Gerald Strickland, 1st Baron Strickland

Gerald Paul Joseph Cajetan Carmel Antony Martin Strickland, 6th Count della Catena, 1st Baron Strickland GCMG (24 May 1861 – 22 August 1940), was a Maltese and British politician and peer, who served as Prime Minister of Malta, Governor of the Leeward Islands, Governor of Tasmania, Governor of Western Australia and Governor of New South Wales, in addition to sitting successively in the House of Commons and House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.


The Lord Strickland,
Count della Catena

Gerald Strickland 1930
4th Prime Minister of Malta
In office
9 August 1927 – 21 June 1932
MonarchGeorge V
Governor
Preceded bySir Ugo Mifsud
Succeeded bySir Ugo Mifsud
23rd Governor of New South Wales
In office
14 March 1913 – 27 October 1917
MonarchGeorge V
Premier
Preceded byLord Chelmsford
Succeeded bySir Walter Davidson
15th Governor of Western Australia
In office
31 May 1909 – 16 March 1913
Monarch
Premier
Preceded bySir Frederick Bedford
Succeeded bySir Harry Barron
9th Governor of Tasmania
In office
28 October 1904 – 20 May 1909
MonarchEdward VII
PremierJohn Evans
Preceded bySir Arthur Havelock
Succeeded bySir Harry Barron
Personal details
Born24 May 1861
Valletta, Malta
Died22 August 1940 (aged 79)
Attard, Malta
Political partyConstitutional Party
Spouse(s)
  • Edeline Sackville (1890–1918)
  • Margaret Hulton (1926–1940)
ChildrenEight
Alma materTrinity College

Early life

Strickland was born in Valletta, the son of naval officer Commander Walter Strickland, from the ancient English Strickland family of Sizergh, and Maria Aloysia Bonici-Mompalao, the niece and heiress of Sir Nicholas Sceberras Bologna, fifth Count della Catena in Malta, whom Gerald succeeded in 1875. He was educated at St Mary's College, Oscott, and Trinity College, Cambridge (BA, LLB).[1] Upon graduating, he was admitted to Inner Temple in 1887 entitled to practice as a Barrister-at-Law. He gained the rank of Major in the service of the Royal Malta Militia.

Elected in 1886 to the council of the government of Malta, Strickland began to take an active part in Maltese politics at an early age and in December 1887, he accompanied Dr. Fortunato Mizzi – founder of the Maltese Nationalist Party – to the first Colonial Conference in London to submit a scheme for a legislative assembly. The result was that the new Maltese Constitution of December 1887 was largely based on the joint Strickland-Mizzi proposals. In the following year, he was appointed as Assistant Secretary to Malta in 1888 and held the office of Chief Secretary of Malta in 1889, a post which he held till July 1902 when to avert more trouble in Malta which were created by his orders in councils to increase taxation, he was appointed as Governor of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean.[2]

Sir Gerald and Lady Edeline Strickland left Southampton for Antigua in September 1902, and took up residence at Government House, St Johns on arrival.[3] He was appointed as Governor of Tasmania in 1904, serving as such until 1909, and then as Governor of Western Australia from 1909 to 1913. In the early years consequent upon Australian Federation he was involved in the delicate matter of State rights and the developing nature of the appointment, role and salaries of governors. Appointed as Governor of New South Wales in March 1913, on 30 May 1913 he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG).[4] He was a supporter of the Eugenics Education Society.[5]

Political career

In 1917, Strickland returned to Malta and, after the grant of Self-Government, formed the Anglo-Maltese Party in 1921, which soon afterward amalgamated with the Maltese Constitutional Party to become the Constitutional Party under his leadership. Strickland was the leader of the Opposition between 1921 and 1927. In 1924, he won the seat of Lancaster for the Conservatives in the United Kingdom House of Commons. He left the House of Commons in 1928 upon being made a peer.[6]

After the 1927 election, Strickland had a majority in the Legislative Assembly and became Head of the Ministry (the fourth Prime Minister of Malta) from August 1927 until 1932.[7] Amongst the most important events of his government were the commencement of building works for St. Luke's Hospital in Gwardamanġia and his clash with the Senate, which led to the issue of Letters Patent which curtailed its powers and his concurrent clash with the ecclesiastical authorities. On 1 May 1930, Sir Mauro Monsignor Caruana, Titular Archbishop of Rhodes and Bishop of Malta, and Mikiel Monsignor Gonzi, Bishop of Gozo, issued a pastoral letter, read in all the churches of Malta and Gozo. In it, Archbishop Caruana and Bishop Gonzi declared that whoever voted for the Constitutional Party and its former coalition partner, the Labour Party, committed a mortal sin. That year he narrowly avoided assassination.[8]

This mortal sin was also committed by those who read Strickland's newspapers, printed by his Progress Press, namely the Daily Malta Chronicle and Ix-Xemx. He subsequently began publishing Il-Progress and Il-Berqa. The clash between the Catholic bishops and the Constitutional Party led to the suspension of the Maltese Constitution following consultations between the British Governor and London. Between July 1932 and November 1933, Strickland was again the leader of the Opposition, and after the grant of a new Constitution in 1939, he became the leader of the elected majority in the Council of Government.

Personal life

Strickland married Lady Edeline Sackville-West (1870–1918), the daughter of The 7th Earl De La Warr and the Honourable Constance Mary Elizabeth Cochrane-Wishart-Baillie, on 26 August 1890. They had six daughters, and two sons who died at an early age. Their first daughter married Henry Hornyold, became known as Mrs Hornyold-Strickland and chaired the Conservative Party Conference in 1947.[9] They had the following children:

  • Reginald Strickland (1892–1893)
  • Hon. Mary Christina Strickland (1896–1970)
  • Hon. Cecilia Victoria Strickland (1897–1982)
  • Hon. Mabel Edeline Strickland OBE (1899–1988)
  • Margaret Angela Strickland (1900–1901)
  • Hon. Henrietta May Strickland (1903–1975)
  • Walter Strickland (1901–1902)
  • Hon. Dr. Constance Teresa Strickland LMSSA (1912–1979)

On 31 August 1926, following the death of Lady Edeline in 1918, Strickland married Margaret Hulton, daughter of the newspaper proprietor Edward Hulton in the same church as his earlier wedding. She was made a Dame of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in the 1937 Coronation Honours.[8] Strickland was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) in 1889, for rendering invaluable services during a severe cholera epidemic. He was promoted within the order to KCMG in 1897. He was raised to the Peerage of the United Kingdom as Baron Strickland, of Sizergh Castle in the County of Westmorland, on 19 January 1928.[10] He died at Villa Bologna, his residence in Attard, and is buried in the family crypt at St. Paul's Cathedral, Mdina.

Titles, styles and honours

Viceregal styles of
Sir Gerald Strickland
Badge of the Governor of New South Wales.svg
Reference styleHis Excellency
Spoken styleYour Excellency

Titles

  • 24 May 1861 – 1878: Gerald Strickland, Esq.
  • 1878–1889: Gerald Strickland, Count della Catena
  • 1889–1897: Gerald Strickland CMG, Count della Catena
  • 1897–1902: Sir Gerald Strickland KCMG, Count della Catena
  • 1902–1904: His Excellency Sir Gerald Strickland KCMG, Count della Catena, Governor of the Leeward Islands
  • 1904–1909: His Excellency Sir Gerald Strickland KCMG, Count della Catena, Governor of Tasmania
  • 1909–1913: His Excellency Sir Gerald Strickland KCMG, Count della Catena, Governor of Western Australia
  • 1913–1913: His Excellency Sir Gerald Strickland KCMG, Count della Catena, Governor of New South Wales
  • 1913–1916: His Excellency Sir Gerald Strickland GCMG, Count della Catena, Governor of New South Wales
  • 1916–1921: Sir Gerald Strickland GCMG, Count della Catena
  • 1921–1924: Sir Gerald Strickland GCMG MLA, Count della Catena, Leader of the Opposition of Malta
  • 1924–1927: Sir Gerald Strickland GCMG MLA MP, Count della Catena, Leader of the Opposition of Malta
  • 1927–1928:The Honourable Sir Gerald Strickland GCMG MLA MP, Count della Catena, Prime Minister of Malta
  • 1928–1932:The Right Honourable The Lord Strickland GCMG MLA, Count della Catena, Prime Minister of Malta
  • 1932–1933:The Right Honourable The Lord Strickland GCMG MLA, Count della Catena, Leader of the Opposition of Malta
  • 1933–1940:The Right Honourable The Lord Strickland GCMG, Count della Catena

Honours

Ord.St.Michele-Giorgio Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) 1913
Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) 1897
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) 1889
King George V Coronation Medal ribbon King George V Coronation Medal 1911
GeorgeVSilverJubileum-ribbon King George V Silver Jubilee Medal 1935

References

  1. ^ "Strickland (or Bologna-Strickland), Gerald Bologna, Count (STRT884C)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. ^ "No. 27457". The London Gazette. 25 July 1902. p. 4739.
  3. ^ "Court Circular". The Times (36875). London. 17 September 1902. p. 7.
  4. ^ "No. 28724". The London Gazette. 30 May 1913. p. 3905.
  5. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 24th February, 1914
  6. ^ Strickland, Sir Gerald (1861–1940) Retrieved on 14 Feb 2018
  7. ^ https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/269903/JMH-2015KaulCHandrikarevised21Nov.pdf Retrieved on 14 Feb 2018
  8. ^ a b Walsh, G. P. (1990). "Strickland, Sir Gerald (1861–1940)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 12. Canberra: Australian National University.
  9. ^ National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 72 Annual Conference
  10. ^ "No. 33349". The London Gazette. 20 January 1928. p. 438.

Bibliography

  • Montalto, J., The Nobles of Malta-1530–1800, Midsea Books Ltd, Malta, 1980.
  • Burkes Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage of the UK (106th ed.) (London 2002).
  • Giles Ash, S., "The Nobility of Malta", Publishers Enterprises Group (PEG Ltd 1988).
  • Koster, A., Prelates and politicians in Malta, (Amsterdam University 1977).
  • Carnwath, Joan (2004). "Strickland, Gerald Paul Joseph Cajetan Carmel Antony Martin, Baron Strickland (1861–1940)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36350. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links

Government offices
Preceded by
Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson
Chief Secretary of Malta
1889–1902
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Merewether
Preceded by
Sir Henry Jackson
Governor of the Leeward Islands
1902–1904
Succeeded by
Sir Courtenay Knollys
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Havelock
Governor of Tasmania
1904–1909
Succeeded by
Sir Harry Barron
Preceded by
Sir Frederick Bedford
Governor of Western Australia
1909–1913
Succeeded by
Sir Harry Barron
Preceded by
The Lord Chelmsford
Governor of New South Wales
1913–1917
Succeeded by
Sir Walter Davidson
Party political offices
New political party Leader of the Constitutional Party
1921–1940
Succeeded by
Robert V. Galea
Political offices
New office Leader of the Opposition of Malta
1921–1927
Succeeded by
Ugo Pasquale Mifsud
Preceded by
Ugo Pasquale Mifsud
Prime Minister of Malta
1927–1932
Succeeded by
Ugo Pasquale Mifsud
Preceded by
Ugo Pasquale Mifsud
Leader of the Opposition of Malta
1932–1933
Vacant
Constitution suspended
Title next held by
Enrico Mizzi
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Joseph O'Neill
Member of Parliament for Lancaster
1924–1928
Succeeded by
Robert Parkinson Tomlinson
Titles of nobility
Preceded by
Nicola Sceberras Bologna
Count of Catena
1875–1940
Succeeded by
Thomas Hornyold-Strickland
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Strickland
1928–1940
Extinct
August 22

August 22 is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 131 days remaining until the end of the year.

Edeline Islands

The Edeline Islands are in Strickland Bay, in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. They are nominally located at 16°22′S 123°36′E.They are named after Lady Edeline Strickland, wife of Gerald Strickland, 1st Baron Strickland, for whom the bay is named. The islands are known locally as "The Graveyards", as the islands contain 19th century graves of pearl divers.

Government House, Sydney

The Government House is the vice-regal residence of the Governor of New South Wales, Australia, located on Conservatorium Road in the Sydney central business district adjacent to the Royal Botanic Gardens, overlooking Sydney Harbour, just south of the Sydney Opera House. Constructed between 1837 and 1843, the property has been the vice-regal residence of the Governor since Sir George Gipps, except for two brief periods; the first between 1901 and 1914, when the property was leased to the Commonwealth of Australia as the residence of the Governor-General of Australia, and the second from 1996 to 2011.

The property was returned as the Governor's residence in October 2011 and was managed by the Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales from March 1996 to December 2013. Completed in 1847 and constructed in the Gothic revival style, the building is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register.

List of Conservative Party (UK) MPs

This is a list of Conservative Party MPs. It includes all Members of Parliament elected to the British House of Commons representing the Conservative Party from 1834 onwards. Members of the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly or the European Parliament are not listed. Those in italics are overall leaders of the Conservative Party, those in bold are Prime Ministers.

May 24

May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 221 days remaining until the end of the year.

Records of members of parliament of the United Kingdom

This article about records of members of parliament of the United Kingdom and of England includes a variety of lists of MPs by age, period and other circumstances of service, familiar sets, ethnic or religious minorities, physical attributes, and circumstances of their deaths.

St Mary's College, Oscott

St Mary's College in New Oscott, Birmingham, often called Oscott College, is the Roman Catholic seminary of the Archdiocese of Birmingham in England and one of the three seminaries of the Catholic Church in England and Wales;

Strickland (surname)

The English surname Strickland is derived from the place-name Stercaland, of Old Norse origins, which is found in Westmorland to the south of Penrith. It has been used as a family name at least since the late 12th century, when Walter of Castlecarrock married Christian of Leteham, an heiress to the landed estate that covered the area where the villages of Great Strickland and Little Strickland are now. After this marriage Walter became known as Walter of Strickland, spelt in various ways.The coat of arms of the Strickland family of Gilsland is Sable three escalopes argent, meaning "three silver scallops on a black field".

Villa Bologna

Villa Bologna is a Maltese stately home, in the village of Attard in the central district of Malta. Built in opulent Baroque style, Villa Bologna has been called "the most beautiful 18th century country house to be built for a Maltese family" and "of similar grandeur to the finest palaces on the island".Villa Bologna is as interesting for its history as it is remarkable for its architecture and gardens which, after the neighbouring San Anton Gardens, is the largest historic gardens in Malta. Once the seat of the Counts della Catena, Villa Bologna is now held by the great-grandson of the 6th count Gerald Strickland, 1st Baron Strickland.Built during the rule of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and expanded during the British colonial period, Villa Bologna was central in the artistic, cultural, social and political history of Malta. It is a Grade 1 scheduled building and is a national monument.

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