German National Movement in Liechtenstein

The German National Movement in Liechtenstein (German: Volksdeutsche Bewegung in Liechtenstein, VDBL) was a National Socialist party in Liechtenstein that existed between 1938 and 1945.[1]

German National Movement in Liechtenstein

Volksdeutsche Bewegung in Liechtenstein
AbbreviationVDBL
LeaderAlfons Goop
Founded1938
Dissolved1945
NewspaperDer Umbruch
(The Upheaval)
Membership150-250[1]
IdeologyNational Socialism
SloganLiechtenstein den Liechtensteinern!
(Liechtenstein for the Liechtensteiners)

Formation and ideology

The VDBL formed after the Anschluss of Austria in 1938, and advocated for the integration of Liechtenstein into the Greater German Reich.

The organization disseminated its ideology through its newspaper, Der Umbruch.

A slogan associated with the party was Liechtenstein den Liechtensteinern! (Liechtenstein for the Liechtensteiners!). This implied a radical populism that would threaten the allegiance of the people of Liechtenstein to ruling Prince Franz Josef II.

Coup attempt and party demise

In March 1939, the VDBL staged an amateurish coup attempt, first trying to provoke a German intervention by burning swastikas, followed by declaring an Anschluß with Germany. The leaders were almost immediately arrested and the hoped-for German invasion failed to materialise.[1]

The inability of the party to participate in the 1939 elections (after a pact between the main parties to keep the election date a secret), combined with the drastic decrease in Nazi sympathies following the outbreak of World War II led to a temporary demise of the party. However, in June 1940 it was reconstituted under the leadership of Dr. Alfons Goop. During 1941 and 1942, the party was involved in vehement anti-Semitic agitation, urging a solution to the country's presumed "Jewish Question", accusing Jewish families in Liechtenstein of spying for the Allies. By early 1943, the VDBL had become an embarrassment to Germany: its recruitment for the Waffen-SS compromised Liechtenstein's neutrality, disquieting the Swiss. The German Ministry of Foreign Affairs in March 1943 forced the VDBL to hold talks with the Patriotic Union (VU), in Friedrichshafen under auspices of the Waffen-SS, in order to reach a fusion of both parties, which shared an anti-Bolshevik and anti-clerical programme. Severely disappointed, Goop resigned as party leader. In the end the VU only consented to some "cultural cooperation". When Germany's war fortunes declined, in July 1943 Der Umbruch was forbidden by the authorities. In 1946, party leaders were prosecuted for the 1939 coup attempt. Goop was in 1947 condemned for high treason, to an imprisonment of thirty months.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Volksdeutsche Bewegung in Liechtenstein". e-archiv.li (in German). Liechtenstein National Archives. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
1939 Liechtenstein general election

General elections were held in Liechtenstein on 4 April 1939. Although a new system of proportional representation had been introduced to pacify voters at a time when the country was under threat from neighbouring Nazi Germany, it was not used and the elections became known as the "silent elections" as no actual vote was held. Instead, the governing Progressive Citizens' Party and opposition Patriotic Union formed a coalition, assigning a roughly equal number of seats each, in order to prevent the German National Movement in Liechtenstein from acquiring any seats in the Landtag.

1945 Liechtenstein general election

General elections were held in Liechtenstein on 29 April 1945. Following the "silent elections" of 1939, they were the first to use the new proportional representation system. The Progressive Citizens' Party won eight of the 15 seats in the Landtag, but remained in coalition with the Patriotic Union.

Alfons Goop

Alfons Goop (15 October 1910 - 25 September 1993) was a Liechtensteiner politician and Nazi collaborator during World War II. He was the leader of the German National Movement in Liechtenstein (VBDL), a Nazi political party that attempted a coup d'état in 1939 and tried to force Liechtenstein become part of Nazi Germany, until the party's dissolution in 1945. He was also a regular contributor to the VDBL party newspaper Der Umbruch.Until 1943, the party attempted to recruit Liechtensteiners into the Waffen SS and gain public sympathy for the Nazi cause. In 1943 the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs tried to force the VBDL to unite with the Patriotic Union, which greatly annoyed Goop, who then resigned as party leader. According to court testimonials, he was a member of the Waffen SS until 1943.

In 1946, Goop, along with other leadership figures of the VDBL were prosecuted for his collaboration. Goop was convicted of high treason and sentenced to thirty months in prison.

He died in 1993 in Schaan.

Christian Social Party (Liechtenstein)

The Christian Social Party of Liechtenstein (German: Christlich-Soziale Partei Liechtensteins, CSP) was a political party of Liechtenstein.

Der Umbruch

Der Umbruch (lit. "The Upheaval", sometimes referred to by its nickname Der Bruch) was a newspaper published in Vaduz, Liechtenstein. It was the organ of the German National Movement in Liechtenstein (VDBL), a National Socialist political party.Der Umbruch was published from 5 October 1940 to 6 July 1943. Initially it was published weekly, but shifted to publication twice per week in March 1941. Martin Hilti served as editor until 1942. Other contributors included Dr. Alfons Goop, Dr. Sepp Ritter and Dr. Hermann Walser. The newspaper was printed by U. Goppel.Der Umbruch wrote enthusiastically about the advances of the German military across Europe. The readers were mainly found amongst the followers of the movement. As of 1942 the newspaper had a circulation of around 300. The newspaper was banned by the government in July 1943.

Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Liechtenstein Homeland Service

Liechtenstein Homeland Service (German: Liechtensteiner Heimatdienst, LHD) was a political party in Liechtenstein that advocated corporate statism and the abolition of party politics.Established in the autumn of 1933, the party's positions began to radicalize and move toward National Socialist ideas within a few months of existence. By December 1933, this radicalization caused some members (such as co-founder Eugen Schafhauser) to abandon the party.LHD merged with the Christian-Social People's Party (VP) in 1936 to form the Patriotic Union (VU).

List of political parties in Liechtenstein

This article lists political parties in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein has a two-party system where the two largest political parties—the Patriotic Union (VU) and the Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP)— dominate politics within the Landtag of Liechtenstein, frequently in coalition. There are currently two minor parties represented in the Landtag which form the opposition: The Independents (DU), and the Free List (FL).

National Movement of Switzerland

The National Movement of Switzerland (German: Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz or NBS) was a Nazi umbrella-group formed in Switzerland in 1940.

The NBS had its roots in the 1938 foundation of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung by Rolf Henne after the more moderate Robert Tobler had removed Henne from the leadership of the National Front. In 1940, the Bund absorbed a number of tiny Nazi-supporting organisations to become the NBS under Henne and Dr. Max Leo Keller. Other groups absorbed included the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiterpartei and elements of the National Front. The new group also officially bore the French-language name Mouvement Nationale Suisse as an appeal to Francophone Swiss. Keller had worked with Heinrich Himmler and brought with him Andreas von Sprecher, whom the SS had trained, to run the new group's propaganda department.Keller, Jakob Schaffner and Ernst Hofmann, as representatives of the NBS, received an audience with the Swiss President Marcel Pilet-Golaz (in office throughout 1940) in which they demanded much closer relations with Nazi Germany, leading to eventual incorporation. This was followed by a Munich conference in October 1940 to which the Director of the Reich Main Security Office, Reinhard Heydrich and the Swiss doctor and SS-member Franz Riedweg invited the leaders of the NBS and of other Swiss groups in order to increase cohesion. Ultimately the meeting strengthened the hand of the NBS, as the remnants of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung as well as the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei and Ernst Leonhardt's Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei agreed to be absorbed into the movement.Despite this strengthening the National Movement did not last long, as the Swiss Federal Council feared that annexation by Germany was just around the corner. In a series of moves against the most extreme groups, the NBS was closed down on 19 November 1940, by which time it had 160 cells and around 4000 members. The group continued to work underground for a time before a police crackdown which led to most of the leadership fleeing to Germany. Whilst in Germany Keller set up the Bund der Schweizer Nationalsozialisten as an émigré movement, although its influence remained limited; eventually he returned to Switzerland in 1941. Meanwhile, various NBS units continued underground activity secretly, mostly with help from the SS, until World War II ended in 1945.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Socialist League

The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Ossewabrandwag

The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.

Otto Strasser

Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.

His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.

Strasserism

Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

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