Geosynthetics

Geosynthetics are synthetic products used to stabilize terrain. They are generally polymeric products used to solve civil engineering problems. This includes eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells and geocomposites. The polymeric nature of the products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability are required. They can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics are available in a wide range of forms and materials. These products have a wide range of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation, geoenvironmental, hydraulic, and private development applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures, reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control, sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture and agriculture.

Kliffende, Island Sylt, 1999
Geotextile sandbags protected the historic house Kliffende on Sylt island against storms, which eroded the cliffs left and right from the sandbag barrier.[1]
Mega sand container
Geotextile sandbags can be ca. 20 m long, such as those used for the artificial reef at Narrow Neck, Queensland.[1]

History

Inclusions of different sorts mixed with soil have been used for thousands of years. They were used in roadway construction in Roman days to stabilize roadways and their edges. These early attempts were made of natural fibres, fabrics or vegetation mixed with soil to improve road quality, particularly when roads were built on unstable soil. They were also used to build steep slopes as with several pyramids in Egypt and walls as well. A fundamental problem with using natural materials (wood, cotton, etc.) in a buried environment is the biodegradation that occurs from microorganisms in the soil. With the advent of polymers in the middle of the 20th century a much more stable material became available. When properly formulated, lifetimes of centuries can be predicted even for harsh environmental conditions.

Early papers on geosynthetics (as we know them today) in the 1960s documented their use as filters in the United States and as reinforcement in Europe. A 1977 conference in Paris brought together many of the early manufacturers and practitioners. The International Geosynthetics Society (IGS) founded in 1982 has subsequently organized a worldwide conference every four years and its numerous chapters have additional conferences. Presently, separate geosynthetic institutes, trade-groups, and standards-setting groups are active. Approximately twenty universities teach stand-alone courses on geosynthetics and almost all include the subject in geotechnical, geoenvironmental, and hydraulic engineering courses. Geosynthetics are available worldwide and the activity is robust and steadily growing.

Geo2
Geosynthetic products[2]

Categories

Geotextiles

Geotextiles form one of the two largest groups of geosynthetics. They are textiles consisting of synthetic fibers rather than natural ones such as cotton, wool, or silk. This makes them less susceptible to bio-degradation. These synthetic fibers are made into flexible, porous fabrics by standard weaving machinery or are matted together in a random non woven manner. Some are also knitted. Geotextiles are porous to liquid flow across their manufactured plane and also within their thickness, but to a widely varying degree. There are at least 100 specific application areas for geotextiles that have been developed; however, the fabric always performs at least one of four discrete functions: separation, reinforcement, filtration, and/or drainage.

Geogrids

Geogrid on a slope
Geogrids are used to prevent sliding on long and steep slopes during installation and use of a landfill capping system.[1]

Geogrids represent a rapidly growing segment within geosynthetics. Rather than being a woven, nonwoven or knitted textile fabric, geogrids are polymers formed into a very open, gridlike configuration, i.e., they have large apertures between individual ribs in the transverse and longitudinal directions. Geogrids are (a) either stretched in one, two or three directions for improved physical properties, (b) made on weaving or knitting machinery by standard textile manufacturing methods, or (c) by laser or ultrasonically bonding rods or straps together. There are many specific application areas; however, geogrids function almost exclusively as reinforcement materials.

Geonets/Geospacers

Geonets, and the related geospacers by some, constitute another specialized segment within the geosynthetics area. They are formed by a continuous extrusion of parallel sets of polymeric ribs at acute angles to one another. When the ribs are opened, relatively large apertures are formed into a netlike configuration. Two types are most common, either biplanar or triplanar. Alternatively many very different types of drainage cores are available. They consist of nubbed, dimpled or cuspated polymer sheets, three-dimensional networks of stiff polymer fibers in different configurations and small drainage pipes or spacers within geotextiles. Their design function is completely within the drainage area where they are used to convey liquids or gases of all types.

Geomembranes

Geomembranes represent the other largest group of geosynthetics, and in dollar volume their sales are greater than that of geotextiles. Their growth in the United States and Germany was stimulated by governmental regulations originally enacted in the early 1980s for the lining of solid-waste landfills. The materials themselves are relatively thin, impervious sheets of polymeric material used primarily for linings and covers of liquids- or solid-storage facilities. This includes all types of landfills, surface impoundments, canals, and other containment facilities. Thus the primary function is always containment as a liquid or vapor barrier or both. The range of applications, however, is great, and in addition to the environmental area, applications are rapidly growing in geotechnical, transportation, hydraulic, and private development engineering (such as aquaculture, agriculture, heap leach mining, etc.).

Geosynthetic clay liners

Geosynthetic clay liners, or GCLs, are an interesting juxtaposition of polymeric materials and natural soils. They are rolls of factory fabricated thin layers of bentonite clay sandwiched between two geotextiles or bonded to a geomembrane. Structural integrity of the subsequent composite is obtained by needle-punching, stitching or adhesive bonding. GCLs are used as a composite component beneath a geomembrane or by themselves in geoenvironmental and containment applications as well as in transportation, geotechnical, hydraulic, and many private development applications.

Geofoam

Geofoam is a product created by a polymeric expansion process of polystyrene resulting in a “foam” consisting of many closed, but gas-filled, cells. The skeletal nature of the cell walls is the unexpanded polymeric material. The resulting product is generally in the form of large, but extremely light, blocks which are stacked side-by-side providing lightweight fill in numerous applications.

Geocells

Geocells (also known as Cellular Confinement Systems) are three-dimensional honeycombed cellular structures that form a confinement system when infilled with compacted soil. Extruded from polymeric materials into strips welded together ultrasonically in series, the strips are expanded to form the stiff (and typically textured and perforated) walls of a flexible 3D cellular mattress. Infilled with soil, a new composite entity is created from the cell-soil interactions. The cellular confinement reduces the lateral movement of soil particles, thereby maintaining compaction and forms a stiffened mattress that distributes loads over a wider area. Traditionally used in slope protection and earth retention applications, geocells made from advanced polymers are being increasingly adopted for long-term road and rail load support. Much larger geocells are also made from stiff geotextiles sewn into similar, but larger, unit cells that are used for protection bunkers and walls.

Geocomposites

Geocomposite drain installation2
Installation of a geocomposite drain. Geocomposite drains are often used on steep slopes of landfill capping systems.[1]

A geocomposite consists of a combination of geotextiles, geogrids, geonets and/or geomembranes in a factory fabricated unit. Also, any one of these four materials can be combined with another synthetic material (e.g., deformed plastic sheets or steel cables) or even with soil. As examples, a geonet or geospacer with geotextiles on both surfaces and a GCL consisting of a geotextile/bentonite/geotextile sandwich are both geocomposites. This specific category brings out the best creative efforts of the engineer and manufacturer. The application areas are numerous and constantly growing. The major functions encompass the entire range of functions listed for geosynthetics discussed previously: separation, reinforcement, filtration, drainage, and containment.

Demand and production

Demand for geosynthetics (millions m²)[1]
Region 2007 2012 2017
North America 923 965 1300
Western Europe 668 615 725
Asia/Pacific 723 1200 2330
Central and South America 124 160 220
Eastern Europe 248 305 405
Africa/Mideast 115 155 220
Total 2801 3400 5200
Worldwide sales of geosynthetics[1]
Type Amount
(millions m²)
Price
(USD/m²)
Sales
(millions USD)
Geotextiles 1400 0.75 1050
Geogrids 250 2.50 625
Geonets 75 2.00 150
Geomembranes 300 6.00 1800
Geosynthetic clay liners 100 6.50 650
Geofoams 5 75.00 375
Geocomposites 100 4.00 400
Total 2230 5050

Functions

The juxtaposition of the various types of geosynthetics just described with the primary function that the material is called upon to serve allows for the creation of an organizational matrix for geosynthetics; see table below. In essence, this matrix is the “scorecard” for understanding the entire geosynthetic field and its design related methodology. In the table the primary function that each geosynthetic can be called upon to serve is seen. Note that these are primary functions and in many cases (if not most) cases there are secondary functions, and perhaps tertiary ones as well. For example, a geotextile placed on soft soil will usually be designed on the basis of its reinforcement capability, but separation and filtration might certainly be secondary and tertiary considerations. As another example, a geomembrane is obviously used for its containment capability, but separation will always be a secondary function. The greatest variability from a manufacturing and materials viewpoint is the category of geocomposites. The primary function will depend entirely upon what is actually created, manufactured, and installed.

Primary functions of geosynthetics[2]
Type of geosynthetics (GS) Separation Reinforcement Filtration Drainage Containment
2.1 Geotextile (GT) X X X X
2.2 Geogrid (GG) X
2.3 Geonet (GN) or geospacer (GR) X
2.4 Geomembrane (GM) X
2.5 Geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) X
2.6 Geofoam (GF) X
2.7 Geocells (GL) X X
2.8 Geocomposite (GC) X X X X X

Geosynthetics are generally designed for a particular application by considering the primary function that can be provided. As seen in the accompanying table there are five primary functions given, but some groups suggest even more.[3]

Separation is the placement of a flexible geosynthetic material, like a porous geotextile, between dissimilar materials so that the integrity and functioning of both materials can remain intact or even be improved. Paved roads, unpaved roads, and railroad bases are common applications. Also, the use of thick nonwoven geotextiles for cushioning and protection of geomembranes is in this category. In addition, for most applications of geofoam and geocells, separation is the major function.

Reinforcement is the synergistic improvement of a total system’s strength created by the introduction of a geotextile, geogrid or geocell (all of which are good in tension) into a soil (that is good in compression, but poor in tension) or other disjointed and separated material. Applications of this function are in mechanically stabilized and retained earth walls and steep soil slopes; they can be combined with masonry facings to create vertical retaining walls. Also involved is the application of basal reinforcement over soft soils and over deep foundations for embankments and heavy surface loadings. Stiff polymer geogrids and geocells do not have to be held in tension to provide soil reinforcement, unlike geotextiles. Stiff 2D geogrid and 3D geocells interlock with the aggregate particles and the reinforcement mechanism is one of confinement of the aggregate. The resulting mechanically stabilized aggregate layer exhibits improved loadbearing performance. Stiff polymer geogrids, with very open apertures, in addition to three-dimensional geocells made from various polymers are also increasingly specified in unpaved and paved roadways, load platforms and railway ballast, where the improved loadbearing characteristics significantly reduce the requirements for high quality, imported aggregate fills, thus reducing the carbon footprint of the construction.

Filtration is the equilibrium soil-to-geotextile interaction that allows for adequate liquid flow without soil loss, across the plane of the geotextile over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration. Filtration applications are highway underdrain systems, retaining wall drainage, landfill leachate collection systems, as silt fences and curtains, and as flexible forms for bags, tubes and containers.

Drainage is the equilibrium soil-to-geosynthetic system that allows for adequate liquid flow without soil loss, within the plane of the geosynthetic over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration. Geopipe highlights this function, and also geonets, geocomposites and very thick geotextiles. Drainage applications for these different geosynthetics are retaining walls, sport fields, dams, canals, reservoirs, and capillary breaks. Also to be noted is that sheet, edge and wick drains are geocomposites used for various soil and rock drainage situations.

Containment involves geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, or some geocomposites which function as liquid or gas barriers. Landfill liners and covers make critical use of these geosynthetics. All hydraulic applications (tunnels, dams, canals, surface impoundments, and floating covers) use these geosynthetics as well.

Advantages

  • The manufactured quality control of geosynthetics in a controlled factory environment is a great advantage over outdoor soil and rock construction. Most factories are ISO 9000 certified and have their own in-house quality programs as well.
  • The low thickness of geosynthetics, as compared to their natural soil counterparts, is an advantage insofar as light weight on the subgrade, less airspace used, and avoidance of quarried sand, gravel, and clay soil materials.[1]
  • The ease of geosynthetic installation is significant in comparison to thick soil layers (sands, gravels, or clays) requiring large earthmoving equipment.[1]
  • Published standards (test methods, guides, and specifications) are well advanced in standards-setting organizations like ISO, ASTM, and GSI.
  • Design methods are currently available from many publication sources as well as universities which teach stand-alone courses in geosynthetics or have integrated geosynthetics in traditional geotechnical, geoenvironmental, and hydraulic engineering courses.
  • When comparing geosynthetic designs to alternative natural soil designs there are usually cost advantages and invariably sustainability (lower CO2 footprint) advantages.[1]

Disadvantages

  • Long-term performance of the particular formulated resin being used to make the geosynthetic must be assured by using proper additives including antioxidants, ultraviolet screeners, and fillers.
  • The exposed lifetime of geosynthetics, being polymeric, is less than unexposed as when they are soil backfilled.
  • Clogging or bioclogging of geotextiles, geonets, geopipe and/or geocomposites is a challenging design for certain soil types or unusual situations. For example, loess soils, fine cohesionless silts, highly turbid liquids, and microorganism laden liquids (farm runoff) are troublesome and generally require specialized testing evaluations.
  • Handling, storage, and installation must be assured by careful quality control and quality assurance.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Müller, W. W.; Saathoff, F. (2015). "Geosynthetics in geoenvironmental engineering". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. 16 (3): 034605. Bibcode:2015STAdM..16c4605M. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/16/3/034605. PMC 5099829. PMID 27877792.
  2. ^ a b Koerner, R. M. (2012). Designing With Geosynthetics (6th ed.). Xlibris Publishing Co., 914 pgs.
  3. ^ Bathurst, Richard. "Geosynthetics Functions" (PDF). International Geosynthetics Society. Retrieved September 28, 2018.

Further reading

  • Van Zanten, R. V. (1986). Geotextiles and Geomembranes in Civil Engineering, A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • _____, (1990). A Design Primer: Geotextiles and Related Materials, IFAI Publ., Roseville, MN, US.
  • Van Santvoort, G. P. T. M., Translator (1995). Geosynthetics in Civil Engineering, A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Jewell, R. A. (1996). Soil Reinforcement With Geotextiles, CIRIA Publishers, London, England.
  • Holtz, R. D., Christopher, B. R. and Berg, R. R. (1997). Geosynthetic Engineering, BiTech Publishers, Ltd., Richmond, B.C., Canada.
  • Pilarczyk, K. W. (2000). Geosynthetics and Geosystems in Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering, A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Rowe, R. K. (Ed.), (2001). Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, US.
  • Dixon, N., Smith, D. M., Greenwood, J. R. and Jones, D. R. V. (2003). Geosynthetics: Protecting the Environment, Thomas Telford Publ., London, England.
  • Shukla, S. K. and Yin, J.-H. (2006). Fundamentals of Geosynthetic Engineering, Taylor and Francis Publishers, London, England.
  • Sarsby, R. W. Ed. (2007). Geosynthetics in Civil Engineering, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, England.

External links

Acta Geotechnica Slovenica

Acta Geotechnica Slovenica is a biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The editor-in-chief is Ludvik Trauner (University of Maribor). The journal covers fundamental and applied research in the areas of geomechanics and geotechnical engineering. Topics covered include soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology, environmental geotechnics, geosynthetics, numerical and analytical methods, computer modelling, field and laboratory testing.

Cellular confinement

Cellular confinement systems (CCS)—also known as geocells—are widely used in construction for erosion control, soil stabilization on flat ground and steep slopes, channel protection, and structural reinforcement for load support and earth retention. Typical cellular confinement systems are geosynthetics made with ultrasonically welded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) strips or novel polymeric alloy (NPA)—and expanded on-site to form a honeycomb-like structure—and filled with sand, soil, rock, gravel or concrete.

Geogrid

A geogrid is geosynthetic material used to reinforce soils and similar materials. Geogrids are commonly used to reinforce retaining walls, as well as subbases or subsoils below roads or structures. Soils pull apart under tension. Compared to soil, geogrids are strong in tension. This fact allows them to transfer forces to a larger area of soil than would otherwise be the case.Geogrids are commonly made of polymer materials, such as polyester, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene or polypropylene. They may be woven or knitted from yarns, heat-welded from strips of material, or produced by punching a regular pattern of holes in sheets of material, then stretched into a grid.

The development of methods of preparing relatively rigid polymeric materials by tensile drawing, in a sense "cold working," raised the possibility that such materials could be used in the reinforcement of soils for walls, steep slopes, roadway bases and foundation soils. The principal function of geogrids is for reinforcement. This area, as with many other geosynthetics, is very active, with a number of different products, materials, configurations, etc., making up today's geogrid market. The key feature of all geogrids is that the openings between the adjacent sets of longitudinal and transverse ribs, called “apertures,” are large enough to allow for soil strike-through from one side of the geogrid to the other. The ribs of some geogrids are often quite stiff compared to the fibers of geotextiles. As discussed later, not only is rib strength important, but junction strength is also important. The reason for this is that in anchorage situations the soil strike-through within the apertures bears against the transverse ribs, which transmits the load to the longitudinal ribs via the junctions. The junctions are, of course, where the longitudinal and transverse ribs meet and are connected. They are sometimes called “nodes”.

Currently there are three categories of geogrids. The first, and original, geogrids (called unitized or homogeneous types, or more commonly referred to as 'punched and drawn geogrids') were invented by Dr Frank Brian Mercer in the United Kingdom at Netlon, Ltd., and were brought in 1982 to North America by the Tensar Corporation. A conference in 1984 was helpful in bringing geogrids to the engineering design community. A similar type of drawn geogrid which originated in Italy by Tenax is also available, as are products by new manufacturers in Asia.

The second category of geogrids are more flexible, textile-like geogrids using bundles of polyethylene-coated polyester fibres as the reinforcing component. They were first developed by ICI Linear Composites LTD in the United Kingdom around 1980. This led to the development of polyester yarn geogrids made on textile weaving machinery. In this process hundreds of continuous fibers are gathered together to form yarns which are woven into longitudinal and transverse ribs with large open spaces between. The cross-overs are joined by knitting or intertwining before the entire unit is protected by a subsequent coating. Bitumen, latex, or PVC are the usual coating materials. Geosynthetics within this group are manufactured by many companies having various trademarked products. There are possibly as many as 25 companies manufacturing coated yarn-type polyester geogrids on a worldwide basis.

The third category of geogrids are made by laser or ultrasonically bonding together polyester or polypropylene rods or straps in a gridlike pattern. Two manufacturers currently make such geogrids.

The geogrid sector is extremely active not only in manufacturing new products, but also in providing significant technical information to aid the design engineer.

Geomembrane

A geomembrane is very low permeability synthetic membrane liner or barrier used with any geotechnical engineering related material so as to control fluid (or gas) migration in a human-made project, structure, or system. Geomembranes are made from relatively thin continuous polymeric sheets, but they can also be made from the impregnation of geotextiles with asphalt, elastomer or polymer sprays, or as multilayered bitumen geocomposites. Continuous polymer sheet geomembranes are, by far, the most common.

Geosynthetic clay liner

Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are factory manufactured hydraulic barriers consisting of a layer of bentonite or other very low-permeability material supported by geotextiles and/or geomembranes, mechanically held together by needling, stitching, or chemical adhesives. Due to environmental laws, any seepage from landfills must be collected and properly disposed off, otherwise contamination of the surrounding ground water could cause major environmental and/or ecological problems. The lower the hydraulic conductivity the more effective the GCL will be at retaining seepage inside of the landfill. Bentonite composed predominantly (>70%) of montmorillonite or other expansive clays, are preferred and most commonly used in GCLs. A general GCL construction would consist of two layers of geosynthetics stitched together enclosing a layer of natural or processed sodium bentonite. Typically, woven and/or non-woven textile geosynthetics are used, however polyethylene or geomembrane layers or geogrid geotextiles materials have also been incorporated into the design or in place of a textile layer to increase strength. GCLs are produced by several large companies in North America, Europe, and Asia. The United States Environmental Protection Agency currently regulates landfill construction and design in the US through several legislations.

Geotechnical engineering

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls.

A geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations, earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design.

Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations. Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include embankments, tunnels, dikes and levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous waste and sanitary landfills.

Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, and jetties. Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms.

The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology. Coming from the fields of engineering and science, respectively, the two may approach the same subject, such as soil classification, with different methods.

Geotextile

Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms: woven (resembling mail bag sacking), needle punched (resembling felt), or heat bonded (resembling ironed felt).

Geotextile composites have been introduced and products such as geogrids and meshes have been developed. Geotextiles are able to withstand many things, are durable, and are able to soften a fall if someone falls down. Overall, these materials are referred to as geosynthetics and each configuration—geonets, geosynthetic clay liners, geogrids, geotextile tubes, and others—can yield benefits in geotechnical and environmental engineering design.

Geotextiles and Geomembranes

Geotextiles and Geomembranes is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal. It is the official journal of the International Geosynthetics Society and published on their behalf by Elsevier. The journal covers all topics relating to geosynthetics, including research, behaviour, performance analysis, testing, design, construction methods, case histories, and field experience.

Giroud

Giroud is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alberto Bayo y Giroud (1892–1967), Cuban military leader and writer

Françoise Giroud (1916–2003), French journalist, screenwriter, writer and politician

Frank Giroud (1956–2018), French comics writer

Jean-Pierre Giroud (born 1938), French geotechnical engineer and geosynthetics pioneer

Olivier Giroud (born 1986), French footballer

Pavel Giroud (born 1973), Cuban film director

Thibault Giroud (born 1974), French rugby union coach

Hesco bastion

The HESCO MIL is a modern gabion primarily used for flood control and military fortifications. It is made of a collapsible wire mesh container and heavy duty fabric liner, and used as a temporary to semi-permanent levee or blast wall against explosions or small-arms. It has seen considerable use in Iraq and Afghanistan. It was developed in the late 1980s by a British company of the same name.

Originally designed for use on beaches and marshes for erosion and flood control, the HESCO MIL quickly became a popular security device in the 1990s. HESCO barriers continue to be used for their original purpose. They were used in 2005 to reinforce levees around New Orleans in the few days between Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. During the June 2008 Midwest floods 8,200 metres (9,000 yd) of HESCO barrier wall were shipped to Iowa. In late March, 2009, 10,700 metres (11,700 yd) of HESCO barrier were delivered to Fargo, North Dakota to protect against floods. In late September, 2016, 10 miles of HESCO barriers were used in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, for the fall flood of 2016.Specifically, the brand name for the barrier is "Concertainer" (a portmanteau of "concertina" and "container"), with HESCO Bastion being the company that produces it.

Jean-Pierre Giroud

Jean-Pierre Giroud (born 1938) is a French geotechnical engineer and a pioneer of geosynthetics.

Giroud has developed a number of detailed design methods used in geosynthetics engineering with more than 47 years of experience. Some of the design methods are liner leakage evaluation, drainage systems, leachate collection and leakage detection layers, liner system stability, reinforcement of liners and soil layers overlying voids, geomembrane stress and strain analysis, evaluation of geomembrane properties, connections between geomembranes and rigid structures, geomembrane uplift by wind and so on.

Jorge G. Zornberg

Jorge G. Zornberg is Professor and W. J. Murray Fellow in the geotechnical engineering program at the University of Texas at Austin. He has over 30 years experience in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering. He is also one of the pioneers of geosynthetics.

Landscape products

Landscape products refers to a group of building industry products used by garden designers and landscape architects and exhibited at trade fairs devoted to these industries. It includes: walls, fences, paving, gardening tools, outdoor lighting, water features, fountains, garden furniture, garden ornaments, gazebos, garden buildings, pond liners.

Geosynthetics are another group of products used extensively in landscape construction for drainage, filtration, reinforcement and separation. Geotextiles are used for drainage to either convey or allow water penetration and to prevent the mixing of two different materials; geomembranes are used to contain liquids in ponds or wastes in landfills; geogrids and geocells are used for load support and to increase the bearing capacity of weak soils; and geocells are used for slope and channel protection and erosion control.The skills of combining these products to produce places are known as landscape design and landscape detailing.

Mechanically stabilized earth

Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE or reinforced soil) is soil constructed with artificial reinforcing. It can be used for retaining walls, bridge abutments, seawalls, and dikes. Although the basic principles of MSE have been used throughout history, MSE was developed in its current form in the 1960s. The reinforcing elements used can vary but include steel and geosynthetics.

MSE is the term usually used in the US to distinguish it from the trade name "Reinforced Earth". Elsewhere "reinforced soil" is the generally accepted term.

Miguel De La Torre Sobrevilla

Miguel De La Torre Sobrevilla is a Peruvian engineer and entrepreneur who founded the engineering and consulting company Geoservice Ingeniería back on 1995, he undertook his undergraduate on Civil Engineering at Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería from 1961 to 1965. He is specialist in dam engineering, foundations, slope stability, geotechnical instrumentation and related activities with geotechnical engineering applied to energy projects, irrigation, transportation and mining nationwide.

Novel polymeric alloy

Novel polymeric alloy, also known as Neoloy, is a polymeric alloy composed of polyolefin and thermoplastic engineering polymer. It was developed specifically for use in high-strength geosynthetics. The first commercial application was in the manufacturer of polymeric strips used to form cellular confinement systems (geocells).

Novel polymeric alloy was developed to replace high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in geosynthetics. Although HDPE is widely used due to its low cost, ease of manufacturing and flexibility, its relatively high creep, low tensile strength and sensitivity to elevated temperatures limit its use, for example, in long-term, critical geocell applications.Used in the manufacture of geosynthetics, such as the Neoloy Geocell cellular confinement system, novel polymeric alloy provides geocells with a higher tensile strength and stiffness, and are more durable over dynamic loading and under elevated temperatures than those made from HDPE (Han, 2011). The lifespan of novel polymeric alloy geosynthetics, such as geocells, makes them suitable for long-term design in infrastructure, such as highways, railways, container yards and high retaining walls.

R. Kerry Rowe

Ronald Kerry Rowe, FRS, FRSC, FREng (born 13 September 1951) is a Canadian civil engineer of Australian birth, one of the pioneers of geosynthetics.

Road surface

A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past, gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite setts were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete laid on a compacted base course. Road surfaces are frequently marked to guide traffic. Today, permeable paving methods are beginning to be used for low-impact roadways and walkways. Pavements are crucial to countries such as US and Canada, which heavily depend on road transportation. Therefore, research projects such as Long-Term Pavement Performance are launched to optimize the life-cycle of different road surfaces.

Terram

Terram is part of the Berry Plastics group, and has its manufacturing headquarters in Maldon, Essex, United Kingdom, supplying geosynthetics materials to the worldwide civil engineering & construction industry. The company was founded in the late 1960s as part of ICI Fibres, and is now part of Berry Plastics, a supplier of nonwoven materials. Terram Geosynthetics are manufactured under the name Fiberweb Geosynthetics Limited.

The company supplies geotextiles for roads and highway construction, rail trackbed construction, coastal defences, flood defence, slope and soil stabilisation, SuDs source control paving solutions and a specialist range of geosynthetics for the rail industry, drainage composites for structural and waste management drainage systems.

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