

German submarine U-691

German submarine U-701

German submarine U-718

German submarine U-735

German submarine U-736

German submarine U-745

German submarine U-754

German submarine U-759

German submarine U-760

German submarine U-765

German submarine U-772

German submarine U-777

German submarine U-821

German submarine U-843

German submarine U-844

German submarine U-852

German submarine U-853

German submarine U-859

German submarine U-862

German submarine U-864

German submarine U-869

German submarine U-884

German submarine U-889

German submarine U-953

German submarine U-957

German submarine U-958

German submarine U-961

German submarine U-964

German submarine U-973

German submarine U-978

German submarine U-1000

German submarine U-1021

German submarine U-1059

German submarine U-1060

German submarine U-1061

German submarine U-1062

German submarine U-1063

German submarine U-1105

German submarine U-1227

German submarine U-1230

German submarine U-1234

German submarine U-1235

German submarine U-1276

German submarine U-1302

German submarine U-2321

German submarine U-2322

German submarine U-2323

German submarine U-2324

German submarine U-2331

German submarine U-2342

German submarine U-2501

German submarine U-2511

German submarine U-2513

German submarine U-3008

German submarine U-3519

German tank production during World War II

German tanker Altmark

German tanks in World War II

German torpedoboats of World War II

German Type I submarine

German Type II submarine

German Type VII submarine

German Type IX submarine

German Type X submarine

German Type XIV submarine

German Type XVIIB submarine

German Type XXI submarine

German Type XXIII submarine

German War Graves Commission

German Weapons Act

German weather ship Lauenburg

German World War II destroyers

German World War II strongholds

German WWII strongholds

German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty

German-trained divisions in the National Revolutionary Army

German–occupied Europe

Germanic-SS

Germanische Leitstelle

Germany Must Perish!

Germany Year Zero

Germar Rudolf

Gerry H. Kisters

Gerry Parsky

Gershon Sirota

Gerstein Report

Gert Fröbe

Gert-Dietmar Klause

Gertrud Scholtz-Klink

Gertrude (Code name)

Gertrude Nelson

Gertrude Sanford Legendre

Gertrude Stein

Geschwaderkommodore

Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front

Gestapo-NKVD Conferences

Gestapo

Getúlio Vargas

Gewehr 41

Gewehr 43

Géza Lakatos

GFM cloche

Gheorghe Apostol

Gheorghe Argeşanu

Gheorghe Gaston Marin

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej

Gheorghe I. Brătianu

Gheorghe Manoliu

Gheorghe Mironescu

Gheorghe Pănculescu

Gheorghe Plagino

Gheorghe Răscănescu

Gheorghe Tătărescu

Gheorghe Ursu

Ghetto Fighters' House

Ghetto Litzmannstadt

Ghetto uprising

Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939-1944)

Ghislain Gimbert

Gholam-Hossein Saedi

Ghost Soldiers

GHQ Liaison Regiment

GHQ Line

Giacomo Acerbo

Giacomo Appiotti

Gian Singh

Giancarlo Pajetta

Gianfranco Gaspari

Gianfranco Gazzana-Priaroggia

Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon

Gianni Rodari

Gianpiero Combi

Gideon Force

Gideon Greif

Gideon Klein

Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris RER)

Giffard LeQuesne Martel

Gig Young

Gil Hodges

Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field

Gila River War Relocation Center

Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign

Gilbert Bayiha N'Djema

Gilbert Bécaud

Gilbert Bostsarron

Gilbert Cavan

Gilbert de Greenlaw

Gilbert Duprez

Gilbert Gérintès

Gilbert Gude

Gilbert Hackforth-Jones

Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster

Gilbert Johnson

Gilbert Jonathan Rowcliff

Gilbert Le Chenadec

Gilbert Monckton, 2nd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley

Gilbert Montagné

Gilbert Norman

Gilbert Renault

Gilbert Stork

Gilbert Stuart Martin Insall

Giles Cooper

Giles McCrary

Giles Romilly

Giles Vandeleur

Gillean Maclaine

Gilles Boileau

Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Lamontagne

Gilles Ménage

Gilles Quénéhervé

Gilles Rampillon

Gilles Yapi Yapo

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

Gilliam-class attack transport

Gillis William Long

Gin Drinkers Line

Gino J. Merli

Gino Marchetti

Gino Sopracordevole

Gioachino Rossini

Giorgio Amendola

Giorgio Bassani

Giorgio Napolitano

Giorgio Parisi

Giorgio Perlasca

Giorgio Zampori

Giovanna Zangrandi

Giovanni De Prà

Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Giorgio Trissino

Giovanni Graber

Giovanni Messe

Giovanni Palatucci

Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz

Giovanni Scatturin

Giretsu

Gisela Bock

Gisella Perl

Gitta Sereny

GIUK gap

Giulio de Florian

Giulio Gaudini

Giulio Martinat

Giuseppe Colacicco

Giuseppe Crivelli

Giuseppe Di Vittorio

Giuseppe Dossetti

Giuseppe Fioravanzo

Giuseppe Paris

Giuseppe Saragat

Giuseppe Siri

Giuseppe Tonani

Giustizia e Libertà

Glacier Girl

Glacière (Paris Métro)

Gladys Carson

Glamour Gal

Glasmine 43

Glass House (Budapest)

Gleichschaltung

Gleiwitz incident

Glen Bell

Glen D. Johnson

Glen Edwards (pilot)

Glen Graham

Glencree German war cemetery

Glendon Swarthout

Glenn Ford

Glenn Hartranft

Glenn Miller

Glenn T. Seaborg

Glina massacre

Glinciszki massacre

Glorious-class aircraft carrier

Glossary of German military terms

Glossary of Nazi Germany

Glossary of the Third Reich

Gloster E.28/39

Gloster Meteor

Glynn R. Donaho

Gnevny-class destroyer

Go For Broke Monument

Go for Broke! (1951 film)

Gobelins (school of image)

Gobelins manufactory

God Is My Co-Pilot (film)

Godfrey Hounsfield

Godwin Okpara

Goebbels Diaries

Goering's Green Folder

Gold Beach

Gold Star Mothers Club

Gold Star Wives

Golden Party Badge

Golf Disneyland

Goliath tracked mine

Gonars concentration camp

Gonars

Goncourt (Paris Métro)

Gongzhutun Campaign

Gonzalo Quesada

Good Germans

Goodbye Holland

Goodbye Japan

Göppingen Gö 9

Goralenvolk

Göran Claeson

Goran Rubil

Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague

Gordie Drillon

Gordon A. Craig

Gordon Bennett (Australian soldier)

Gordon Bridson

Gordon Browning

Gordon Campbell, Baron Campbell of Croy

Gordon Charles Steele

Gordon Churchill

Gordon Donaldson (journalist)

Gordon Gollob

Gordon Goodwin (athlete)

Gordon H. Sato

Gordon Hirabayashi

Gordon Hultquist

Gordon Killick

Gordon MacWhinnie

Gordon McGregor

Gordon Nornable

Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon

Gordon Prange

Gordon R. Dickson

Gordon Waite Underwood

Gösta Persson

Gotha G.I

Gotha G.II

Gotha G.III

Gotha G.IV

Gotha G.IX

Gotha G.V

Gotha G.VII

Gotha Go 145

Gotha Go 149

Gotha Go 242

Gotha Go 244

Gotha Go 345

Gotha LD.1

Gotha WD.2

Gotha WD.3

Gotha WD.7

Gotha WD.11

Gotha WD.14

Gotha WD.27

Gotha Ka 430

Gothic Line order of battle

Gothic Line

Gottfried E. Noether

Gottfried Feder

Gottfried Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen

Gottfried Ochshorn

Gottfried von Cramm

Gottfried von Einem

Gotthard Handrick

Gotthard Heinrici

Gottlob Berger

Gottorp

Götz Aly

Goumier

Goutte d'Or

Government Aircraft Factories

Government Delegate's Office at Home

Government of National Unity (Hungary)

Goya (ship)

Grace Hopper

Grace McKenzie

Gracias Amigos

Grady A. Dugas

Grady McMurtry

Grady McWhiney

Graf Zeppelin-class aircraft carrier

Grafeneck Castle

Grafeneck

Graham Bladon

Graham Greene

Graham Leslie Parish

Grampus-class submarine

Gran Sasso raid

Granada War Relocation Center

Granatwerfer 36

Granatwerfer 42

Grand Cross of the German Eagle

Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

Grand Director

Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia

Grand Guignol

Grand Han Righteous Army

Grand Palais

Grand Slam bomb

Grand Wizard

Granddi Ngoyi

Grande Arche

Grande Ceinture line

Grande ceinture Ouest

Grande Odalisque

Grands Boulevards (Paris Métro)

Grands Magasins du Louvre

Grant County International Airport

Grant F. Timmerman

Granville Raid

Grave of the Fireflies (novel)

Grave of the Fireflies

Gravedigger (comics)

Graves B. Erskine

Great Bend Municipal Airport

Great Depression in Canada

Great Japan Youth Party

Great Patriotic War (term)

Great Synagogue of London

Great Western Railway War Memorial

Greater Britain Movement

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Greater Hungary (political concept)

Grebbe line

Greco-Italian War

Greek battleship Kilkis

Greek battleship Lemnos

Greek cruiser Elli (1912)

Greek cruiser Georgios Averof

Greek destroyer Adrias

Greek destroyer Aetos

Greek destroyer Aspis

Greek destroyer Hydra (D 97)

Greek destroyer Ierax

Greek destroyer Kountouriotis (D 99)

Greek destroyer Leon

Greek destroyer Niki

Greek destroyer Panthir

Greek destroyer Psara (D 96)

Greek destroyer Spetsai (D 98)

Greek destroyer Thyella

Greek destroyer Vasilefs Georgios (D 14)

Greek destroyer Vasilissa Olga (D 15)

Greek National Socialist Party

Greek People's Liberation Army

Greek Resistance

Greek submarine Katsonis (Y-1)

Greek submarine Papanikolis (Y-2)

Greek torpedo boat Kios

Greek torpedo boat Kydonia

Greek torpedo boat Kyzikos

Greek torpedo boat Pergamos

Greek torpedo boat Proussa

Green box barrage

Green Gang

Green Line (Italy)

Green report

Green Skull

Green St. Bunker, West End

Greenock Blitz

Greensboro massacre

Grégoire Laurent

Gregor Strasser

Gregorij Rožman

Gregory Arnolin

Gregory Breit

Grégory Paisley

Grégory Pujol

Gregory Rabassa

Grégory Wimbée

Grenelle

Grenoble Cathedral

Grenoble Foot 38

Grenoble Institute of Technology

Grenoble

Greta Bösel

Greta Ferusic

Greta Keller

Grey Ranks (role-playing game)

Greyshirts

Gribovski G-11

Grigore Cugler

Grigore Gafencu

Grigore Preoteasa

Grigory Stelmakh

Grigory Vorozheikin

Grill (cryptology)

Grille (artillery)

Grini concentration camp

Grits Gresham

Grivnik brigade

Grob G 115

Groesbeek Canadian War Cemetery

Grojanowski Report

Grønsvik coastal battery

Gross-Rosen concentration camp

Großdeutschland Division

Groton-New London Airport

Ground Observer Corps

Group 13

Group Army

Groupe de Chasse I/3

Grumman Goose

Gruppenführer

Gruppenkommandeur

Grzegorz Timofiejew

Gu Zhutong

Guadalcanal (1992 game)

Guadalcanal Campaign

Guadalcanal Diary (book)

Guadalcanal Diary (film)

Gualberto Villarroel

Guan Linzheng

Guangzhou Military Region

Guangzhou Uprising

Guards Armoured Division

Guards Mixed Brigade

Gudrun Burwitz

Guenther Podola

Guépard-class destroyer

Guerlain

Guglielmo Nasi

Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target

Guide Gift Week

Guido Castelnuovo

Guido Knopp

Guildhall, London

Guillaume Apollinaire

Guillaume Budé

Guillaume de Baillou

Guillaume Dubois

Guillaume Gallienne

Guillaume Norbert

Guillaume Postel

Guillaume Rippert

Guillaume Sarkozy

Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes

Guillermo Hayden Wright

Guilty Men

Guimet Museum

Guinea Pig Club

Guinguette

Guizhou JL-9

Gulbrand Oscar Johan Lunde

Gumbinnen Operation

Gun politics in Germany

Gunbatsu

Gung Ho! (1943 film)

Gunichi Mikawa

Gunnar Holmberg

Gunnar Jahn

Gunnar Larsson (cross-country skier)

Gunnar Lindström

Gunnar Sköld

Gunnar Sønsteby

Günter Bialas

Gunter d'Alquen

Günter Deckert

Günter Grass

Gunter Jahn

Günter Kießling

Günter Reimann

Günter Steinhausen

Günter Zöller

Günther Anhalt

Günther Blumentritt

Günther Freiherr von Maltzahn

Günther Josten

Günther Korten

Günther Krappe

Günther Lütjens

Günther Lützow

Günther Pancke

Günther Prien

Günther Rall

Günther Schack

Günther Scheel

Günther Schwägermann

Günther Seeger

Günther Smend

Günther Specht

Günther Viezenz

Günther von Kluge

Günther-Eberhardt Wisliceny

Guo Boxiong

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon

Gurli Ewerlund

Gus George Bebas

Gus Kefurt

Gus Savage

Gust J. Swenning

Gustaf Carlsson

Gustaf Dyrssen

Gustaf Hagelin

Gustaf Söderström

Gustaf Weijnarth

Gustav Adolf Scheel

Gustav Adolf von Götzen

Gustav Anton von Wietersheim

Gustav Flatow

Gustav Goßler

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Gustav Moths

Gustav Rau

Gustav Richter

Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Gustav Rödel

Gustav Schwarzenegger

Gustav Simon

Gustav Sprick

Gustav Sturm

Gustav V of Sweden

Gustav Victor Rudolf Born

Gustav von Vaerst

Gustav Wagner (soldier)

Gustav Weler

Gustáv Wendrinský

Gustav-Adolf Blancbois

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen

Gustave Bertrand

Gustave Biéler

Gustave Caillebotte

Gustave de Molinari

Gustave Doré

Gustave Gilbert

Gustave Hervé

Gustave Lanctot

Gustave Moreau

Gustave Sandras

Gustave Thuret

Gustavo Poyet

Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

Gustaw Holoubek

Gustaw Morcinek

Gusztáv Vitéz Jány

Guy Armoured Car

Guy Butler (athlete)

Guy D'Artois

Guy Gabaldon

Guy Gibson

Guy Gregson

Guy Lacombe

Guy Lizard

Guy Madison

Guy Menzies

Guy Môquet (Paris Métro)

Guy Môquet

Guy Russell

Guy S. Meloy, Jr.

Guy Sajer

Guy Salisbury-Jones

Guy Simonds

Gwardia Ludowa WRN

Gwardia Ludowa

Gwido Langer

Győző Haberfeld

Gyokuon-hōsō

György Beifeld

György Gábori

Gyorshadtest

Gyula Cseszneky

Gyula Halasy

Gyula Kakas

Gyula Strausz

List of shipwrecks in the Indian Ocean

This is a list of shipwrecks in the Indian Ocean.

List of single-ship actions

A single-ship action is a naval engagement fought between two warships of opposing sides, excluding submarine engagements; called so because there is a single ship on each side. The following is a list of notable single-ship actions.

MV Nimbin

The Nimbin was a steel screw steamer built in 1927 at Copenhagen, that was the first motor vessel placed into the New South Wales coastal trade. It was owned and operated by the North Coast Steam Navigation Company and was the first Australian registered merchant ship to be lost during World War II when it struck a mine laid by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin. The Nimbin was on its way from Coffs Harbour to its home port, Sydney, with a cargo of bundled three-ply timber and a large number of pigs. One third of the ship was blown away and it sank in three minutes. Seven men were killed. The remaining thirteen clung to bundles of plywood. Some hours later an air force plane from RAAF Base Rathmines saw the survivors and directed the coastal ship SS Bonalbo to the scene to pick up the survivors.

Neptune Islands

The Neptune Islands consist of two groups of islands located close to the entrance to Spencer Gulf in South Australia. They are well known as a venue for great white shark tourism.

North Coast Steam Navigation Company

The North Coast Steam Navigation Company was a shipping company that operated in Australia, formed as the Grafton Steam Navigation Company in 1855. The company was later renamed the Clarence & Richmond River Steam Navigation Company before being renamed in December 1888 as the Clarence, Richmond & Macleay River Steam Navigation Company.

On 13 August 1891 the company merged with John See and Company and was renamed as the North Coast Steam Navigation Company and was based in Sydney. In 1920 the company merged with Allan Taylor & Company and continued to operate the fleets under their own names. The company acquired Langley Bros in 1925 and bought the remaining fleet of the Coastal Co-Operative Steamship Company in 1929. The company further acquired the Port Stephens Steamship Company in 1940.

Many of the company's vessels were requisitioned by the Royal Australian Navy during World War II, and two ships were lost due to enemy action. On 5 December 1940 Nimbin was sunk about 8 nautical miles (15 km) off Norah Head, New South Wales by a mine laid by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin, killing 7 people including her Captain. On 29 April 1943 Wollongbar was torpedoed and sunk off Crescent Head, New South Wales, killing 32 of her 35 crew. Nambucca was destroyed by fire in 1945 while serving with the US Army small fleet in the Pacific islands.The company traded until 1954, when it went into voluntary liquidation due to rising costs and unfavourable industrial conditions.

Pinguin

Pinguin may refer to:

Bromelia pinguin, an edible plant

Fischtown Pinguins, a German ice hockey team

German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin, a World War II naval ship

Memín Pinguín, a fictional comic book character

SS Athenic

SS Athenic was a British passenger liner built by Harland & Wolff shipyards for the White Star Line in 1901. In 1928, she came to a Norwegian company and was renamed SS Pelagos. Torpedoed in 1944, she was refloated the following year and continued to serve until her demolition in 1962.

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