Gerald of Aurillac

Gerald of Aurillac (or Saint Gerald) (c. 855 – c. 909[1]) is a French saint of the Roman Catholic Church, also recognized by other religious denominations of Christianity.

Gerald was born into the Gallo-Roman nobility, counting Cesarius of Arles among his forebears,[2] though the title "Count of Aurillac" was not held by his father, to whose estates he succeeded, and was assumed by him in later life.[3] The details of his life known today come primarily from The Life of St. Gerald of Aurillac (c. 930–931) written by Odo of Cluny.[4] Writing twenty years after the event, Abbot Odo of Cluny described how William, duke of Aquitaine, had entreated Gerald to abandon the militia regia, the feudal service performed directly to the king and pay homage to himself, "for the sake of love".[5] Gerald resisted, having recently assumed the title of comes and doubtless preferring to own his fealty to the more distant liege, the king at Paris.[6]

According to Odo, Gerald suffered an illness as a child, sufficient in duration to advance his reading, and may have been disfigured by acne.[7] In later life he was to suffer blindness. He seriously considered joining a religious order, but was persuaded against it by his friend Geusbert, Bishop of Rodez, on the grounds that with his social position he could do more good by remaining in the world as a layman. Nevertheless, secretly tonsured under his habitual cap, he consecrated his life in service to God, gave away his possessions, took a personal vow of chastity and prayed the breviary each day.[8]

He founded a church and abbey on his estate of Aurillac, where he was buried after dying at Cenezac, on a Friday 13 October, probably in 909. His memorial feast day is October 13. The validation of his local cult by Odo of Cluny served to establish his wider veneration. Saint Gerald, considered by his Church and his followers as a great example of a celibate Christian aristocrat, is the patron saint of counts and bachelors. Because of his poor health and blindness, more emphasized in his developing cult than in Odo's Life, he is also the patron saint of the disabled, handicapped, and physically challenged. He also became the patron saint of Upper Auvergne.[9]

Saint Gerald of Aurillac
Géraud d'Aurillac
Saint Gerald of Aurillac
Confessor
Bornc. 855
Aurillac
Diedc. 909
Cenezac
Venerated inCatholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Major shrineAurillac
FeastOctober 13
Patronagebachelors, counts, disabled people, Upper Auvergne

References

  1. ^ Dates in Sitwell 1958:94 note 2
  2. ^ According to Odo of Cluny, (Sitwell 1958:90) noted in Derek Baker, "'Vir dei'", in G. J. Cuming and Derek Baker, eds. Popular Belief and Practice: papers read at the ninth summer meeting (Ecclesiastical History Society) 1972:43 note 8.
  3. ^ Sitwell points out there was no count of Aurillac before or after him. (Sitwell 1958:122); Odo's favore comitis nuper usurpato "could bear a stronger translation", Baker notes (Baker 1972:44 note 3).
  4. ^ G. Sitwell, tr. in St Odo of Cluny, 1958:90–180; there are two Latin versions of Odo's Life: A. Poncelet, "La plus ancienne 'Vie de Saint Géraud", Ann. Bolandist, 14 (1895:83–105).
  5. ^ Georges Duby, France in the Middle Ages 987–1460, 1993:28, notes that this sheds light on the process by which political institutions, at the low point of the monarchy, were locally reinvigorated.
  6. ^ Charles the Simple was the king at Paris, but not far beyond.
  7. ^ "And for a long time he was covered with small pimples that it was not thought that he could be cured. For this reason his father and mother decided that he should be put more closely to the study of letters, so that if he should prove unsuited for worldly pursuits he might be fitted for the ecclesiastical state." (Odo, tr, Sitwell, quoted in Baker 1972:45).
  8. ^ Saint of the Day, October 13 SaintPatrickDC.org. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  9. ^ Saint Gerald of Aurillac Archived 2008-07-02 at the Wayback Machine at Patron Saints Index

External links

10th century in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 10th century.

855

Year 855 (DCCCLV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

909

Year 909 (CMIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Aurillac

Aurillac (French pronunciation: [ɔʁijak] (listen); Occitan: Orlhac [uɾˈʎak]) is the prefecture of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aurillacois or Aurillacoises.

Chivalry

Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, but never decided on or summarized in a single document. It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature, especially the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, the former based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written in the 1130s, which introduced the legend of King Arthur. All of these were taken as historically accurate until the beginnings of modern scholarship in the 19th century.

The code of chivalry that developed in medieval Europe had its roots in earlier centuries. It arose in the Holy Roman Empire from the idealisation of the cavalryman—involving military bravery, individual training, and service to others—especially in Francia, among horse soldiers in Charlemagne's cavalry. The term "chivalry" derives from the Old French term chevalerie, which can be translated as "horse soldiery". Originally, the term referred only to horse-mounted men, from the French word for horse, cheval, but later it became associated with knightly ideals.Over time, its meaning in Europe has been refined to emphasise more general social and moral virtues. The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.

Chronological list of saints in the 10th century

This article lists the names of Christian saints of the 10th Century in chronological order of their deaths.

Droit du seigneur

Droit du seigneur (; French: [dʁwa dy sɛɲœʁ], 'lord's right'), also known as jus primae noctis (; Latin: [ju:s ˈpri:mae̯ 'nɔktɪs], 'right of the first night'), refers to a supposed legal right in medieval Europe, allowing feudal lords to have sexual relations with subordinate women, in particular, on their wedding nights.

Some scholars believe the "right" might have existed in medieval Europe. Others say that it is a myth, and that all references to it are from later periods.Similar customs have been recorded elsewhere.

Ebalus, Duke of Aquitaine

Ebalus or Ebles Manzer or Manser (c. 870 – 935) was Count of Poitou and Duke of Aquitaine on two occasions: from 890 to 892; and then from 902 until his death in 935 (Poitou) and from 928 until 932 (Aquitaine).

Gérard du Cher

Gérard (or Gérald) du Cher (died 1177), numbered Gerald II, was the bishop of Limoges from 1142 until his death. Born into the lower nobility, he succeeded his uncle, Eustorge de Scorailles, as bishop. Five years elapsed between Eustorge's death in 1137 and Gérard's election. He was selected by the cathedral chapter in an election free of outside interference.In 1158, Gérard founded a hospital in Limoges dedicated to Gerald of Aurillac. In 1167, he canonised Stephen of Muret (died 1124), the founder of Grandmont Abbey; Stephen was also canonised by the pope in 1189.

La Chaise-Dieu

La Chaise-Dieu (Auvergnat: La Chasa Dieu) is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France. Its inhabitants are called Casadéens, from the Latin name of the city.

October 13

October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 79 days remaining until the end of the year.

October 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

October 12 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - October 14

All fixed commemorations below celebrated on October 26 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For October 13th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on September 30.

Odo of Cluny

Odo of Cluny (French: Odon) (c. 880 – 18 November 942) was the second abbot of Cluny. He enacted various reforms in the Cluniac system of France and Italy. He is venerated as a saint by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. His feast day is 18 November.

There is only one contemporary biography of him, the Vita Odonis written by John of Salerno.

Pope Sylvester II

Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (c.  946 – 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac (Latin: Gerbertus Aureliacensis or de Aurillac; French: Gerbert d'Aurillac), he was a prolific scholar and teacher. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Greco-Roman arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere, which had been lost to Latin (though not Byzantine) Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era. He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using Arabic numerals. He was the first French Pope.

Robert de Turlande

Saint Robert de Turlande (c. 1000 - 17 April 1067) was a French Roman Catholic priest and professed member of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was of noble stock and was also related to Saint Gerald of Aurillac. He is best known for the establishment of the Benedictine convent of La Chaise-Dieu ('Home of God') and for his total commitment to the poor.He became a spiritual inspiration for Pope Clement VI - whose own origins in the religious life were based at that convent - and it was he who canonized the Benedictine abbot on 19 September 1531 in Avignon.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Tulle

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tulle (Latin: Dioecesis Tutelensis; French: Diocèse de Tulle) is a Roman Catholic diocese in Tulle, France. The Diocese of Tulle comprises the whole département of Corrèze. Originally established in 1317, the diocese was suppressed by the Concordat of 1802, which joined it to the See of Limoges. In 1817, the diocese was re-established in principle, according to the terms of the Concordat of 1817, but was re-erected canonically only by the papal Bulls dated 6 and 31 October 1822, and made suffragan to the Archbishop of Bourges. Since the reorganization of French ecclesiastical provinces by Pope John Paul II on 8 December 2002, Tulle has been a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Poitiers.

Saint-Pons-de-Thomières

Saint-Pons-de-Thomières (Languedocien: Sant Ponç de Tomièiras) is a commune in the Hérault department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

Saint Gerald

Saint Gerald may refer to:

Gerald of Aurillac celebrated on October 13

Gerald of Braga celebrated on December 5

Gerald of Mayo celebrated on March 13

Gerald of Sauve-Majeure celebrated on April 5

Gerald of Toul celebrated on April 23

Gebhard of Constance

Stodilo

Stodilo (or Stodilus, French: Stodile; died c. 861) was the bishop of Limoges from the early 840s until his death. His unusual name may be a corruption of the Latin stolidus (stolid, stupid), a humble reference to Christian "foolishness" in the eyes of unbelievers.The earliest reference to an ecclesiastical court in southern France dates from 851, when Stodilo judged a case between a vassal (vassus) of his and his cathedral over a piece of land the vassal had unjustly possessed. This document doubles as an early piece of evidence of feudo-vassalic relations in the Limousin. In 845, Stodilo received from King Pippin II two villas from the royal fisc.In the autumn of 855, Stodilo assisted Archbishop Rodulf of Bourges in the unction, coronation and investiture of Charles the Child as king of Aquitaine in Limoges, according to the Annales Bertiniani and the Chronicon of Adhemar of Chabannes. Stodilo may have been one of the guardians (bajuli) for the young king.In 859 Rodulf gave Stodilo and his successors a privately owned church "from his own alod". In exchange, Stodilo gave Rodulf a diocesan church, that is, "from the possessions of Saint Stephen", the patron saint of Limoges, to be held by Rodulf "as his alod". Both church lay within the diocese of Limoges. On his new acquisition, Rodulf founded the monastery of Beaulieu. When he consecrated the new community in 860, Stodilo was among the witnesses.

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