Geotagging

Geotagging or GeoTagging, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes[1] or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata. This data usually consists of latitude and longitude coordinates, though they can also include altitude, bearing, distance, accuracy data, and place names, and perhaps a time stamp.

Geotagging can help users find a wide variety of location-specific information from a device. For instance, someone can find images taken near a given location by entering latitude and longitude coordinates into a suitable image search engine. Geotagging-enabled information services can also potentially be used to find location-based news, websites, or other resources.[2] Geotagging can tell users the location of the content of a given picture or other media or the point of view, and conversely on some media platforms show media relevant to a given location.

The related term geocoding refers to the process of taking non-coordinate based geographical identifiers, such as a street address, and finding associated geographic coordinates (or vice versa for reverse geocoding). Such techniques can be used together with geotagging to provide alternative search techniques.

Geotagging gThumb
Geotag information in a JPEG photo, shown by the software gThumb
Geotag Stamp
Geotag information stamped onto a JPEG photo by the software GPStamper
Solmeta N2 auf Nikon D5000 Rueckansicht
Geotagger "Solmeta N2" for Nikon D5000 DSLR

Popular examples

Geotagging has become a popular feature on several social media platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram.

Facebook users can geotag photos that can be added to the page of the location they are tagging. Users may also use a feature that allows them to find nearby Facebook friends, by generating a list of people according to the location tracker in their mobile devices.[3]

Instagram uses a map feature that allows users to geotag photos. The map layout pin points specific photos that the user has taken on a world map.

Geotagging techniques

The geographical location data used in geotagging will, in almost every case, be derived from the global positioning system, and based on a latitude/longitude-coordinate system that presents each location on the earth from 180° west through 180° east along the Equator and 90° north through 90° south along the prime meridian.

Geotagging photos

There are two main options for geotagging photos; capturing GPS information at the time the photo is taken or "attaching" the photograph to a map after the picture is taken.

In order to capture GPS data at the time the photograph is captured, the user must have a camera with built in GPS or a standalone GPS along with a digital camera. Because of the requirement for wireless service providers in United States to supply more precise location information for 911 calls by September 11, 2012,[4] more and more cell phones have built-in GPS chips. Most smart phones already use a GPS chip along with built-in cameras to allow users to automatically geotag photos. Others may have the GPS chip and camera but do not have internal software needed to embed the GPS information within the picture. A few digital cameras also have built-on or built-in GPS that allow for automatic geotagging.[5] Devices use GPS, A-GPS or both. A-GPS can be faster getting an initial fix if within range of a cell phone tower, and may work better inside buildings. Traditional GPS does not need cell phone towers and uses standard GPS signals outside of urban areas. Traditional GPS tends to use more battery power. Almost any digital camera can be coupled with a stand-alone GPS and post processed with photo mapping software, to write the location information to the image's exif header.

GPS formats

GPS coordinates may be represented in text in a number of ways, with more or fewer decimals:

Template Description Example
[-]d.d, [-]d.d Decimal degrees with negative numbers for South and West. 12.3456, -98.7654
d° m.m′ {N|S}, d° m.m′ {E|W} Degrees and decimal minutes with N, S, E or W suffix for North, South, East, West 12° 20.736′ N, 98° 45.924′ W
{N|S} d° m.m′ {E|W} d° m.m′ Degrees and decimal minutes with N, S, E or W prefix for North, South, East, West N 12° 20.736′, W 98° 45.924′
d° m' s" {N|S}, d° m' s" {E|W} Degrees, minutes and seconds with N, S, E or W suffix for North, South, East, West 12° 20' 44" N, 98° 45' 55" W
{N|S} d° m' s", {E|W} d° m' s" Degrees, minutes and seconds with N, S, E or W prefix for North, South, East, West N 12° 20' 44", W 98° 45' 55"

Geotagging standards in electronic file formats

Photographs

With photos stored in JPEG, TIFF and many other file formats, the geotag information, storing camera location and sometimes heading, is typically embedded in the metadata, stored in Exchangeable image file format (Exif) or Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) format. These data are not visible in the picture itself but are read and written by special programs and most digital cameras and modern scanners. Latitude and longitude are stored in units of degrees with decimals.[6] This geotag information can be read by many programs, such as the cross-platform open source ExifTool. An example readout for a photo might look like:

GPS Latitude                    : 57 deg 38' 56.83" N
GPS Longitude                   : 10 deg 24' 26.79" E
GPS Position                    : 57 deg 38' 56.83" N, 10 deg 24' 26.79" E

or the same coordinates could also be presented as decimal degrees:

GPS
GPS Longitude                   : 10.40744
GPS Position                    : 57.64911 10.40744

When stored in Exif, the coordinates are represented as a series of rational numbers in the GPS sub-IFD. Here is a hexadecimal dump of the relevant section of the Exif metadata (with big-endian byte order):

+ [GPS directory with 5 entries]
| 0)  GPSVersionID = 2 2 0 0
|     - Tag 0x0000 (4 bytes, int8u[4]):
|         dump: 02 02 00 00
| 1)  GPSLatitudeRef = N
|     - Tag 0x0001 (2 bytes, string[2]):
|         dump: 4e 00  [ASCII "N\0"]
| 2)  GPSLatitude = 57 38 56.83 (57/1 38/1 5683/100)
|     - Tag 0x0002 (24 bytes, rational64u[3]):
|         dump: 00 00 00 39 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 26 00 00 00 01
|         dump: 00 00 16 33 00 00 00 64
| 3)  GPSLongitudeRef = W
|     - Tag 0x0003 (2 bytes, string[2]):
|         dump: 57 00  [ASCII "W\0"]
| 4)  GPSLongitude = 10 24 26.79 (10/1 24/1 2679/100)
|     - Tag 0x0004 (24 bytes, rational64u[3]):
|         dump: 00 00 00 0a 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 18 00 00 00 01
|         dump: 00 00 0a 77 00 00 00 64

Remote sensing data

In the field of remote sensing the geotagging goal is to store coordinates of every pixel in the image. One approach is used with the orthophotos where we store coordinates of four corners and all the other pixels can be georeferenced by interpolation. The four corners are stored using GeoTIFF or World file standards. Hyperspectral images take a different approach defining a separate file of the same spatial dimensions as the image where latitude and longitude of each pixel are stored as two 2D layers in so called Input geometry data (IGM) files,[7] also known as GEO files.

Audio/video files

Audio/video files can be geotagged via: metadata, audio encoding, overlay, or with companion files. Metadata records the geospatial data in the encoded video file to be decoded for later analysis. One of the standards used with unmanned aerial vehicle is MISB Standard 0601 which allows geocoding of corner points and horizon lines in individual video frames.[8] Audio encoding involves a process of converting gps data into audio data such as modem squawk. Overlay involves overlaying GPS data as text on the recorded video. Companion files are separate data files which correspond to respective audio/video files. Companion files are typically found in the .KML and .GPX data formats.[9] For audio and video files which use the vorbiscomment metadata format (including Opus, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, Speex, and Ogg Theora), there is a proposed GEO LOCATION[10] field which can be used. Like all vorbiscomments, it is plain text, and it takes the form:

GEO_LOCATION=(decimal latitude);(decimal longitude);([optional]elevation in meters)

for example:

GEO_LOCATION=35.1592;-98.4422;410

SMS messages

The GeoSMS standard works by embedding one or more 'geo' URIs in the body of an SMS, for example:

I'm at the pub geo:-37.801631,144.980294;u=16

DNS entries

RFC 1876 defines a means for expressing location information in the Domain Name System. LOC resources records can specify the latitude, longitude, altitude, precision of the location, and the physical size of on entity attached to an IP address. However, in practice not all IP addresses have such a record, so it is more common to use geolocation services to find the physical location of an IP address.

HTML pages

ICBM method

The GeoURL[11] method requires the ICBM tag[12] (plus optional Dublin Core metadata), which is used to geotag standard web pages in HTML format:

 <meta name="ICBM" content="50.167958, -97.133185">

The similar Geo Tag format allows the addition of placename and region tags:

 <meta name="geo.position" content="50.167958;-97.133185">
 <meta name="geo.placename" content="Rockwood Rural Municipality, Manitoba, Canada">
 <meta name="geo.region" content="ca-mb">

RDF feeds

The RDF method is defined by W3 Group and presents the information in RDF tags:[13]

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
         xmlns:geo="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#">
  <geo:Point>
  <geo:lat>55.701</geo:lat>
  <geo:long>12.552</geo:long>
  </geo:Point>
</rdf:RDF>

Microformat

The Geo microformat allows coordinates within HyperText Markup Language pages to be marked up in such a way that they can be "discovered" by software tools. Example:

 <span class="geo">
    <span class="latitude">50.167958</span>;
    <span class="longitude">-97.133185</span>
 </span>

A proposal has been developed[14] to extend Geo to cover other bodies, such as Mars and the Moon.

An example is the Flickr photo-sharing Web site, which provides geographic data for any geotagged photo in all of the above-mentioned formats.

Geotagging in tag-based systems

No industry standards exist, however there are a variety of techniques for adding geographical identification metadata to an information resource. One convention, established by the website Geobloggers and used by more and more sites, e.g. photo sharing sites Panoramio and Flickr, and the social bookmarking site del.icio.us, enables content to be found via a location search. Such sites allow users to add metadata to an information resource via a set of so-called machine tags (see folksonomy).

geotagged
geo:lat=57.64911
geo:lon=10.40744

This describes the geographic coordinates of a particular location in terms of latitude (geo:lat) and longitude (geo:lon). These are expressed in decimal degrees in the WGS84 datum, which has become something of a default geodetic datum with the advent of GPS.

Using three tags works within the constraint of having tags that can only be single 'words'. Identifying geotagged information resources on sites like Flickr and del.icio.us is done by searching for the 'geotagged' tag, since the tags beginning 'geo:lat=' and 'geo:lon=' are necessarily very variable.

Another option is to tag with a Geohash:

geo:hash=u4pruydqqvj

A further convention proposed by FlickrFly adds tags to specify the suggested viewing angle and range when the geotagged location is viewed in Google Earth:

ge:head=225.00
ge:tilt=45.00
ge:range=560.00

These three tags would indicate that the camera is pointed heading 225° (south west), has a 45° tilt and is 560 metres from the subject.

Where the above methods are in use, their coordinates may differ from those specified by the photo's internal Exif data, for example because of a correction or a difference between the camera's location and the subject's.

In order to integrate geotags in social media and enhance text readability or oral use, the concept of 'meetag' or tag-to-meet has been proposed. Differing from hashtag construction, meetag includes the geolocation information after an underscore. A meetag is therefore a word or an unspaced phrase prefixed with an underscore ("_"). Words in messages on microblogging and social networking services may be tagged by putting "_" before them, either as they appear in a sentence, (e.g. "There is a concert going _montreuxjazzfestival", "the world wide web was invented _cern _geneve", ...) or appended to it.[15]

Geoblogging

Geoblogging attaches specific geographic location information to blog entries via geotags. Searching a list of blogs and pictures tagged using geotag technology allows users to select areas of specific interest to them on interactive maps.[16]

The progression of GPS technology, along with the development of various online applications, has fueled the popularity of such tagged blogging, and the combination of GPS Phones and GSM localization, has led to the moblogging, where blog posts are tagged with exact position of the user. Real-time geotagging relays automatically geotagged media such as photos or video to be published and shared immediately.

For better integration and readability of geotags into blog texts, the meetag syntax has been proposed, which transforms any word, sentence, or precise geolocalization coordinates prefixed with an underscore into a 'meetag'. It not only lets one express a precise location but also takes in account dynamically changing geolocations.

Wikipedia article geosearching apps

One of the first attempts to initiate the geotagging aspect of searching and locating articles seems to be the now-inoperative site Wikinear.com, launched in 2008, which showed the user Wikipedia pages that are geographically closest to one's current location.[17]

The 2009 app Cyclopedia works relatively well showing geotagged Wikipedia articles located within several miles of ones location, integrated with a street-view mode, and 360-degree mode.

The app Respotter Wiki, launched in 2009, claims to feature Wikipedia searching via a map, also allowing users to interact with people around them, via messaging and reviews, etc. The app, in its current function, however, seems to give only geotagged photo results.

As of 2017, the Wikipedia-World Project provides a simple map search tool which can display tagged articles near to a particular location, as well as a variety of more sophisticated tools integrated with external mapping services.

Dangers of geotagging

Following a scientific study[18] and several demonstrative websites,[19][20] a discussion on the privacy implications of geotagging has raised public attention.[21][22][23][24] In particular, the automatic embedding of geotags in pictures taken with smartphones is often ignored by cell-phone users. As a result, people are often not aware that the photos they publish on the Internet have been geotagged. Many celebrities reportedly gave away their home location without knowing it. According to the study, a significant number of for-sale advertisements on Craigslist, that were otherwise anonymized, contained geotags, thereby revealing the location of high-valued goods—sometimes in combination with clear hints to the absence of the offerer at certain times. Publishing photos and other media tagged with exact geolocation on the Internet allows random people to track an individual's location and correlate it with other information. Therefore, criminals could find out when homes are empty because their inhabitants posted geotagged and timestamped information both about their home address and their vacation residence. These dangers can be avoided by removing geotags with a metadata removal tool for photos before publishing them on the Internet.[25][26]

In 2007, four United States Army Apache helicopters were destroyed on the ground by Iraqi insurgent mortar fire; the insurgents had made use of embedded coordinates in web-published photographs (geotagging) taken of the helicopters by soldiers.[27]

Another newly realised danger of geotagging is the location information provided to criminal gangs and poachers on the whereabouts of often endangered animals. This can effectively make tourists scouts for these poachers, so geotagging should be turned off when photographing these animals.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Geo Tagged QR Codes". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
  2. ^ Anick Jesdanun, AP (2008-01-18). "GPS adds dimension to online photos". Retrieved 2008-01-19.
  3. ^ "Facebook's New Mobile Feature For Finding People Around You". Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  4. ^ "Wireless 911 Services". Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  5. ^ "Photographers Have Several Camera Options for Geotagging Pictures with GPS Points".
  6. ^ In this format, a positively signed coordinate indicates Northern or Eastern hemisphere, while negative sign indicates Southern or Western hemisphere.
  7. ^ "ENVI Classic Tutorial: Georeferencing Images Using Input Geometry" (PDF). Exelis. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  8. ^ MISB Standard 0601
  9. ^ "Airborne Geospatial Video Recorders, Cameras, and Systems".
  10. ^ "VorbisComment – XiphWiki". wiki.xiph.org.
  11. ^ "Adding yourself to GeoURL". Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  12. ^ The Internet Engineering Task Force. "Geographic registration of HTML documents". Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  13. ^ W3C Semantic Web Interest Group. "Basic Geo (WGS84 lat/long) Vocabulary". Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  14. ^ "Geo Extension Straw-Man Proposal". Retrieved 2007-12-28.
  15. ^ "Web page for the 'meetag standard' proposition". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.
  16. ^ "Example of pictures with geotag, using mobile phone".
  17. ^ Willison, Simon. (2008). "Wininear.com, OAuth and Fire Eagle", SimonWillison.net, Mar 22 2008
  18. ^ "G. Friedland, R. Sommer: "Cybercasing the Joint: On the Privacy Implications of Geo-Tagging", 5th Usenix Hot Topics in Security Workshop (HotSec2010), Washington DC, August 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-23.
  19. ^ "Please Rob Me". www.pleaserobme.com.
  20. ^ "icanstalku.com". icanstalku.com. Retrieved 2013-12-23.
  21. ^ NBC Action News Smartphone pictures pose privacy risk on YouTube
  22. ^ Heussner, Ki Mae, "Celebrities' Photos, Videos May Reveal Location", ABC News, July 16, 2010
  23. ^ Geo-tags reveal celeb secrets, 12 July 2010, by Jim Giles, New Scientist
  24. ^ "Web Photos That Reveal Secrets Such As Where You Live / "MythBusters" host inadvertently reveals his home address on Twitter". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-23.
  25. ^ For instance, ExifCleaner and JPEG & PNG Stripper
  26. ^ iPhone-App iMetaPhoto
  27. ^ "Geotagging poses security risks". Army.mil. Retrieved 2013-12-23.

Further reading

  • Luo, Jiebo; Joshi, Dhiraj; Yu, Jie; Gallagher, Andrew. "Geotagging in multimedia and computer vision—a survey". Multimedia Tools and Applications. Springer. 51 (1): 187–211. doi:10.1007/s11042-010-0623-y.

External links

ACDSee

ACDSee is an image organizer, viewer, and image editor program for Windows, macOS and iOS, developed by ACD Systems International Inc. ACDSee was originally distributed as a 16-bit application for Windows 3.0 and later supplanted by a 32-bit version for Windows 95. ACDSee Pro 6 adds native 64-bit support. The newest versions of ACDSee incorporate modern Digital Asset Management tools like Face Detection & Facial Recognition (Ultimate 2019).

ACDSee's main features are speed, lossless RAW image editing, image batch processing, editing metadata (Exif and IPTC), rating, keywords, and categories, and geotagging. Judging the image quality of a picture is fast due to next/previous image caching, fast RAW image decoding and support for one-click toggling between 100% and fit screen zoom mode anywhere inside the image. Most of ACDSee's features can be accessed via keyboard.

ACDSee displays a tree view of the file structure for navigation with thumbnail images of the selected folder, and a preview of a selected image. ACDSee started as an image organizer/viewer, but over time had image editing and RAW development (Pro version) capabilities added. The thumbnails generated by ACDSee are cached, so that they do not need to be regenerated, and stored on disk as a database.ACDSee's database can be backed up, and exported/imported as XML or binary. Each database and its associated thumbnails can also be loaded and saved as separate entities.

The photo manager is available as a consumer version, and a pro version which provides additional features, and additional image editing capabilities. In 2012, ACDSee Free was released, without advanced features.

Bhuvan

Bhuvan, (lit: Earth), is a web mapping service which allows users to explore a 2D/3D representation of the surface of the Earth. The browser is specifically tailored to view India, offering the highest resolution in this region and providing content in four local languages. A beta version was launched on 12 August 2009.Apart from visualization, Bhuvan provides timely disaster support services (domestic and international), free satellite data and a products download facility, and rich thematic datasets. Bhuvan is using a crowdsourcing approach to enrich its maps and collect point of interest data. It also acts as a platform for hosting government data (example - Karnataka Forest Department datasets).A diverse series of Bhuvan Application Services, relevant for many ministries of the Government of India, was released on August 12, 2015. This includes satellite images for more than 300 cities in the country, at a 1-metre resolution. Examples of the types of applications include the following:

- Forest and Environment sector of MOEFCC – Depiction of ENVIS centre database “CRIS” to highlight various environmental parameters.

- Toll information system for NHAI – A national database of national highways and Toll plazas

- Geotagging and controlled crowdsourcing application for AP Housing Corporation Ltd., which has enabled geotagging of 3.8 million houses in Andhra Pradesh with field photos and important attributes.

- Islands information system for developmental decision making for Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs.

- Live link of the GIS databases of North East Region (NER) that showcases tools for better planning and development of the Northeastern States,

- A new search tool on Bhuvan enables data discovery and metadata display for the ease of navigation by the user community.

- Cultural heritage sites of the country and its management on geospatial platform

– National database for Ministry of Culture and the Archaeological Survey of India.

- A viewing application that contains 3D city models, complete with extrusions of buildings and virtual city models. This is useful for visualizations of proposed Smart City infrastructure elements.

- Agricultural area mapping area assessment for Mango, Banana and Citrus fruits.

– A National Mission of DAC, MOA, Bhujal database and visualization.

– Country-wide groundwater maps, with state-wise access to the online services for drinking water and artificial-recharge infrastructure.

- Geospatial tools for schools – GIS for class 9 and class 10, including neighbourhood mapping tools for school children as part of School Bhuvan.

- GAIL pipeline surveillance and monitoring system, pilot scale implementation for 640 km stretch in Gujarat.

- E-governance model for image and geospatial based techniques.

- Mobile smart phone applications for varieties of crowd sourcing applications

– A particular focus is on the “Clean Ganga” Mission of Ministry of Water Resources. The tool “Bhuvan Ganga” now available in the public domain for people wishing to participate in contribute data to the Clean Ganga project.

Comparison of photo gallery software

The following is a comparison of photo gallery publishing software.

Some are desktop applications, others are server side applications.

Comparison of smartphones

This is a comparison of the various internal components and features of many smartphones.

Cyber-shot

Cyber-shot is Sony's line of point-and-shoot digital cameras introduced in 1996. Cyber-shot model names use a DSC prefix, which is an initialism for "Digital Still Camera". Many Cyber-shot models feature Carl Zeiss trademarked lenses, while others use Sony, or Sony G lenses.

All Cyber-shot cameras accept Sony's proprietary Memory Stick or Memory Stick PRO Duo flash memory. Select models have also supported CompactFlash. Current Cyber-shot cameras support Memory Stick PRO Duo, SD, SDHC, and SDXC. From 2006 to 2009, Sony Ericsson used the Cyber-shot brand in a line of mobile phones.

GPS Exchange Format

GPX, or GPS Exchange Format, is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints, tracks, and routes. The format is open and can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data (and optionally elevation, time, and other information) is stored in tags and can be interchanged between GPS devices and software. Common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, annotating maps, and geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken.

Geotagged photograph

A geotagged photograph is a photograph which is associated with a geographical location by geotagging. Usually this is done by assigning at least a latitude and longitude to the image, and optionally altitude, compass bearing and other fields may also be included.

In theory, every part of a picture can be tied to a geographic location, but in the most typical application, only the position of the photographer is associated with the entire digital image. This has implications for search and retrieval. For example, photos of a mountain summit can be taken from different positions miles apart. To find all images of a particular summit in an image database, all photos taken within a reasonable distance must be considered. The point position of the photographer can in some cases include the bearing, the direction the camera was pointing, as well as the elevation and the DOP.

Image sharing

Image sharing, or photo sharing, is the publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online. Image sharing websites offer services such as uploading, hosting, managing and sharing of photos (publicly or privately). This function is provided through both websites and applications that facilitate the upload and display of images. The term can also be loosely applied to the use of online photo galleries that are set up and managed by individual users, including photoblogs. Sharing means that other users can view but not necessarily download images, and users can select different copyright options for their images.

While photoblogs tend only to display a chronological view of user-selected medium-sized photos, most photo sharing sites provide multiple views (such as thumbnails and slideshows), the ability to classify photos into albums, and add annotations (such as captions or tags).

Desktop photo management applications may include their own photo-sharing features or integration with sites for uploading images to them. There are also desktop applications whose sole function is sharing images, generally using peer-to-peer networking. Basic image sharing functionality can be found in applications that allow you to email photos, for example by dragging and dropping them into pre-designed templates.

Photo sharing is not confined to the web and personal computers, but is also possible from portable devices such as camera phones, either directly or via MMS. Some cameras now come equipped with wireless networking and similar sharing functionality themselves.

Kyocera Hydro

Hydro is a smartphone designed and manufactured by Kyocera. The Hydro features Android 4.0 and 3.5" IPS panel touchscreen. Hydro is one of the first waterproof smartphones, certified for IPX5 & IPX7.Other specs include Wi-Fi hotspot, and 3.2 MP (2048×1536 px) camera with geotagging.

Media formats supported: Audio: AAC, AAC+, eAAC+, AMR-NB, AMR-WB, MP3, MIDI, Vorbis. Video: MPEG4, H.263, H.264.

List of types of XML schemas

This is a list of notable XML schemas in use on the Internet sorted by purpose. XML schemas can be used to create XML documents for a wide range of purposes such as syndication, general exchange, and storage of data in a standard format.

MapWith.Us

MapWith.Us is a geosocial networking website that allows users to create and share custom maps with an online community. User maps are created by uploading and geotagging media. When media is associated with a location on a map, the media is known as a map article. Map articles may include text, photos, paths, icons, video, web links, and RSS feeds.

Nikon D3100

The Nikon D3100 is a 14.2-megapixel DX format DSLR Nikon F-mount camera announced by Nikon on August 19, 2010. It replaced the D3000 as Nikon's entry level DSLR. It introduced Nikon's new EXPEED 2 image processor and was the first Nikon DSLR featuring full high-definition video recording with full-time autofocus and H.264 compression, instead of Motion JPEG compression. It was also the first Nikon DSLR to provide high-definition video recording at more than one frame rate.Use is assisted by two Guide Modes: Easy Operation and Advanced Operation tutorial. On April 19, 2012, the D3200 superseded the D3100 as Nikon's entry-level DSLR.

Nikon D5100

The Nikon D5100 is a 16.2-megapixel DX-format DSLR F-mount camera announced by Nikon on April 5, 2011. It features the same 16.2-megapixel CMOS sensor as the D7000 with 14-bit depth, while delivering Full HD 1080p video mode at either 24, 25 or 30fps. The D5100 is the first Nikon DSLR to offer 1080p video at a choice of frame rates; previous Nikon DSLRs that recorded 1080p only did so at 24 fps. It replaces the D5000 and was replaced by the D5200.

Nikon D810

The Nikon D810 is a 36.3-megapixel professional-grade full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera produced by Nikon. The camera was officially announced in June 2014, and became available in July 2014.

Compared to the former D800/D800E it offers an image sensor with a base sensitivity of ISO 64 and extended range of ISO 32 to 51,200, an Expeed processor with noise reduction with claimed 1 stop noise improvement, doubled buffer size, increased frame rate and extended battery life, improved autofocus – now similar to the D4S, improved video with 1080p 60 fps and many software improvements.

The D810 has now been succeeded by the Nikon D850.

Nikon D90

The Nikon D90 is a 12.3 megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) model announced by Nikon on August 27, 2008. It is a prosumer model that replaces the Nikon D80, fitting between the company's entry-level and professional DSLR models. It has a Nikon DX format crop sensor.

Nikon gave the D90's Estimated Selling Price in the United States as US$899.95 for the body alone and as $1299.99 with the Nikkor AF-S DX 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, which by itself sold for $399.95. Street prices were generally lower.The D90 was the first DSLR with video recording capabilities. In May 2009, the D90 won the TIPA European Photo & Imaging Award, in the "Best D-SLR Advanced" category.

Picasa

Picasa is a discontinued image organizer and image viewer for organizing and editing digital photos, plus an integrated photo-sharing website, originally created by a company named Lifescape (which at that time was incubated by Idealab) in 2002. In July 2004, Google acquired Picasa from Lifescape and began offering it as freeware. "Picasa" is a blend of the name of Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, the phrase mi casa (Spanish for "my house") and "pic" for pictures.Native applications for Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Mac OS X (Intel only) were available from Google. For Linux, Google bundled Wine with the Windows version to create an installation package. For Mac OS X 10.4 and later, Google also released an iPhoto plugin and a standalone program for uploading photos.

On February 12, 2016, Google announced it was discontinuing support for Picasa Desktop and Web Albums, effective March 15, 2016, and focusing on the cloud-based Google Photos as its successor. Picasa Web Albums, a companion service, was closed on May 1, 2016.

Picture Motion Browser

Picture Motion Browser (PMB) is a software application from Sony for organizing and editing digital photos. In 2012, PMB was succeeded by Sony's PlayMemories Home.

Real-time geotagging

Real-time geotagging is a name given to the automatic technique of acquiring media (such as photos, audio or video), associating a specific location with the media, transferring the media to an online map and publishing the media in real time. It is thus an extension of an automatic geotagging process, requiring an in-built or attached location acquisition device (such as GPS or Wi-Fi positioning system), but also requires communication with a wireless data transfer device (such as mobile phone networks or Wi-Fi networks). Several modern cell phones and digital cameras already integrate camera, aGPS, and wireless data transfer into one device, thus directly producing a geotagged photograph. Real-time geotagging is sometimes referred to as "mobile geotagging" or "autogeotagging", but this does not imply the real-time publishing step.

Social photography

Social photography is a subcategory of photography focusing upon the technology, interaction and activities of individuals who take photographs. Digital cameras, photo sharing websites and the Internet have enabled new tools and methods of social networking while consumer trends such as flashpacking and adventure travel have led to a worldwide increase in socially connected photographers.The proliferation of easy-to-use open source blogging methods, inexpensively-priced equipment and content management system applications has led to an increase in photography for social change and amateur photojournalism.Some extensions of social photography include geotagging and online mapping, while online social networking destinations like Facebook have led to an increase in the popularity of technology employing the real-time transfer of images. Where Facebook allows for users to instantly upload a picture from their mobile phone to their profile, there have recently been a number of services sprouting up that allows users to create real time photo streams.

A wireless digital camera enables photographers to connect to cellular networks or other hotspots to share photos, print wirelessly and save photos directly to an image hosting website. Geographic areas serviced by outdoor WiFi networks permit extended applications for geocaching which can include the use of Global Positioning Systems and smartphones.

Some news networks and online broadcasters encourage viewers to send in photographs of live, breaking and current events, enabling citizen journalists and amateur photographers to participate in the news gathering process.

Some business companies started to look for individuals who can take images opposed to stock-photos that would help evolve their brand and this is typically done through social photography.

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