German-occupied Europe

German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied and civil occupied including puppet government by the military forces and the government of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.[1] The farthest east in Europe the German Wehrmacht managed to occupy was the town of Mozdok in the Soviet Union; the farthest north was the settlement of Barentsburg in the Kingdom of Norway; the farthest south in Europe was the island of Gavdos in the Kingdom of Greece; and the farthest west in Europe was the island of Ushant in the French Republic.

Europe under Nazi domination
Europe at the height of German military expansion, 1942

Background

Several German occupied countries entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom[2] or the Soviet Union.[3] Some were forced to surrender before outbreak of the war such as Czechoslovakia;[4] others like Poland (invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, the legitimate governments went into exile, in other cases the governments-in-exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries.[5] Some countries occupied by Nazi Germany were officially neutral. Others were former members of the Axis powers that were occupied by German forces at a later stage of the war.[6][7]

Occupied countries

The countries occupied included all, or most of the following:

Country or territory of occupation Puppet state(s) or military administration(s) Timeline of occupation(s) German annexed or occupied territory Resistance movement(s)
Albania Albanian Kingdom Albanian Kingdom 8 September 1943  – 29 November 1944 None Albanian resistance
Guernsey Guernsey Alderney & Sark Nazi Germany Military Administration in France 30 June 1940  – 9 May 1945 None Guernseyian resistance
Jersey Jersey Nazi Germany Military Administration in France 1 July 1940  – 9 May 1945 None Jerseyian resistance
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic

Czechoslovakia Czecho-Slovak Republic


Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic

Slovak Republic

Nazi Germany German Zone of Protection in Slovakia

1 October 1938  – 11 May 1945 Nazi Germany Gau Bayreuth
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Niederdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Oberdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Sudetenland
Czechoslovakian resistance
Austria Federal State of Austria None, see Anschluss 12 March 1938  – 9 May 1945 Nazi Germany Reichsgau Kärnten
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Niederdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Oberdonau
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Salzburg
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Steiermark
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Wien
Austrian resistance
Free City of Danzig Free City of Danzig None 1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945 Nazi Germany Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Danzigian resistance
France French Republic

Free France


France Provisional Government of the French Republic

French State

Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France


Military Administration in France


Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

10 May 1940  – 9 May 1945 Gau Baden
Gau Westmark
Reichsgau Wallonien
French resistance
Luxembourg Luxembourg Military Administration of Luxembourg

Nazi Germany Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg

10 May 1940  – February 1945 Nazi Germany Gau Moselland Luxembourg resistance
Kingdom of Italy Italian Islands of the Aegean Italian Social Republic Italian Islands of the Aegean 8 September 1943  – 8 May 1945 None
Belgium Belgium Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France

Nazi Germany Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

10 May 1940  – February 1945 Nazi Germany Gau Cologne-Aachen

Nazi Germany Reichsgau Wallonien

Belgian resistance
Denmark Denmark protectorate state 9 April 1940  – 5 May 1945 None Danish resistance
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece Nazi Germany Military Administration in Greece
6 April 1941  – 8 May 1945 None Greek resistance
Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Hungary 19 March 1944  – May 1945 None Hungarian resistance
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Italy Italian Social Republic Italian Social Republic 8 September 1943  – 2 May 1945 None Italian resistance
Norway Norway Nazi Germany Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories 9 April 1940  – 8 May 1945 None Norwegian resistance
Netherlands Netherlands Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories 10 May 1940  – 20 May 1945 None Dutch resistance
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia Albanian Kingdom

German occupied territory of Montenegro


Independent State of Croatia Independent State of Croatia


Independent State of Macedonia


Nazi Germany Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

6 April 1941  – 15 May 1945 Nazi Germany Reichsgau Kärnten
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Steiermark
Yugoslav resistance
Monaco Monaco None 8 September 1943  – 3 September 1944 None
Finland Finland None 15 September 1944  – 25 April 1945 None Finnish resistance
Lithuania Republic of Lithuania

Provisional Government of Lithuania

Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat East 22 March 1939  – 21 July 1940

23 June 1941  – 5 August 1941

Nazi Germany Gau East Prussia Lithuanian resistance
Republic of Poland Nazi Germany Military Administration in Poland

Nazi Germany General Government administration


Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat East


Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat Ukraine

1 September 1939  – 9 May 1945 Nazi Germany Bezirk Bialystok
Nazi Germany Gau East Prussia
Nazi Germany Gau Niederschlesien
Nazi Germany General Government
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
Nazi Germany Reichsgau Wartheland
Polish resistance
San Marino San Marino None 17 September 1944  – 20 September 1944 None
Nazi Germany Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Commissioner Government

Government of National Salvation

April 30, 1941  – January 1945 None Serbian resistance
Slovak Republic Nazi Germany German Zone of Protection in Slovakia 23 March 1939  – May 1945 None Slovakian resistance
Flag of Saar 1920-1935.svg Territory of the Saar Basin None 1 March 1935  – April 1945 Nazi Germany Gau Palatinate-Saar

Nazi Germany Gau Saar-Palatinate
Nazi Germany Gau Westmark

Saar Basinian resistance
Ukraine Ukrainian National Government Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat Ukraine 30 June 1941  – September 1941 Nazi Germany General Government Ukrainian resistance
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Lepel Republic

Nazi Germany Military Administration in the Soviet Union


Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat East


Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat Ukraine

22 June 1941  – 10 May 1945 Nazi Germany Bezirk Bialystok
Nazi Germany General Government
Soviet resistance

Governments in exile

Allied governments in exile

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)
Austria Austrian Democratic Union United Kingdom London 1941 – 1945 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich
Free France Free France United Kingdom London
(1940 – 1941)

Algiers, Algeria
(1942 – August 31, 1944)

1940 – August 31, 1944 France French State

Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich
Nazi Germany Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

Poland Government of the Republic of Poland in exile France Paris
(September 29/30, 1939 – 1940)
France Angers, French Republic
(1940 – June 12, 1940)

United Kingdom London
(June 12, 1940 – 1990)

September 29/30, 1939 – December 22, 1990 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich

Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat East
Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat Ukraine
Slovak Republic
Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Poland People's Republic of Poland

Belgium Belgium United Kingdom London
(October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944)
October 22, 1940 – September 8, 1944 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich

Nazi Germany Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France

Denmark Denmark 1943 – 1945 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich
Luxembourg Luxembourg United Kingdom London 1940 – 1944 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich
Greece Kingdom of Greece Egypt Cairo, Egypt April 29, 1941 – October 12, 1944 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Italy
Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria

Norway Norway United Kingdom London June 7, 1940 – May 31, 1945 Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia United Kingdom London June 7, 1941 – March 7, 1945 Flag of Albania (1943–1944).svg Albanian Kingdom

Commissioner Government
Template:Flagcon image German occupied territory of Montenegro
Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich
Government of National Salvation
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia
Flag IMARO.svg Independent Macedonia
Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria
Kingdom of Hungary
Nazi Germany Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia

Netherlands Netherlands United Kingdom London 1940 – 1945 Nazi Germany Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories
Czechoslovakia Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia France Paris
(October 2, 1939 – 1940)

United Kingdom London
(1940 – 1941)
United Kingdom Aston Abbotts, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(1941 – 1945)

October 2, 1939 – April 2, 1945 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Hungary
Slovak Republic

Axis governments in exile

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)
Kingdom of Bulgaria Nazi Germany Vienna, Greater German Reich September 16, 1944 – May 10, 1945 Kingdom of Bulgaria

Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Yugoslavia

France French State Nazi Germany Sigmaringen, Greater German Reich 1944 – April 22, 1945 France Provisional Government of the French Republic
Kingdom of Hungary Nazi Germany Vienna, Greater German Reich

Nazi Germany Munich, Greater German Reich

March 28, 1945 – May 7, 1945 Czechoslovak Republic

Kingdom of Hungary
Romania Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Romania Kingdom of Romania Nazi Germany Vienna, Greater German Reich 1944 – 1945 Romania Kingdom of Romania
Montenegrin State Council Independent State of Croatia Zagreb, Independent State of Croatia 1944 – May 8, 1945 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Slovak Republic Nazi Germany Kremsmünster, Great-German Reich April 4, 1945 – 8 May 1945 Czechoslovak Republic

Neutral governments in exile

Government in exile Capital in exile Timeline of exile Occupier(s)
Belarus Belarusian Democratic Republic Czechoslovakia Prague, Czechoslovak Republic
(1923 – 1938)

Czechoslovakia Prague, Czecho-Slovak Republic
(1938 – 1939)


Nazi Germany Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich
(1939 – 1945)

1919 – present Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich

Nazi Germany Realm Commissariat East
Nazi Germany Realm Commissariat Ukraine
Poland Republic of Poland
Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Estonia Republic of Estonia Sweden Stockholm, Kingdom of Sweden
(1944 – August 20, 1991)

United States New York City, United States of America

June 17, 1940 – August 20, 1991 Nazi Germany Realm Commissariat East

Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Ukrainian People's Republic Poland Warsaw, Republic of Poland
(1920 – 1939)

Nazi Germany Prague, German Reich/Greater German Reich
(1939 – 1944)

1920 – August 22, 1992 Nazi Germany German Reich/Greater German Reich

Kingdom of Hungary
Romania Kingdom of Romania
Nazi Germany Realm Commissariat Ukraine
Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, German occupied Europe. World War II. Retrieved 1 September 2015 from the Internet Archive.
  2. ^ Prazmowska, Anita (1995-03-23). Britain and Poland 1939-1943: The Betrayed Ally. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521483858.
  3. ^ Moorhouse, Roger (2014-10-14). The Devils' Alliance: Hitler's Pact with Stalin, 1939-1941. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465054923.
  4. ^ Goldstein, Erik; Lukes, Igor (2012-10-12). The Munich Crisis, 1938: Prelude to World War II. Routledge. ISBN 9781136328329.
  5. ^ Conway, Martin; Gotovitch, José (2001-08-30). Europe in Exile: European Exile Communities in Britain 1940-45. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781782389910.
  6. ^ Hanson, Victor Davis (2017-10-17). The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465093199.
  7. ^ Cornelius, Deborah S. (2011). Hungary in World War II: Caught in the Cauldron. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 9780823233434.

Bibliography

  • Bank, Jan. Churches and Religion in the Second World War (Occupation in Europe) (2016)
  • Gildea, Robert and Olivier Wieviorka. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe (2007).
  • Klemann, Hein A.M. and Sergei Kudryashov, eds. Occupied Economies: An Economic History of Nazi-Occupied Europe, 1939-1945 (2011).
  • Lagrou, Pieter. The Legacy of Nazi Occupation: Patriotic Memory and National Recovery in Western Europe, 1945-1965 (1999)
  • Mazower, Mark (2008). Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780713996814.
  • Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin (2010), on Eastern Europe
  • Toynbee, Arnold, ed. Survey of International Affairs, 1939–1946: Hitler's Europe (Oxford University Press. 1954) 730pp. online review; full text online free
    • Carlyle Margaret, ed. Documents on International Affairs, 1939–1946. Volume II, Hitler's Europe (Oxford University Press. 1954) 362pp.)

External links

Bezuidenhout

Bezuidenhout (Dutch pronunciation: [bəˈzœydə(n)ˌɦʌut]; English: South of the Wood) is the neighborhood (Dutch: wijk) southeast of the Haagse Bos neighborhood of The Hague in the Netherlands. Bezuidenhout includes the Beatrixkwartier financial area near the Central Station and streets such as Bezuidenhoutseweg, Juliana van Stolberglaan, Laan van Nieuw Oost-Indië, Prins Clauslaan, and Theresiastraat.

Part of German-occupied Europe during World War II, Bezuidenhout was bombed by mistake by the Royal Air Force in a bombing raid which killed hundreds of civilians. The targeted area was the adjacent woodland park Haagse Bos that was used by the Germans for launching V-1 and V-2 rockets, but all bombs missed the forest target by more than 500 yards because of an error in reading the map, overcast conditions and incorrect allowance for the wind. The mistake caused the deaths of 511 civilians.

Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke

The Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke (DAW; literally the German Equipment Works) was a Nazi German defense contractor with headquarters in Berlin during World War II, owned and operated by the Schutzstaffel (SS). It consisted of a network of requisitioned factories and camp workshops across German-occupied Europe exploiting the prisoner slave labour from Nazi concentration camps and the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland. DAW outfitted the German military with boots, uniforms and materials on the eastern front at a windfall profit, provided wood and metal supplies, as well as reconstruction work on railway lines and freight trains.

Fokker F.25

The Fokker F.25 Promotor, first flown in 1946, was a single-engined, twin-boomed, four-passenger monoplane with a pusher engine mounted at the rear of a central nacelle. It was of wooden construction and has fitted with a retractable nosewheel undercarriage. One feature of the design was that instead of a 2 + 2 seating, the pilot sat in front to the left, and all three passengers were on a bench seat to the rear of him. Alternatively, when being used as an air ambulance aircraft, it could carry a patient on a stretcher, which was loaded through a hatch in the aircraft's nose. The F.25 was evocative of the pre-war G.I design. The F.25 was based upon the design of the Difoga 421 aircraft, home-built and -designed secretly during World War II by Frits Diepen, a Ford garage owner from Tilburg, the Netherlands. His intention was to escape from German-occupied Europe to Britain using this aircraft that was powered by a Ford V-8.

Although 20 F.25 aircraft were constructed, sales were disappointing as it could not compete in cost with thousands of surplus aircraft on the market following the war.

Forced labour under German rule during World War II

The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale. It was a vital part of the German economic exploitation of conquered territories. It also contributed to the mass extermination of populations in German-occupied Europe. The Nazi Germans abducted approximately 12 million people from almost twenty European countries; about two thirds came from Central Europe and Eastern Europe. Many workers died as a result of their living conditions – mistreatment, malnutrition, and torture were the main causes of death. They became civilian casualties of shelling. At its peak the forced labourers comprised 20% of the German work force. Counting deaths and turnover, about 15 million men and women were forced labourers at one point during the war.The defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 freed approximately 11 million foreigners (categorized as "displaced persons"), most of whom were forced labourers and POWs. In wartime, the German forces had brought into the Reich 6.5 million civilians in addition to Soviet POWs for unfree labour in factories. Returning them home was a high priority for the Allies. However, in the case of citizens of the USSR, returning often meant suspicion of collaboration or the Gulag. The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), Red Cross, and military operations provided food, clothing, shelter, and assistance in returning home. In all, 5.2 million foreign workers and POWs were repatriated to the Soviet Union, 1.6 million to Poland, 1.5 million to France, and 900,000 to Italy, along with 300,000 to 400,000 each to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, Hungary, and Belgium.

German military brothels in World War II

German military brothels were set up by Nazi Germany during World War II throughout much of occupied Europe for the use of Wehrmacht and SS soldiers. These brothels were generally new creations, but in the West, they were sometimes set up using existing brothels as well as many other buildings. Until 1942, there were around 500 military brothels of this kind in German-occupied Europe. Often operating in confiscated hotels and guarded by the Wehrmacht, these facilities served travelling soldiers and those withdrawn from the front. According to records, at least 34,140 European women were forced to serve as prostitutes during the German occupation of their own countries along with female prisoners of concentration camp brothels. In many cases in Eastern Europe, the women involved were kidnapped on the streets of occupied cities during German military and police round ups called łapanka or rafle.

Hilfspolizei

The Hilfspolizei (abbreviated Hipo; meaning auxiliary police or more literally help police) was, (1) a short-lived auxiliary police force in Nazi Germany in 1933; (2) a general term for various organizations subordinated to the Ordnungspolizei during WW2; (3) a term also used for various military and paramilitary units set up during World War II in German-occupied Europe.

Jewish Parachutists of Mandate Palestine

Jewish Parachutists of Mandate Palestine were a group of 250 Jewish men and women in Mandate Palestine who volunteered to join the British army and parachute into German-occupied Europe between 1943 and 1945. Their mission was to organize resistance to the Germans and aid in the rescue of Allied personnel.

Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe

Jewish resistance under the Nazi rule took various forms of organized underground activities conducted against German occupation regimes in Europe by Jews during World War II. According to historian Yehuda Bauer, Jewish resistance was defined as actions that were taken against all laws and actions acted by Germans.The term is particularly connected with the Holocaust and includes a multitude of different social responses by those oppressed, as well as both passive and armed resistance conducted by Jews themselves.

Due to military strength of Nazi Germany and its allies, as well as the administrative system of ghettoization and the hostility of various sections of the civilian population, few Jews were able to effectively resist the Final Solution militarily. Nevertheless, there are many cases of attempts at resistance in one form or another including over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings. Historiographically, the study of Jewish resistance to German rule is considered an important aspect of the study of the Holocaust.

Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe

After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, Jews began to escape German-occupied Europe.

Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom

After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, Jews began to escape German-occupied Europe and Britain was one of the destinations. Some came on transit visas, which meant that they stayed in Britain temporarily, while waiting to be accepted by another country. Others entered the country by having obtained employment or a guarantor, or via Kindertransport. There were about 70,000 Jewish refugees who were accepted in Britain by the start of World War II on September 1, 1939, and an additional 10,000 people who made it to Britain during the war.

Layforce II

Layforce II was the name given to an ad hoc formation of British Commandos during the Second World War. The force was under command of Major Peter Laycock the second in commando of No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando. Layforce II included the French Troop from No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando and three Troops from No. 4 Commando. The force carried out deception raids against the coastline of German occupied Europe. The raids codenamed Operation Menacle and Hardtack, were finally abandoned because they encouraged the Germans to reinforce their positions which, in the longer term, could be disadvantageous to the Allies.

List of Nazi concentration camps

This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps set up across Europe before and during the course of World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the West German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany, while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries." Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans. They were not utilized to sustain the German war effort.

Although the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps during World War II, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.Concentration camps served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. An estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned in 42,500 camps and ghettos, and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years, according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently. The system of about 20,000 concentration camps in Germany and German-occupied Europe played a pivotal role in economically sustaining the German reign of terror. Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.Extermination camps were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale, often immediately upon arrival. The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews by asphyxiation with poison gas, shooting, and extreme work under starvation conditions.The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder.

Lubartów Ghetto

Lubartów Ghetto was established by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II, and existed officially from 1941 until October 1942. The Polish Jews of the town of Lubartów were confined there initially. The ghetto inmates also included Jews deported from other cities in the vicinity including Lublin and Ciechanów and the rest of German occupied Europe for the total of 3,500 Jews in its initial stages including 2,000 Jews from Slovakia. In May 1942 additional transport from Slovakia with 2,421 Jews arrived.The Lubartów Ghetto was one of hundreds of such ghettos established in the course of the Holocaust in occupied Poland. The maximum number of prisoners at any one time was 4,500 according to Virtual Shtetl. The ghetto was dissolved when all its prisoners – men, women, and children – were sent to the Belzec extermination camp among other secretive killing centres established by the SS, to be murdered under the guise of "resettlement".

Nazi ghettos

Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation. In German documents, and signage at ghetto entrances, the Nazis usually referred to them as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, both of which translate as the Jewish Quarter. There were several distinct types including open ghettos, closed ghettos, work, transit, and destruction ghettos, as defined by the Holocaust historians. In a number of cases, they were the place of Jewish underground resistance against the German occupation, known collectively as the ghetto uprisings.

The Patriotic Traitors

The Patriotic Traitors: A History of Collaboration in German-Occupied Europe, 1940–45 is a 1972 book by David Littlejohn. It is a history of the European nationalists who took part in collaborationism with Nazi Germany. Individual chapters are devoted to Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and the Soviet Union.

This Land Is Mine (film)

This Land Is Mine is a 1943 American drama film directed by Jean Renoir and starring Charles Laughton, Maureen O'Hara and George Sanders. The film is set in the midst of World War II in an unspecified place in German-occupied Europe that appears similar to France. Laughton plays Albert Lory, a cowardly school teacher in a town "somewhere in Europe" (according to the film's opening title card) who is drawn into advocating resistance through his love of his country and of his fellow teacher Louise Martin, portrayed by O'Hara.

The film is one of the more acclaimed of the propaganda-tinged war films of the era. It won the 1944 Academy Award for Best Sound Recording (Stephen Dunn). Having opened simultaneously in 72 theaters, the film set a record for gross receipts on an opening day upon its release on May 7, 1943.

Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps

This is a timeline of deportations of French Jews to Nazi extermination camps in German-occupied Europe during World War II. The overall total of Jews deported from France is a minimum of 75,721.

Underground media in German-occupied Europe

Underground media in German-occupied Europe refers to various kinds of clandestine media which emerged under German occupation during World War II. By 1942, Nazi Germany occupied much of continental Europe. The widespread German occupation saw the fall of public media systems in Northern France, Belgium, Poland, Norway, Czechoslovakia, Northern Greece, and the Netherlands. All press systems were put under the ultimate control of Joseph Goebbels, the German Minister of Propaganda.Without control of the media, occupied populations began to create and publish their own uncensored newspapers, books and political pamphlets. The underground press played a "crucial role" in informing and motivating resistance across the continent and building solidarity. They also created an "intellectual battlefield" in which ideas like post-war reconstruction could be discussed. Underground forms of media allowed for information sharing among the oppressed, helping them build solidarity, strengthen morale and, in some cases, stage uprisings.

Łódź Ghetto

The Litzmannstadt Ghetto was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland. It was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto. Situated in the city of Łódź, and originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing much needed war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army. The number of people incarcerated in it was augmented further by the Jews deported from the Reich territories.On 30 April 1940, when the gates closes on the ghetto, it housed 163,777 residents. Because of its remarkable productivity, the ghetto managed to survive until August 1944. In the first two years, it absorbed almost 20,000 Jews from liquidated ghettos in nearby Polish towns and villages, as well as 20,000 more from the rest of German-occupied Europe. After the wave of deportations to Chełmno death camp beginning in early 1942, and in spite of a stark reversal of fortune, the Germans persisted in eradicating the ghetto: they transported the remaining population to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camps, where most were murdered upon arrival. It was the last ghetto in occupied Poland to be liquidated. A total of 210,000 Jews passed through it; but only 877 remained hidden when the Soviets arrived. About 10,000 Jewish residents of Łódź, who used to live there before the invasion of Poland, survived the Holocaust elsewhere.

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