Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (French: [stal]; née Necker; 22 April 1766 – 14 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters and historian of Genevan origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. For many years she lived as an exile under the Reign of Terror and under Napoleonic persecution. Known as a witty and brilliant conversationalist, often dressed in flashy and revealing outfits, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times. She was present at the first opening of the Estates General and at the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Her intellectual collaboration with Benjamin Constant between 1795 and 1811 made them one of the most celebrated intellectual couples of their time. They discovered sooner than others the tyrannical character and designs of Napoleon. In 1814 one of her contemporaries observed that "there are three great powers struggling against Napoleon for the soul of Europe: England, Russia, and Madame de Staël". Her works, both novels and travel literature, with emphasis on passion, individuality and oppositional politics made their mark on European Romanticism.
Germaine de Staël
"Madame de Staël" by Marie-Éléonore Godefroid (1813)
Anne-Louise Germaine Necker
22 April 1766
|Died||14 July 1817 (aged 51)|
|Delphine, Corinne, De l'Allemagne|
|Cosmopolitanism, representative government, constitutionalism|
Germaine (or Minette) was the only child of the prominent Genevan banker and statesman Jacques Necker, who was the Director-General of Finance under King Louis XVI of France. Her mother was Suzanne Curchod, also of Swiss birth, who hosted in Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin one of the most popular salons of Paris. Mme Necker wanted to educate her daughter according to the principles of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and to endow her with the intellectual education and Calvinist discipline instilled in her by her pastor father. On Friday she habitually brought Germaine as a young child to sit at her feet in her salon, where the guests took pleasure in stimulating the brilliant child. At the age of thirteen, she read Montesquieu, Shakespeare, Rousseau and Dante. This exposure occasioned a nervous breakdown in adolescence, but the seeds of a literary vocation had been sown.
Her father "is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret." Leading to his dismissal in May, the family eventually took up residence in 1784 at Château Coppet, an estate her father purchased on Lake Geneva. The family returned to the Paris region in 1785, and Mlle Necker continued to write miscellaneous works, including the three-act romantic drama Sophie (1786) and the five-act tragedy, Jeanne Grey (1787).
At the age of eleven, Germaine was proposed marriage by Edward Gibbon, who was fancied by her mother. Then he would always be around for her. In 1783, she was courted by William Pitt the Younger and by the fop Comte de Guibert, whose conversation, she thought, was the most far-ranging, spirited and fertile she had ever known. When she did not accept their offers Germaine's parents became impatient. Finally, a marriage was arranged with Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, an attaché of the Swedish legation to France. It took place on 14 January 1786 in the Swedish embassy at 97, Rue du Bac; Germaine was 20, her husband 37. On the whole, the marriage seems to have been acceptable to both parties, although neither seems to have had any or little affection for the other. The baron, a gambler, obtained great benefits as he received 80,000 pounds and was confirmed as lifetime ambassador to Paris, although his wife was almost certainly the more effective envoy.
In 1788, she published Letters on the works and character of J.J. Rousseau. In this fervid panegyric, at first written for a limited number of friends (in which she accused his housekeeper Thérèse Levasseur of having been unfaithful), she demonstrated evident talent, but little in the way of critical discernment. De Staël was at this time enthusiastic about a mixture of Rousseau's ideas about love and Montesquieu in politics. In December 1788 her father instigated the king to double the number of deputies from the Third Estate in order to gain enough support for raising the taxes as the support the revolutionaries in America had been too costly. This approach had serious repercussions on Necker's reputation; he appeared to consider the Estates-General to be a facility designed to help the administration rather than to reform government. In an argument with the king, whose speech on 23 June he didn't attend, Necker was dismissed and exiled on 11 July. On Sunday, 12 July the news became public and an angry Camille Desmoulins suggested the storming of the Bastille. On 16 July he was reappointed; Necker entered Versailles in triumph. His efforts to clean up public finances were unsuccessful and his idea of a National Bank failed. Necker was attacked by Jean-Paul Marat and Count Mirabeau in the Constituante, when he did not agree with using assignats as legal tender. He resigned on 4 September 1790. Accompanied by their son-in-law, her parents left for Switzerland, without 2 million livres, half of his fortune, invested in the public treasury in 1778.
The increasing disturbances caused by the Revolution made her privileges as the consort of an ambassador very important safeguards. Germaine held a salon in the Swedish embassy, where she gave "coalition dinners", that were frequented by moderates such as Talleyrand and De Narbonne, monarchists (Feuillants) as Antoine Barnave, Charles Lameth and his brothers Alexandre and Théodore, the Comte de Clermont-Tonnerre, Pierre Victor, baron Malouet, the poet Abbé Delille, Thomas Jefferson, the one-legged Minister Plenipotentiary to France Gouverneur Morris, the leftish Paul Barras and the radical Condorcets. "The issue of leadership, or rather lack of it, was central to Staël's preoccupations at this stage of her political reflection. The death of Comte de Mirabeau, a royalist, she experienced as a sign of great political disorientation and uncertainty. He was the only man with necessary charisma, energy, and prestige to keep revolutionary movement on the path of constitutional reform."
After the French legislative election, 1791 was held, and the French Constitution of 1791 was announced in the National Assembly, she resigned from a political career and decided not to be re-eligible. "Fine arts and letters will occupy my leisure." Though, in the succession of Comte de Montmorin the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and the appointment of Narbonne as minister of War she played an important role and became the center of the stage. Marie Antoinette wrote to Hans Axel Fersen: "Count Louis de Narbonne is finally Minister of War, since yesterday; what a glory for Mme de Staël and what a joy for her to have the whole army, all to herself." In the year 1792 the French Legislative Assembly saw an unprecedented turnover of ministers, six ministers of the interior, seven ministers of foreign affairs, and nine ministers of war. On 10 August 1792 Clermont-Tonnere was thrown out of a window at the Louvre and trampled to death. De Staël offered Malouet a plan to escape for the royal family. She helped De Narbonne, dismissed for plotting, to hide under the altar in the chapel of the Swedish embassy, and then lectured the sans-culottes in the hall.
On Sunday 2 September, the day the Elections for the National Convention and the September massacres began, she fled herself in the style of an ambassadress. Her carriage was stopped and the crowd forced her to go to the Paris town hall, where Robespierre presided. Robespierre, as well as Marat were militant members of the Insurrectionary Commune who had got power from the provisional, executive council, as there was no government "extensive police powers to detain, interrogate and incarcerate suspects without anything resembling due process of law". In the evening she was conveyed home, escorted by the procurator Louis Pierre Manuel. The next day the commissioner to the Commune of Paris Jean-Lambert Tallien arrived with a new passport and accompanied to the barrier.
After her flight from Paris, Germaine moved to Rolle where Albert was born. She was surrounded by De Montmorency and the Marquis de Jaucourt. In January 1793, she made a four months visit to England to live with her lover, the Comte de Narbonne at Juniper Hall. (Since 1 February France and Great Britain were at war.) Within a few weeks she got pregnant, apparently one of the reasons she caused a scandal in England. According to Fanny Burney her father urged his daughter to avoid De Staël and the group of French Émigres in Surrey. She met with Horace Walpole, James Mackintosh, Lord Sheffield, a friend of Edward Gibbon, and Lord Loughborough, the new Lord Chancellor. De Staël was not favourably impressed by the conditions of women in English society. Personal freedom was evidently as important to her as abstract political liberties.
In the summer of 1793, she returned to Coppet Castle perhaps while De Narbonne stopped loving her. She wrote a biased depiction of the character of queen, named "Reflections on the Trial". For De Staël France had to follow England's example from absolute to limited royalty. Living in Jouxtens-Mézery, Germaine was visited by Adolph Ribbing in July 1793. Count Ribbing was living in exile, after being sentenced for taking part in a conspiracy to murder the Swedish king Gustav III. Late 1793 her parents moved to Beaulieu Castle. In September 1794 she was visited by the divorced Benjamin Constant. In May 1795 she moved with her new "colleague" to Paris. De Staël had rejected the idea of the right of resistance - which had been introduced by the French Constitution of 1793, but removed from the Constitution of 1795. In 1796 she published Sur l'influence des passions, in which she praised suicide; a book that attracted the attention of the German authors Schiller and Goethe.
Germaine had also an obsession with French politics, and reopened her salon. It was during these years that Mme de Staël was of chief political importance. For a time she was conspicuous in the motley and eccentric society of the mid-1790s. On the 13 Vendémiaire the Comité de salut public ordered her to leave Paris after accusations of politicking, and locked up Constant for one night. Germaine spent that autumn in Forges-les-Eaux, a spa. She was trusted by neither side and a threat to political stability. The couple moved to Ormesson-sur-Marne where they lived with Montmorency. In Summer 1796 Constant founded "Cercle constitutionnel" in Luzarches; De Staël supported him. In May 1797 she was back in Paris and eight months pregnant. She succeeded in getting Talleyrand from the list of Émigrés and in July in his appointment as minister of Foreign Affairs. Since the coup of 18 Fructidor anyone wishing to restore the monarchy or the French Constitution of 1793 would be shot without a trial. Germaine moved to Saint-Ouen, on her father's estate and became friends with the beautiful and rich Juliette Récamier to whom she sold the parental house in the Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin.
De Staël completed the initial part of her first most substantial contribution to political and constitutional theory, "Of present circumstances that can end the Revolution, and of the principles that must found the republic of France". On 6 December 1797 at Talleyrand's office and 3 January 1798 during a ball she met with Napoleon. She made clear she did not agree with his planned French invasion of Switzerland. He showed no interest and would not read her letters.
In January 1800 Benjamin Constant was appointed by Napoleon as a member of the Tribunat but not long after he became the first consul's enemy. Two years later Napoleon Bonaparte forced him to withdraw because of the speeches that he thought were actually written by Mme de Staël. Both personal and political reasons threw her into opposition to Napoléon, in August 1802 elected as first consul for life. For De Staël, Napoleon started to resemble Machiavelli; for Napoleon, J. J. Rousseau was the cause of the French Revolution. It culminated when Jacques Necker had published his "Last Views on Politics and Finance" and his daughter "De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales". It was her first philosophical approach to Europe, that dealt with such important factors as nationality, history and social institutions. Napoleon started a campaign against this publication. He did not like her cultural determinism and generalizations, in which she stated that "an artist must be of his own time". For him a woman should stick to knitting. He said about her, according to the Memoirs of Madame de Rémusat, that she "teaches people to think who never thought before, or who had forgotten how to think". It became pretty clear that the first man in France and the De Staël were not likely to get on together.
De Staël published a provoking (anti-catholic) novel Delphine, in which the femme incomprise (misunderstood woman) living in Paris between 1789 and 1792, is confronted with conservative ideas about divorce after the Concordat of 1801. In this tragic novel, influenced by Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther and Rousseau's Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse, she reflects on the legal and practical aspects on divorce, the arrests and the September Massacres, and the fate of the émigrés. The main characters have traits of the flippant Benjamin Constant, and Talleyrand is depicted as an old woman, herself as the heroine with the liberalist view of the Italian aristocrat and politician Melzi d'Eril.
When Constant moved to Maffliers in September 1803 De Staël went to see him and let Napoleon know she would be wise and careful. Immediately the house became very popular among her friends, but Napoleon, informed by Madame de Genlis suspected a conspiracy. "Her extensive network of connections – which included foreign diplomats and known political opponents, as well as members of the government and of Bonaparte's own family – was in itself a source of suspicion and alarm for the government." Her protection of Jean Gabriel Peltier – who wished the death of Napoleon – influenced his decision on 13 October 1803 to exile her without a trial. For ten years De Staël was not allowed to settle within a distance of 40 leagues (almost 200 km) from Paris. She accused Napoleon of "persecuting a woman and her children". On 23 October she left for Germany "out of pride", in the hope to gain attention and to be able to return as soon as possible.
With her children and Constant she stopped off in Metz and met with Kant's translator Charles de Villers. In mid-December, they arrived in Weimar, where she stayed for two and a half months at the court of the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and his mother Anna Amalia. Germaine was constantly on the move, talking and asking questions. Goethe, in fact, became ill and hesitated about seeing her. After becoming acquainted with her, Goethe referred to her as an "extraordinary woman" in his private correspondence. Schiller complimented her intelligence and eloquence, but her frequent visits distracted him from completing William Tell. Constant decided to abandon her in Leipzig and return to Switzerland. De Staël traveled to Berlin, where she made the acquaintance of August Schlegel who was giving lectures on literature. She appointed him on an enormous salary as the private tutor to her children. On 18 April they all left Berlin when the news of her father's death reached her.
On 19 May she arrived in Coppet and found herself its wealthy and independent mistress, but her sorrow for her father was deep and certainly sincere. She spent the summer at the chateau arranging his writings and published an essay on his private life. In July Constant wrote: "She exerts over everything around her a kind of inexplicable but very real power. If she could only govern herself, she might have governed the world." In December 1804 she travelled to Italy, accompanied by her children, Schlegel and the historian Sismondi. She met with the poet Monti and the painter, Angelica Kauffman. "Her visit to Italy helped her to further develop her theory of the difference between northern and southern societies..."
She returned to Coppet in June 1805, moved to Meulan (Château d'Acosta) and spent nearly a year writing her next book on Italy's culture and history. In Corinne, ou L'Italie (1807) the female hero appears to have been inspired by the Italian poet Diodata Saluzzo Roero. She showed all of Italy's works of art still in place, rather than plundered by Napoleon and taken to France. The book's publication acted as a reminder of her existence, and Napoleon sent her back to Coppet. Her house became, according to Stendhal, "the general headquarters of European thought" and was a debating club hostile to Napoleon, "turning conquered Europe into a parody of a feudal empire, with his own relatives in the roles of vassal states". Madame Récamier, also banned by Napoleon, Prince Augustus of Prussia, Charles Victor de Bonstetten, and Chateaubriand all belonged to the "Coppet group". Each day the table was laid for about thirty guests. Talking seemed to be everybody's chief activity.
For a time she lived with Constant in Auxerre (1806), Rouen (1807), Aubergenville (1807). Then she met with Friedrich Schlegel, whose wife Dorothea had translated Corinne into German. The use of the word Romanticism was invented by Schlegel, but spread more widely across France through its persistent use by Madame de Staël. Late in 1807 she set out for Vienna and visited Maurice O'Donnell. She was accompanied by her children and August Schlegel who held his famous lectures. In 1808 De Staël set to work on her book about Germany - a country that did not exist until Bismarck - in which she presented the idea of Germany as an ethical and aesthetic model and praised German literature and philosophy. The exchange of ideas and literary and philosophical conversations with Goethe, Schiller, and Wieland inspired de Staël to write one of the most influential books of the nineteenth century.
Pretending she wanted to emigrate to the US, de Staël was given permission to re-enter France. Looking around in Chaumont-sur-Loire de Staël moved into the Château de Chaumont (1810) owned by the heirs of Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont, but then moved on onto Fossé and Vendôme. She was determined to publish De l'Allemagne in France, a book in which she called French political structures into question, so indirectly criticizing Napoleon busy promoting French culture and theatre. Constrained by censorship, she wrote the emperor a somewhat provocative and perhaps undignified letter. The minister of police Savary had emphatically forbidden the publication of her book as being “un-French". In October 1810 de Staël was exiled again and had to leave France within three days. Also August Schlegel was ordered to leave Swiss Confederation as an enemy of the French literature. She found consolation in a wounded officer named Albert de Rocca, twenty-three years her junior, to whom she got engaged privately in 1811 and would marry him publicly in 1816.
The operations of the French imperial police in regard to Mme de Staël are rather obscure. She was at first left undisturbed, but by degrees, the chateau itself became a source of suspicion, and her visitors found themselves heavily punished. François-Emmanuel Guignard, De Montmorency and Mme Récamier were exiled for the crime of visiting her. She remained at home during the winter of 1811, planning to escape to England or Sweden with the manuscript. On 23 May 1812 she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed through Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg on her way to Vienna, where she met with Metternich. There she obtained an Austrian passport up to the frontier, and after some trepidation and trouble, received a Russian passport in Brody.
During Napoleon's invasion of Russia de Staël, her two children and Schlegel, journeyed through the Habsburg empire from Brno to Łańcut where Rocca, having deserted the French army and having been searched by the French gendarmerie, was waiting for her. The journey continued to Lemberg, capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On 14 July 1812 they arrived in Volhynia. In the meantime, Napoleon, who took a more northern route, had crossed the Niemen River with his army. In Kiev, she met Miloradovich, governor of the city. De Staël hesitated to travel to Odessa, Constantinople, and onto Greece, and decided instead to go north. In Moscow, she was invited by the governor Fyodor Rostopchin. She left only a few weeks before Napoleon arrived. Until the end of September, her party stayed in Saint Petersburg. She met twice with the tsar Alexander I of Russia who "related to me also the lessons a la Machiavelli which Napoleon had thought proper to give him."
"You see," said he, "I am careful to keep my ministers and generals at variance among themselves, in order that each may reveal to me the faults of the other; I keep up a continual jealousy by the manner I treat those who are about me: one day one thinks himself the favourite, the next day another, so that no one is ever certain of my favour."
For de Staël that was a vulgar and vicious theory. General Kutuzov sent her letters from the Battle of Tarutino and before the end of that year he would succeed in chasing the Grande Armée out of Russia.
After four months of travelling, she arrived in Sweden. The crossing of the Bothnian Gulf by boat frightened her. In Stockholm she started "Ten Years' Exile", giving details of whom she had met and explained what she had seen. She never finished the manuscript and after eight months she set out for England, without August Schlegel who had been appointed as secretary to general Bernadotte. (She supported Bernadotte as new ruler of France, who she hoped would introduce a constitutional monarchy.) In London she received a great welcome. She met with Lord Byron on the first evening (27 May). The next day they dined at Sir Humphry Davy's, the chemist and inventor. In the evening de Staël had made very long speeches, according to Byron. She preached English politics to the first of our English Whig politicians ... preached politics no less to our Tory politicians the day after." Her stay was marred by the death of her son Albert, who as a member of the Swedish army had fallen in a duel with a Cossack officer in Doberan as a result of a gambling dispute. In October John Murray published De l'Allemagne both in a French and English translation, in which she reflected on nationalism and suggested a re-consideration on cultural rather than on natural boundaries. In May 1814, after Louis XVIII had been crowned (Bourbon Restoration) she returned to Paris. She undertook Considérations sur la révolution française, based on Part One of "Ten Years' Exile". Again her salon became a major attraction both for Parisians and foreigners.
When news came of Napoleon's landing on the Côte d'Azur, between Cannes and Antibes, early in March 1815, she fled to Coppet, and never forgave Constant for approving of Napoleon's return. Although she had no affection for the Bourbons she succeeded in obtaining restitution for the loan Necker had made to the French state before the Revolution. In October, after the Battle of Waterloo, she set out for Italy, not only for the sake of her own health but for that of her second husband, Rocca, who was suffering from tuberculosis. In May her 19-year-old daughter Albertine married Victor, 3rd duc de Broglie in Livorno.
The whole family returned to Coppet in June, and Lord Byron a womanizer and a gambler in debt, left London in great trouble and frequently visited Mme de Staël during July and August. For Byron, she was Europe's greatest living writer, but ...with her pen behind her ears and her mouth full of ink". "Byron was particularly critical of de Staël's self-dramatizing tendencies..." Byron was a supporter of Napoleon, but for de Staël "Bonaparte was not only a man but a system..." "Napoleon imposed standards of homogeneity on Europe that is, French taste in literature, art and the legal systems, all of which de Staël saw as inimical to her cosmopolitan point of view." Byron wrote she was "... sometimes right and often wrong about Italy and England - but almost always true in delineating the heart, which is of but one nation of no country, or rather, of all."
Despite her increasing ill-health, she returned to Paris for the winter of 1816–17. Constant argued with de Staël who had asked him to pay off his debts to her. A warm friendship sprang up between Madame de Staël and the Duke of Wellington, whom she had first met in 1814, and she used her influence with him to have the size of the Army of Occupation greatly reduced. She had already become confined to her house at 40, rue des Mathurins, paralyzed since 21 February. She died on 14 July. Her deathbed conversion to Roman Catholicism, after reading Thomas a Kempis, surprised many, including Wellington, who remarked that while he knew that she was greatly afraid of death, he had thought her incapable of believing in the afterlife. Rocca survived her by little more than six months. "Yet although she insisted to the Duke of Wellington that she needed politics in order to live, her attitude towards the propriety of female political engagement varied: at times she declared that women should simply be the guardians of domestic space for the opposite sex, while at others, that denying women access to the public sphere of activism and engagement was an abuse of human rights. This paradox partly explains the persona of the “homme-femme” she presented in society, and it remained unresolved throughout her life."
Albertine Necker de Saussure, married to her cousin, wrote her biography in 1821, published as part of the collected works. Auguste Comte included Mme de Staël in his Calendar of Great Men. Her political legacy has been generally identified with a stern defence of "liberal" values: equality, individual freedom and the limitation of power by constitutional rules. Comte's disciple Frederic Harrison wrote about de Staël that her novels "precede the works of Walter Scott, Byron, Mary Shelley, and partly those of Chateaubriand, their historical importance is great in the development of modern Romanticism, of the romance of the heart, the delight in nature, and in the arts, antiquities, and history of Europe."
Beside two daughters, Gustava Sofia Magdalena (born July 1787) and Gustava Hedvig (died August 1789), who died in infancy, she had two sons, Ludwig August (1790–1827), Albert (November 1792–July 1813), and a daughter, Albertine, Baroness de Staël von Holstein (June 1797 – 1838). It is believed Louis, Comte de Narbonne-Lara was the father of Ludvig August and Albert, and Benjamin Constant the father of red-haired Albertine. With Albert de Rocca, de Staël then aged 46, had one son, the disabled Louis-Alphonse de Rocca (April 1812 – 1842), who would marry Marie-Louise-Antoinette de Rambuteau, daughter of Claude-Philibert Barthelot de Rambuteau, and granddaughter of De Narbonne. Even as she gave birth, there were fifteen people in her bedroom.
After the death of her husband, Mathieu de Montmorency became the legal guardian of her children. Like August Schlegel he was one of her intimates until the end of her life.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1807.1817 in France
Events from the year 1817 in France.Albert Jean Michel de Rocca
Albert Jean Michel de Rocca (1788 – 31 January 1818) was a French lieutenant during the Napoleonic Wars. He was also the second husband of Anne Louise Germaine de Staël.Aurora Leigh
Aurora Leigh (1856) is an epic novel/poem by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. The poem is written in blank verse and encompasses nine books (the woman's number, the number of the Sibylline Books). It is a first person narration, from the point of view of Aurora; its other heroine, Marian Erle, is an abused self-taught child of itinerant parents. The poem is set in Florence, Malvern, London and Paris. The author uses her knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, while also playing off modern novels, such as Corinne ou l'Italie by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël and the novels by George Sand. As far as Book 5, Aurora narrates her past, from her childhood to the age of about 27; in Books 6–9, the narrative has caught up with her, and she reports events in diary form. Elizabeth Barrett Browning styled the poem "a novel in verse", and referred to it as "the most mature of my works, and the one into which my highest convictions upon Life and Art have entered." Scholar Deirdre David asserts that Barrett Browning's work in Aurora Leigh has made her into "a major figure in any consideration of the nineteenth-century woman writer and of Victorian poetry in general." John Ruskin called it the greatest long poem of the nineteenth century.Carl Gustaf von Brinkman
Karl Gustaf von Brinkman (25 February 1764 – 25 December 1847) was a Swedish and German classicist poet, writer and diplomat. Member of the Swedish Academy 1828–1847, Seat No. 3, ennobled and elevated to Baron, chamberlain.
Karl Gustaf von Brinkman was born in Nacka, Sweden and was the son of Secretary Hans Gustaf von Brinkman and Countess Beata Kristina Leijon Manor. His education was from the beginning of strictly religious orientation, as his father intended him for a missionary work. He attended from 1782 to 1785, the Seminar of the Moravian Church in Barby, Germany. He became acquainted with Friedrich Schleiermacher, who devoted his later writings on religion. In 1787 he began to study at the University of Halle, and studied philosophy and law. In 1889 he went on an educational journey that led him to Wittenberg, Jena, Weimar, Leipzig and Berlin. Through his activities in 1791 in government service, he received the confidence of King Gustav III of Sweden. He then became Secretary of Legation in Berlin in 1792 and began his diplomatic career. In Berlin, he moved in the romantic salons, met William and Alexander von Humboldt, and was assistant at Friedrich Schiller's Musen-Almanach.
From 1798 until 1801 he was involved in diplomatic affairs in Paris and at this time frequented the house of Anne Louise Germaine de Staël. As ambassador in Berlin (1807), he made among other things the acquaintance of Johannes von Müller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich von Gentz, Adam Müller, with whom he had constant exchange of ideas. He accompanied the royal family on their flight to East Prussia. From 1808 until 1810 he was ambassador in London and became a deputy chancellor in Stockholm.
His diplomatic career changed abruptly when he lost the confidence of the royal court. In 1835 focused only on literature, which he published in Swedish. His extensive correspondence, which he greatly enjoyed, shows him as a witty interlocutor. In 1836, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Von Brinkman died in 1847 in Stockholm.Coppet group
The Coppet group (Groupe de Coppet), also known as the Coppet circle, was an informal intellectual and literary gathering centered on Germaine de Staël during the time period between the French Revolution and the Bourbon Restoration at Coppet Castle. The group had a considerable influence on the development of nineteenth century liberalism and romanticism. Stendhal referred to it as "the Estates General of European opinion."Cornelia Knight
Ellis Cornelia Knight was an English gentlewoman, traveler, landscape artist, and writer of novels, verse, journals, and history. She had the acquaintance of many prominent figures in her lifetime, from members of the circle of Samuel Johnson and Sir Joshua Reynolds in her girlhood; Cardinal de Bernis, Sir William and Lady Emma Hamilton, and Lord Horatio Nelson during her Italian sojourn; and members of the British Royal Family during her service to Queen Charlotte and Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales. She corresponded with or met other writers of her time including Frances Burney, Germaine de Staël, Lady Charlotte Bury, and Jane Porter.Delphine
Delphine may refer to:
Delphine (given name), list of people with the feminine given name
Delphine (novel), an 1802 novel by Germaine de Staël
Delphine (film), a 1931 French film directed by Roger Capellani
SS Delphine, a yacht built in 1921 by John and Horace Dodge
Delphine Records, a French record label founded in 1976
Delphine Software International, a defunct game development company
Of or relating to dolphins
Moderate Tropical Storm Delphine, in the 1969–70 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasonDelphine (novel)
Delphine is the first novel by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël, published in 1802. The book is written in epistolary form (as a series of letters) and examines the limits of women's freedom in an aristocratic society. Although Madame de Staël denied political intent, the book was controversial enough for Napoleon to exile the author.
In this tragic novel, influenced by Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther and Rousseau's Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse, she reflects on the discussions on divorce in the National Assembly before the Concordat of 1801, when the laws were changed; the consequences after the Battle of Verdun (1792) leading to arrests and the September Massacres, the fate of the émigrés. The main characters have traits of Benjamin Constant and Talleyrand, and the liberalist view of the Italian politician Melzi d'Eril.Jacques Necker
Jacques Necker (IPA: [ʒak nɛkɛʁ]; 30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a finance minister for Louis XVI and a French statesman. Necker played a key role in French history before and during the first period of the French Revolution.Necker held the finance post between 1777-1781 and "is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret." Necker was dismissed within a few months. By 1788 the inexorable compounding of interest on the national debt brought France to a fiscal crisis. Necker was recalled to royal service. When he was dismissed on 11 July 1789 it caused the Storming of the Bastille. Within two days Necker was recalled by the king and the assembly. Necker entered France in triumph and tried to accelerate the tax reform process. Faced with the opposition of the Constituent Assembly he resigned in September 1790 to a reaction of general indifference.
Necker, apparently a constitutional monarchist, also a political economist and a moralist wrote a severe critique of the new principle of equality before the law. Necker fully embraced the label of moderate and the concept of the golden mean.Jean de Broglie
Prince Jean Marie François Ferdinand de Broglie (21 June 1921 – 24 December 1976) was a French politician.
Born in Paris, he was one of the negotiators of the Évian Accords.
Jean de Broglie was assassinated on 24 December 1976 while coming out of the house of Pierre de Varga. His financial advisor, Varga was quickly arrested; in 1981, he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment for complicity in the assassination.Jean de Broglie was the first son of Prince Eugene Marie Amédée de Broglie (1891–1957), himself the fourth son of Prince François Marie Albert de Broglie (1851–1939), himself the fourth son of Albert de Broglie, 4th duc de Broglie, whose mother, Albertine de Staël-Holstein (1797–1838), was the daughter of Germaine de Staël and, reputedly, Benjamin Constant.
By his wife Micheline Segard (1925–1997), he had three sons:
Victor-François de Broglie (Paris, 25 March 1949 - Broglie, 12 February 2012), 8th duke of Broglie, who succeeded a distinguished distant cousin, Louis de Broglie, 7th duke of Broglie (1892–1987), physicist and Nobel laureate
Philippe-Maurice de Broglie (Paris, 28 September 1960), 9th duke of Broglie
Louis-Albert de Broglie (Paris, 15 March 1963), prince of BroglieList of French novelists
This is a list of novelists from France. Novelists in this list should be notable in some way, and ideally have Wikipedia articles on them.
See also French novelists Category Index.
Honoré d'Urfé (1568–1625)
Charles Sorel (c. 1602–1674)
Madeleine de Scudéry (1607–1701)
Madame de Lafayette (1634–1693), author of La Princesse de Clèves
Alain-René Le Sage (1668–1747)
Pierre de Marivaux (1688–1763)
Voltaire (1694–1778), philosophe, satirist, playwright, author of Candide
Françoise de Graffigny (1695–1758), author of Lettres d'une Péruvienne
Abbé Prévost (1697–1763), author of Manon Lescaut
Claude Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (1707–1777)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), philosophe, author of Julie, or the New Heloise
Denis Diderot (1713–1784), philosophe, author of Rameau's Nephew
Marie Jeanne Riccoboni (1714–1792)
Restif de la Bretonne (1734–1806)
Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (1737–1814), author of Paul et Virginie
Marquis de Sade (1740–1814), author of "Dialogue Between a Priest and a Dying Man", Justine, The 120 Days of Sodom, Philosophy in the Bedroom, and Juliette
Choderlos de Laclos (1741–1803), author of Les liaisons dangereuses
Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (1766–1817)
Benjamin Constant (1767–1830), author of Adolphe
François-René de Chateaubriand (1768–1848), author of Atala and René
Étienne Pivert de Senancour (1770–1846)
Charles Nodier (1780–1844)
Stendhal (1783–1842), author of The Red and the Black, considered by some to be the first modern novel, and The Charterhouse of Parma
Charles Paul de Kock (1793–1871)
Antoinette Henriette Clémence Robert (1797–1872)
Charles Dezobry (1798–1871), historian and historical novelist
Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850), author of La Comédie Humaine, a series of novels presenting a full picture of France in the early 19th century
Alexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870), author of The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers
Victor Hugo (1802–1885), author of The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Misérables
Prosper Mérimée (1803–1870), author of Carmen
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804–1869)
George Sand (1804–1876), pseudonym of Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin, Baroness Dudevant
Eugène Sue (1804–1857)
Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly (1808–1889)
Alfred de Musset (1810–1857)
Théophile Gautier (1811–1872)
Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880), author of Madame Bovary and Sentimental Education
Edmond de Goncourt (1822–1896)
Henri Murger (1822–1861), author of Scènes de la vie de bohème
Alexandre Dumas, fils (1824–1895), author of La Dame aux camélias
Edmond About (1828–1885)
Jules Verne (1828–1905), writer of techno-thrillers like Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea, and founding father of science fiction
Jules de Goncourt (1830–1870)
Hector Malot (1830–1907)
Émile Gaboriau (1832–1873), pioneer of modern detective fiction
Eugène Le Roy (1836–1907)
Alphonse Daudet (1840–1897)
Émile Zola (1840–1902), naturalist, author of Germinal and Nana
Anatole France (1844–1924)
Léon Bloy (1846–1917)
Joris-Karl Huysmans (1848–1907), author of À rebours and Là-bas
Guy de Maupassant (1850–1893)
Pierre Loti (1850–1923)
Élémir Bourges (1852–1925)
Paul Bourget (1852–1935)
René Bazin (1853–1932)
Adolphe Chenevière (1855–19??)
Maurice Barrès (1862–1923)
Henri de Régnier (1864–1936)
Jules Renard (1864–1910)
Romain Rolland (1866–1944), Nobel Prize in Literature, 1915
Gaston Leroux (1868–1927), author of The Phantom of the Opera and The Mystery of the Yellow Room which is recognized as the first locked room puzzle mystery novel
André Gide (1869–1951)
Henri Bordeaux (1870–1963)
Marcel Proust (1871–1922), author of In Search of Lost Time, sometimes seen as the greatest modernist novel
Colette (1873–1954), best known for Gigi and Chéri
Alfred Jarry (1873–1907), satirist, inventor of Pataphysics
Roger Martin du Gard (1881–1958), Nobel Prize in Literature, 1937
Louis Pergaud (1882–1915)
Georges Duhamel (1884–1966)
François Mauriac (1885–1970), Nobel Prize in Literature, 1952
Jules Romains (1885–1972)
Georges Bernanos (1888–1948)
Adrien Bertrand (1888–1917)
Henri Bosco (1888–1976)
Louis Ferdinand Céline (1894–1961), author of Journey to the End of the Night and Death on the Installment Plan or Mort à Crédit
Henri de Montherlant (1895–1972)
Jean Giono (1895–1970)
Julien Green (1900–1998)
Antoine de Saint Exupéry (1900–1944)
Nathalie Sarraute (1900–1999)
André Malraux (1901–1976)
Irène Némirovsky (1903–1942), author of Suite française
Raymond Queneau (1903–1976)
Raymond Radiguet (1903–1942)
Marguerite Yourcenar (1903–1987)
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980), Nobel Prize in Literature, 1964
Louise Aslanian (1906–1945), pseudonym "Las", author of "The Way of doubt".
Pauline Réage (1907–1998)
Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)
Paul Berna (1908–1994)
Jean Genet (1910–1986)
Henri Troyat (1911–2007)
Pierre Boulle (1912–1994), author of The Bridge on the River Kwai and Planet of the Apes
Albert Camus (1913–1960), Nobel Prize in Literature, 1957
Gilbert Cesbron (1913–1979)
Claude Simon (1913–2005), Nobel Prize in Literature, 1985
Romain Gary (1914–1980), winner of the Goncourt prize twice, 1956, and 1975 under the pseudonym of Emile Ajar
Marguerite Duras (1914–1996)
Maurice Druon (1918–2009)
Boris Vian (1920–1959)
Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922–2008)
Michel Tournier (born 1924)
Philippe Daudy (1925–1994)
Michel Butor (born 1926)
Sébastien Japrisot (1931–2003)
Emmanuelle Arsan (born 1932)
Régine Deforges (born 1935)
Françoise Sagan (1935–2004)
Georges Perec (1936–1982)
J.M.G. Le Clézio (born 1940), Nobel Prize in Literature, 2008
Nancy Huston (born 1953)
Michel Houellebecq (born 1958), Impact award winner
Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt (born 1960)
Charles Dantzig (born 1961)
Pavel Hak (born 1962)
Beatrice Hammer (born 1963)List of Swiss poets
This is a list of Swiss poets, consisting of both authors native to Switzerland, and authors born elsewhere who have influenced Swiss literature through their work. Swiss literature may be split into four parts based on the language of the author, although some authors may write in multiple languages. (Years link to corresponding "[year] in poetry" articles.)List of liberal theorists
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment. Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy. It included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation, as opposed to the state and religion, as being the fundamental units of law, politics and economy.
Since then liberalism has broadened to include a wide range of approaches from Americans Ronald Dworkin, Richard Rorty, John Rawls and Francis Fukuyama as well as the Indian Amartya Sen and the Peruvian Hernando de Soto. Some of these people moved away from liberalism, while others espoused other ideologies before turning to liberalism. There are many different views of what constitutes liberalism, and some liberals would feel that some of the people on this list were not true liberals. It is intended to be suggestive rather than exhaustive. Theorists whose ideas were mainly typical for one country should be listed in that country's section of liberalism worldwide. Generally only thinkers are listed, politicians are only listed when they, beside their active political work, also made substantial contributions to liberal theory.Louise de Broglie, Countess d'Haussonville
Louise de Broglie, Countess d'Haussonville (25 May 1818 – 21 April 1882) was a French essayist and biographer, and a member of the House of Broglie, a distinguished French family. A granddaughter of the novelist Germaine de Staël, she was considered independent, liberal, and outspoken. Her 1845 portrait by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, which took three years to complete, has been exhibited in the Frick Collection in New York City since the 1930s.Noëlle Roger
Noëlle Roger, the pen name of Hélène Pittard (September 25, 1874 – October 5, 1953), was a Swiss author writing in French.
The daughter of Théophile Dufour, a Swiss jurist, and Léonie Bordier, she was born Hélène Dufour in Geneva. Her maternal grandfather was Henri Bordier, a French historian. In her youth, she showed talent for both poetry and painting, eventually choosing to focus on writing.Her first novel Larmes d'enfant was published in 1896. Her pen name was derived from the two names of brothers: reversing Léon gave Noëlle and Roger was used as is. She apprenticed as a journalist in London. Then, in 1900, she married the anthropologist Eugène Pittard. Her travels with her husband to various places inspired:
La Route de l'Orient (1914)
Princesse de Lune, a novel (1929)
En Asie Mineure (1930)During World War I, she trained as a nurse and looked after wounded French soldiers at a hospital in Lyon. She published some novels inspired by her experiences during the war and then produced a number of works of speculative fiction including:
Le nouveau Déluge (1922)
Le nouvel Adam (1924), translated into English as The New Adam (1926)
Celui qui voit (1926)
Le soleil enseveli (1928)
Le nouveau Lazare (1935)She also produced biographies of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Germaine de Staël and Henry Dunant, as well as plays for the theatre and for radio.Works for children included:
L'Enfant cet inconnu (1941)
Peau d'éléphant (1943)In 1948, she received a medal from the Académie française for her work.She died in Geneva at the age of 78.Staël
Anne Louise Germaine de Staël (“Madame de Staël”) (1766–1817)
Nicolas de Staël (1914–1955)
Staël von HolsteinStaël von Holstein
The Staël von Holstein family was a Baltic German Baronial family originated from Westphalia.Ursula Reutner
Ursula Reutner (born 6 October in Bayreuth) is a German linguist. She holds the Chair of Romance Languages and Cultures at the University of Passau. Reutner is an internationally renowned expert in Romance Studies and Intercultural Communication, who has won several awards for her work, including the Prix Germaine de Staël, the Elise Richter Prize and an honorary doctorate from the Universidad del Salvador (Buenos Aires).