German National Library of Economics

The German National Library of Economics (ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics) is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship.[3] The ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research.[4] Through its EconStor and EconBiz, researchers and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles. The ZBW also edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.[4]

German National Library of Economics
Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften (ZBW)
Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften Logo
ZBW außen
ZBW main building in Kiel
TypeNational library, Research library
ScopeEconomics, Finance, Business
LocationDüsternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel
Neuer Jungfernstieg 21, 20354 Hamburg
Items collectedbooks, journals, electronic media
Size4.43 million items[1]
27,119 journal titles
Access and use
Population servedresearchers, business clients, students, public
Other information
Budget€ 22.56 million[2]
DirectorKlaus Tochtermann
Hamburg Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften 01
ZBW building, Hamburg
ZBW Innenraum
ZBW building interior, Kiel
Professor Klaus Tochtermann 2016
Prof. Dr. Klaus Tochtermann, ZBW Director

Collection mandate

The ZBW is Germany’s central subject library and research infrastructure for economics in Germany. Its mandate is to acquire, to index, and to archive theoretical and empirical literature and subject-specific information from economics and business studies, and to provide access to these materials to the general public on a national basis. The ZBW also acquires all publications from closely related and auxiliary disciplines focussing on economics, in order to accommodate the increasing tendency towards interdisciplinary work in economic research.

The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation (DFG).[5][6][7]

Library holdings

The ZBW holds almost 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents. The search portal EconBiz gives free access to 10 million datasets. More than 134,000 full-texts (working papers, articles from journals, conference proceedings) from German research institutes and universities are available online and free of charge on the repository EconStor.[8] [6]

The ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but also for articles in journals and working papers, i.e. they are indexed with keywords (descriptors) from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics.


The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics and business studies. The ZBW also offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk,[9] which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies.[10]

The ZBW is an active player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output. It is the chief negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany.[11]

The repository EconStor serves as a platform for the free publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor.

More than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access. It is an input service for RePEc and one of its most frequently used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, and distributed to databases such as WoldCat, OpenAire and EconBiz.[12]

The ZBW Journal Data Archive[13] is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other material relating to empirical articles and provide access to them in order to enable reproducibility of published research findings.[14]

The ZBW publishes two journals of economic policy, Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.[15]

The ZBW also provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management.[11]

Wirtschaftsdienst logo
Wirtschaftsdienst, edited by the ZBW


The ZBW participates in national and international projects to develop new services for its users.

  • GeRDI[16] – Generic Research Data Infrastructure. The project aims to develop a distributed and linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to virtually link existing and future research data centres all over Germany. This allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines and without barriers. The ZBW coordinates the project which is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).[17]
  • Linked Open Citation Database (LOC-DB).[18] The project LOC-DB develops tools and processes based on linked data technologies that will enable individual libraries to participate in an open, distributed infrastructure for the indexation of citations. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery.[19]
  • metrics:[20] MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS. The project focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of alternative indicators for measuring scientific performance. Under review are the quality and reliability of the indicators, but also how far they are able to map discipline-specific differences.[21]
  • MOVING:[22] the project aims to build a working environment for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of large collections of documents and data. The ZBW is the research partner for text and data mining and also the scientific coordinator, and contributes its expertise in the field of Science 2.0.[23]
  • Digital Imperial Statistics: Historical statistics are usually not available online. In this pilot project, the German Imperial Statistics 1873-1883 have been digitised and processed into a format that researchers can download easily for re-use in spreadsheets. This project is also funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).[24]
  • Digital preservation: Because of the rapid technical development of recent years, information is often only available in digital form. At the same time, the hard- and software needed for reading this information becomes obsolete even more rapidly. Digital preservation ensures that future generations will still be able to use this information. To this end, the ZBW cooperates with two other German Libraries, the Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology (TIB) and the Information Centre for Life Sciences (ZB MED), in a pilot project to develop strategies and methods for the digital preservation of digital resources.[25]
  • Linked Open Data: the project describes the provision of Open Data as Linked Data. The ZBW makes intensive efforts to link its own data with external data in order to find new applications and potential uses. The first ZBW data to be published in this form is the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. Current prototypes can be seen in the ZBW Labs.[26]
  • da|ra[27] – The registration agency for research data in social sciences and economics. The ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics and GESIS – Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences are working together to develop a registration agency where researchers from the social sciences and economics can register the primary data resulting from their research. It also serves to make data accessible, identifiable, and thus replicable, which means that the entire research process becomes more transparent and more efficient. Both the ZBW and GESIS are members of DataCite, an international initiative to establish universal standards for the registration of research data.[28] [29]

Networks and cooperations

In order to meet the challenges resulting from the technological changes in information provision, the ZBW relies on a global network. It has signed cooperation agreements with national and international research institutions, for instance in the context of the Leibniz Research Alliance Science 2.0,[30] the EU project MOVING,[22] and in numerous DFG-funded projects.

The ZBW is also actively engaged in the community of information infrastructure providers, for instance in the working groups of the Leibniz Association, the Common Library Network, LIBER, nestor and the Priority Initiative “Digital Information”.[31]

Research at the ZBW

The ZBW carries out application-oriented research in computer and information science. Three professors work with an international and interdisciplinary team of researchers on the subject of Open Science / Science 2.0.

Open Science / Science 2.0 describes the changes that the World Wide Web and its numerous Web 2.0 applications engender in the research and publication processes of the science system, which are the subject of research at the ZBW. In 2013, the ZBW initiated the Leibniz Research Alliance Science 2.0.[30] This Europe-wide cooperation of infrastructure providers and research institutes wants to establish the topic of Open Science in the scholarly community.

The goal is to provide open access to, and use of, scientific findings and processes. An annual international conference (Open Science Conference)[32] offers opportunities for researchers, librarians, and experts in science policy to share applications, experiences and strategies around the complex of Open Science.[33]

Activities in science policy

The ZBW not only researches the digital shift, it also actively shapes it through its national and international activities in science policy. The director of the ZBW is an active proponent of Open Science as a member of the High Level Expert Group[34] promoting the European Open Science Cloud. He is a member of the G7 Open Science Working Group and the German Council for Scientific Information Infrastructures, which is part of the Digital Agenda of the Federal Government. All these bodies prioritise the development of an integrated research data infrastructure across disciplines and countries.[35] The latest project in this context is German Research Data Infrastructure GeRDI,[16] which has been initiated in 2016 and is coordinated by the ZBW. It creates cross-disciplinary links between infrastructures for research data and thus new opportunities for multidisciplinary research.[36]


The German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW) was founded on 1 February 1919 as a department of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy. As a research library it has been able to keep its holdings entirely intact. In 1966, the ZBW received the status of a central subject library for economics in Germany, and was admitted to the joint funding system of the Federal and Länder Governments. The ZBW has been a member of the Leibniz Association since 1990. In 2007, the ZBW was separated from the Kiel Institute and established as an independent foundation under public law. At the same time it integrated the library of the Hamburg Institute of International Economics and became the publisher of the journals Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics. Since 2007, the ZBW has two branches in Kiel and Hamburg. Since 2012, it maintains off-site stacks in Flintbek. Application-oriented research in computer and information science was established in 2010. In 2014, the German Library Association (DBV) honoured the ZBW as Library of the Year because “The ZBW is a radically modern library whose customer and innovation orientation can serve as a model for other libraries.”[37][38]

See also


  1. ^ a b Facts and figures about the ZBW retrieved 16-February-2017
  2. ^ Facts and figures about the ZBW retrieved 16-February-2017
  3. ^ "Who is the ZBW?". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  4. ^ a b "Leibniz Gemeinschaft: Institutes & Museums / ZBW". (in German). Retrieved 2017-06-13.
  5. ^ "DFG, German Research Foundation".
  6. ^ a b "Who is the ZBW?". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  7. ^ "Collection guidelines". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  8. ^ "Facts and figures". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  9. ^ "Research Guide EconDesk".
  10. ^ "About EconBiz". EconBiz - Find Economic Literature. 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  11. ^ a b (ZBW), Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften. "Simply. Share. Research. ZBW". Simply. Share. Research. ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  12. ^ "EconStor: About EconStor". Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  13. ^ "Welcome - ZBW Journal Data Archive".
  14. ^ "Welcome - ZBW Journal Data Archive". Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  15. ^ "Publishing of economic research". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  16. ^ a b "GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure".
  17. ^ GeRDI: MOVING retrieved 22-November-2016
  18. ^ "Mannheim UL: DFG-Projekt "Linked Open Citation Database (LOC-DB)"".
  19. ^ LOC-DB: LOC-DB retrieved 22-November-2016
  20. ^ "ZBW raises more than one million Euros in third-party funds to research the digitisation of the science system".
  21. ^ metrics: metrics retrieved 22-November-2016
  22. ^ a b "Home - MOVING project".
  23. ^ The German National Library of Economics: MOVING retrieved 22-November-2016
  24. ^ "Digital Reich Statistics". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  25. ^ "Digital preservation". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  26. ^ "Linked Open Data". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  27. ^ "Home :: da-ra".
  28. ^ "dara". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  29. ^ da|ra. "Home :: da|ra". Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  30. ^ a b "Leibniz-Forschungsverbund Science 2.0".
  31. ^ "Cooperations".
  32. ^ "International Open Science Conference".
  33. ^ "ZBW Research". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  34. ^ "Register of Commission expert groups and other similar entities". Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  35. ^ "Profile Prof. Dr. Tochtermann". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  36. ^ "GeRDI to be model of a linked research data infrastructure". ZBW Website. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  37. ^ "History of the ZBW". ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  38. ^ "Satzung der Stiftung „Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft (ZBW)"" (PDF). ZBW. Retrieved 2017-03-17.

External links

Coordinates: 54°20′18″N 10°09′22″E / 54.3383°N 10.1561°E

20th Century Press Archives

The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, companies, wares, events and topics.

It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut (colonial institute) founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA) it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv (economics archive) of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005, but the archive is still open to the public.

Aareal Bank

Aareal Bank AG is an international company listed on the MDAX index with headquarters in Wiesbaden, Germany, which traded as DePfa Deutsche Bau- und Boden Bank AG and formed part of the DePfa Gruppe until 2002.

Aareal Bank is represented on three continents (Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific region) and oversees property financing in more than 20 countries. Aareal Bank AG has been listed on the German stock exchange since 2002.

Avni Mula

Avni Mula (born 4 January 1928) is an Albanian singer, composer and musician. For his contribution, he has received some of the highest recognition medals from the Albanian government, the People's Artist of Albania decoration and the Honor of the Nation (Albanian: Nderi i Kombit) decoration.

Bank für Tirol und Vorarlberg

Bank für Tirol und Vorarlberg is a regional Austrian bank with headquarters in Innsbruck. The bank is listed on the Austrian stock market.

Bank of Guatemala

The Bank of Guatemala (Spanish: Banco de Guatemala) is the central bank of Guatemala. It was established in 1945.


Bowater Inc. was a paper and pulp business headquartered in Greenville, South Carolina. It merged with Abitibi-Consolidated in 2007 and the combined company went on to become Resolute Forest Products.

Café HAG

Café HAG is a worldwide brand of decaffeinated coffee currently owned by Jacobs Douwe Egberts.

Compagnie du Kasai

The Compagnie du Kasai was a concession company of the Congo Free State. It continued operating until at least 1955.


The Duewag AG was one of Germany's major manufacturers for rail vehicles. The business was sold in 1999 to Siemens transportation.


EconBiz is an academic search portal for journals, working papers, and conferences in business studies and economics. It is provided by the ZBW - German National Library of Economics, Leibniz Information Centre for Economics. The portal was started in 2002 as the Virtual Library for Economics and Business Studies.

Global Economic Symposium

The Global Economic Symposium (abbreviated GES) is an annual conference organized by the Kiel Institute for the World Economy and the Bertelsmann Stiftung in cooperation with the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics – that seeks to address global problems and formulate socially desirable responses. The GES primarily focuses on problems that cannot be solved by individual countries or organizations alone and therefore require global cooperation between leading policy makers, business executives, academics and other representatives of civil communities. José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission is the Patron of the GES. The conferences each year are attended by more than 400 people from around the globe, among them Nobel Laureates, Ministers, EU-Commissioners, CEOs and Academics.

Hamburger Sparkasse

Hamburger Sparkasse AG (Haspa) is one of 5 free public savings banks in Germany based in Hamburg. With a balance sheet total of around 41.9 billion euros and about 5,000 employees, it is the largest savings bank in Germany. It was founded in 1827 in the legal form of the old Hamburg law. In 2003 the bank was separated to a stock corporation and the original Hamburger Sparkasse changed its name to Haspa Finanzholding.


Hutschenreuther is the name of the family that established the production of porcelain in Northern Bavaria, starting in 1814.


Intereconomics – Review of European Economic Policy is a bimonthly journal covering economic and social policy issues in Europe or affecting Europe. The editor-in-chief is Dr. Brigitte Preissl and it is published by Springer Science+Business Media. It is an official publication of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) and the Centre for European Policy Studies.

Klaus Tochtermann

Klaus Tochtermann (* 22. August 1964 in Heidelberg) is a professor in the Institute for Computer Science at Kiel University and also the director of the ZBW – German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.

Knorr (brand)

Knorr (, often anglicized ) is a German food and beverage brand. It has been owned by the Dutch-English company Unilever since 2000, when Unilever acquired Best Foods, excluding Japan, where it is made under licence by Ajinomoto. It produces dehydrated soup and meal mixes, bouillon cubes and condiments. It was known as Royco in Indonesia and the Netherlands, and as Continental in Australia.

Knorr is also produced in India and Pakistan.

Oldenburgische Landesbank

Oldenburgische Landesbank AG (OLB) is a German bank.

Headquartered in Oldenburg, it has 176 branches in the northwestern region of Germany, known as Weser-Ems (comprising Osnabrück Land, Emsland, County of Bentheim, East Frisia, Ammerland, Friesland, Oldenburg (Oldenburg), and Oldenburg Münsterland), as well as Bremen (since 1 July 2009), Bremerhaven (since 4 October 2010) and Verden (since 4 April 2011). Its first branch in North Rhine-Westphalia opened 7 November 2011 in Rheine.On 23 June 2017, Bremer Landesbank acquired a majority stake in OLB from Allianz. Bremer Landesbank is a portfolio company of the private equity firm Apollo.

Royal Leerdam Crystal

Royal Leerdam Crystal, also known as Royal Leerdam, is the designing and glass blowing department of Dutch glassware producing factory, Glasfabriek Leerdam. The company was founded in 1765 as a manufacturer of bottles in the Dutch city of Leerdam.


Wirtschaftsdienst – Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik (English: Economics Review – Journal of Economic Policy) is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering economic and social policy issues in Germany or affecting Germany. It also publishes topics of the European Union in the fields of trade, econometrics, environment, and monetary policy. The editor-in-chief is Brigitte Preissl and it is published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal is an official publication of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW). It was established in 1916 and is one of the oldest academic economics journals.

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