Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk-III),[1][14] also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 (LVM3)[14] is a three-stage[1] medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Primarily designed to launch communication satellites into geostationary orbit,[15] it is also identified as launch vehicle for crewed missions under the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme and dedicated science missions like Chandrayaan-2.[16][17] The GSLV-III has a higher payload capacity than the similarly named GSLV Mk 2.[18][19][20][21]

After several delays and a sub-orbital test flight on 18 December 2014, ISRO successfully conducted the first orbital test launch of GSLV-III on 5 June 2017 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Andhra Pradesh.[22]

In June 2018, the Union Cabinet approved 4,338 crore (US$630 million) to build 10 GSLV Mk-III rockets over a five-year period.[23]

On 15 August 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced in his Independence Day speech[24] an Indian foray into human spaceflight in 2022 with the aim of sending a crewed spacecraft called Gaganyaan to low Earth orbit.[25] [26][27]

The GSLV Mk III launched Chandrayaan-2 on 22 July 2019 at 9:13 UTC from the Second Launch Pad. [28] [29] [30]

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III
GSLV Mk III D2 with GSAT-29 on Second Launch Pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota (SDSC SHAR)
GSLV Mk III D2 on Second Launch Pad, SDSC-SHAR
FunctionMedium-lift launch vehicle[1]
ManufacturerIndian Space Research Organisation
Country of origin India
Cost per launch₹375 crore [2][3][4] (US$54.2 million) (2019)
Size
Height43.4 m (142 ft)[5][1]
Diameter4 m (13 ft)[5]
Mass640,000 kg (1,410,000 lb)[1]
Stages3[1]
Capacity
Payload to LEO (600km)10,000 kg (22,000 lb)[6]
Payload to GTO4,000 kg (8,800 lb)[1]
Associated rockets
FamilyGeosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
Comparable
Launch history
StatusActive
Launch sitesSatish Dhawan Space Centre SLP, Andhra Pradesh, India
Total launches4
Successes4
Failures0
First flight
  • 18 December 2014 (suborbital)
  • 5 June 2017 (orbital)
Last flight22 July 2019
Notable payloadsCARE, Chandrayaan-2
First stage – S200 Boosters
Length25 m (82 ft)[1]
Diameter3.2 m (10 ft)[1]
Empty mass31,000 kg (68,000 lb) each[7]
Gross mass236,000 kg (520,000 lb) each[7]
Propellant mass205,000 kg (452,000 lb) each[7]
MotorSolid S200
Thrust5,150 kN (525 tf) each[8][9][10]
Specific impulse274.5 (vacuum)[7]
Burn time128 sec[7]
FuelHTPB[7]
Second stage – L110
Length21.39 m (70.2 ft)[11]
Diameter4.0 m (13.1 ft)[7]
Empty mass9,000 kg (20,000 lb)[11]
Gross mass125,000 kg (276,000 lb)[11]
Propellant mass116,000 kg (256,000 lb)[11]
Engines2 Vikas engines
Thrust1,598 kN (163.0 tf)[7][12][13]
Specific impulse293 sec[7]
Burn time203 sec[11]
FuelUDMH / N
2
O
4
Third stage – C25
Length13.545 m (44.44 ft)[7]
Diameter4.0 m (13.1 ft)[7]
Empty mass5,000 kg (11,000 lb)[11]
Gross mass33,000 kg (73,000 lb)[11]
Propellant mass28,000 kg (62,000 lb)[7]
Engines1 CE-20
Thrust200 kN (20 tf)[7]
Specific impulse443 sec
Burn time643 sec[7]
FuelLOX / LH2

History

GSLV Mk III Lift Off 1
First orbital flight of GSLV MkIII
GSLV Mk III M1, Chandrayaan-2 Lifting off 01
First operational flight of GSLV Mk III, carrying Chandrayaan-2

Development

ISRO initially planned two launcher families, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle for low Earth orbit and polar launches and the larger Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle for payloads to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The vehicle was reconceptualised as a more powerful launcher as the ISRO mandate changed. This increase in size allowed the launch of heavier communication and multipurpose satellites, future interplanetary exploration and will be human rated to launch crewed missions.[31] Development of the GSLV-III began in the early 2000s, with the first launch planned for 2009–2010.[32] The unsuccessful launch of GSLV D3, due to a failure in the cryogenic upper stage,[32] delayed the GSLV-III development program. The GSLV-III, while sharing a name with the GSLV, it features different systems and components.

S200 static fire tests

The first static fire test of the S-200 solid rocket booster, ST-01, was conducted on 24 January 2010. The booster fired for 130 seconds and had nominal performance. It generated a peak thrust of about 500 metric tons (1,100,000 lb).[33][9] A second static fire test, ST-02, was conducted on 4 September 2011. The booster fired for 140 seconds and had nominal performance.[34] A third test, ST-03, was conducted on 14 June 2015 to validate the changes from the sub-orbital test flight data.[35][36]

L110 static fire tests

ISRO conducted the first static test of the L110 core stage at its Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) test facility at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu on 5 March 2010. The test was planned to last 200 seconds, but was terminated at 150 seconds after a leakage in a control system was detected.[37] A second static fire test for the full duration was conducted on 8 September 2010.[38]

C25 stage tests

C25 D Stage on test stand
C25 D Stage on test stand

The first static fire test of the C25 cryogenic stage was conducted on 25 January 2017 at the ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) facility at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu. The stage was tested for a duration of 50 seconds and had nominal performance.[39]

A second static fire test for the full in-flight duration of 640 seconds was completed on 17 February 2017.[40] This test demonstrated the repeatability of the engine performance along with its sub-systems, including the thrust chamber, gas generator, turbo pumps and control components for the full duration. All of the engine parameters had nominal performance.[40]

Redesigns

GSLV MkIII
GSLV MkIII in Flight X configuration

After the suborbital test flight of GSLV-III, modifications were made to the vehicle to improve performance. The propellant grain geometry of head end segment was changed to a 13-lobed star configuration from a 10-lobed slotted configuration and propellant load was reduced to 205 metric tons (452,000 lb) to improve performance during transsonic flights.[41] The payload fairing was modified to an ogive shape, and the S200 booster nosecones were slanted to improve aerodynamic performance. The inter-tank structure of the C25 cryogenic stage was redesigned for density.[41]

Vehicle design

The first stage consists of two S200 solid motors, also known as Large Solid Boosters (LSB) attached to the core stage. Each booster is 3.2 metres (10 ft) wide, 25 metres (82 ft) long, and carries 207 metric tons (456,000 lb) tonnes of propellant. The S200 booster uses an HTPB based propellant. It is the largest solid-fuel booster after the Space Shuttle SRBs and Ariane 5 SRBs. The flex nozzles can be vectored using electro-hydraulic actuators and are used for vehicle control during the initial ascent phase.[42][43] These boosters burn for 130 seconds and produce an average thrust of 3,578.2 kilonewtons (804,400 lbf) and a peak thrust of 5,150 kilonewtons (1,160,000 lbf) each.[42][8]

15-S200 Strap-ons on Mobile Launch Pedestal
S200 strap-ons
L110 Liquid Stage at Stage Preparation Facility
L110 Liquid Stage at the Stage Preparation Facility

The second stage, designated L110, is a liquid-fueled stage that is 21 metres (69 ft) tall and 4 metres (13 ft) wide, and contains 110 metric tons (240,000 lb) of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (N
2
O
4
). It is powered by two Vikas 2 engines, each generating 766 kilonewtons (172,000 lbf) thrust, giving a total thrust of 1,532 kilonewtons (344,000 lbf).[12][13] The L110 is the first Indian clustered liquid-fueled engine. The Vikas engines uses regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse compared to earlier Indian rockets.[42][44] Each Vikas engine can be individually gimbaled to control vehicle pitch, yaw and roll control. The L110 core stage ignites 114 seconds after liftoff and burns for 203 seconds.[42][13]

GSLV Mk III M1, Chandrayaan-2 - C25 cryogenic stage at Vehicle Assembly Building for vehicle integration
C25 cryogenic stage

The cryogenic upper stage, designated C25, is 4 metres (13 ft) in diameter and 13.5 metres (44 ft) long, and contains 28 metric tons (62,000 lb) of propellant LOX and LH2.[44] It is powered by the CE-20 engine, producing 200 kN (45,000 lbf) of thrust. CE-20 is the first cryogenic engine developed by India which uses a gas generator, as compared to the staged combustion engines used in GSLV.[45]

The payload fairing has a diameter of 5 metres (16 ft) and a payload volume of 110 cubic metres (3,900 cu ft).[7]

Upgrades

The L110 core stage in GSLV Mk III is planned to be replaced by a kerolox stage powered by SCE-200[46] to increase its payload capacity to 6 metric tons (13,000 lb) to GTO.[47] Propellant load on hydrolox upper stage is planned to be increased to 30 tonnes from 25 tonnes. The first flight of the upgraded GSLV Mk III is expected in December 2020 but not for the crewed Gaganyaan spacecraft.[48][49]

Notable missions

02 Launch of GSLV Mk III D2 with GSAT-29 from Second Launch Pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota (SDSC SHAR)

GSLV Mk III D2 lifting off

GSLV-Mk III-D1 being moved from Vehicle Assembly Building to second launch pad

D1 on its Mobile Launch Pedestal on its way to launch pad

GSLV Mk III Lift Off 3

GSLV Mk III D1 lifting off

GSLV Mk III M1, Chandrayaan-2 Lifting off 04

GSLV Mk III M1 lifting off

GSLV Mk III M1, Chandrayaan-2 - Fully integrated GSLV Mk III M1 vehicle at the Vehicle Assembly Building.

M1 at the Vehicle Assembly Building

X (Suborbital flight test)

The maiden flight of the GSLV Mk-III occurred on 18 December 2014. The flight lifted off from the Second Launch Pad, at 04:00 UTC.[50] The test had functional boosters, a core stage and a non-functional dummy upper stage. It carried the Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) that was tested on re-entry.[51]

Just over five minutes into the flight, the rocket ejected CARE module at an altitude of 126 kilometres (78 mi), which then descended, controlled by its on-board motors. During the test CARE's heat shield experienced a maximum temperature of around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F). ISRO downloaded launch telemetry during the ballistic coasting phase prior to the radio black-out to avoid data loss in the event of a splash-down failure. At an altitude of around 15 kilometres (9.3 mi; 8.1 nmi), the module's apex cover separated and the parachutes were deployed. CARE splashed down in the Bay of Bengal near the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and was recovered successfully.[52][53][54][55]

D1 (GSAT-19)

The first orbital flight of the GSLV-III occurred on 5 June 2017,[56] lifting off from the Second Launch Pad at 11:58 UTC. The vehicle carried the GSAT-19 communication satellite, making it the heaviest Indian rocket and payload ever launched. The satellite was successfully placed into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) at 170 kilometres (110 mi; 92 nmi). The flight also tested upgrades to the design from data acquired during the sub-orbital test flight (See section on redesigns).[57]

M1 (Chandrayaan-2)

The first operational flight occurred on 22 July 2019,[28][17] lifting off from the Second Launch pad at 9:13 UTC. The rocket carried Chandrayaan-2, India's second mission to the Moon. Chandrayaan-2 consists of an orbiter, lander and a rover. The lander-rover module was expected to soft land on the Moon on 6 September 2019.[29][30] The mission hereby also involved heaviest spacecraft to be lifted by an Indian launcher till that date.

Launch history

Flight № Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
configuration
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
outcome
X 18 December 2014
04:00[58]
LVM3-X Second Launch Pad India Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) 3,775 kg (8,322 lb)[59] Sub-orbital ISRO Success
Sub-orbital development test flight with non-functional cryogenic stage[60]
D1 5 June 2017
11:58[61][62][63]
Mk.III Second Launch Pad India GSAT-19 3,136 kg (6,914 lb) GTO INSAT Success
First orbital test launch with a functional cryogenic stage[64]
D2 14 November 2018
11:38
Mk.III Second Launch Pad India GSAT-29 3,423 kg (7,546 lb) GTO INSAT Success
Second orbital test flight. L110 core used upgraded Vikas engines with higher thrust.[65][66][67]
M1 22 July 2019 09:13 Mk.III Second Launch Pad India Chandrayaan-2 3,850 kg (8,490 lb) EPO ISRO Success
First operational flight of GSLV MK-III.

Planned launches

Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Configuration
Launch site Payload Orbit User Launch Outcome
TBA Mk.III Second Launch Pad India GSAT-20 GTO INSAT Planned
[68]
TBA Mk.III Second Launch Pad India GSAT-22 GTO INSAT Planned
[69]
December 2021[70][71] Mk.III Second Launch Pad [72][73] India Gaganyaan LEO Human Space Flight Centre
Planned
Launch mass is 7,800 kg with service module,[74] capsule's mass is 3,735 kg.[74]
2023[75] Mk.III Second Launch Pad India Shukrayaan TBD ISRO Planned
Launch mass is 2,500 kg; Venus orbiter and atmospheric balloon.
2024[76] Mk.III Second Launch Pad India Mangalyaan 2[77] TBD ISRO Planned
[78]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "GSLV Mk III". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Chandrayaan-2 launch on July 15: ISRO". 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Historic Day, Says ISRO As India's 'Baahubali' Rocket Lifts Off: 10 Facts". NDTV. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  4. ^ Narasimhan, T. E. (5 June 2017). "'Fat Boy' GSLV-MK III launches today: The rocket has cost India Rs 400 cr". Business Standard. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b "The first developmental flight of GSLV-Mk-III". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  6. ^ "GSLV MkIII-M1 Successfully Launches Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft - ISRO". www.isro.gov.in. ISRO. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "LVM3". Retrieved 21 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b "ISRO Press Release: S200 First Static Test (S-200-ST-01)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ a b "Isro successfully tests world's 3rd largest solid booster". dna. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  10. ^ "India to test world's third largest solid rocket booster". Science and Technology Section. The Hindu News Paper. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "GSLV Mark III-D1 / GSAT-19 Brochure". IRSO.
  12. ^ a b "GSLV Mk3". Space Launch Report. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  13. ^ a b c "L110 test to follow S200". IndianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  14. ^ a b "As it happened: ISRO successfully launches GSLV Mark-III". The Hindu. 17 December 2014. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  15. ^ "'India masters rocket science': Here's why the new ISRO launch is special".
  16. ^ "Two international astronauts survive space scare. How well is India prepared?".
  17. ^ a b "GSLV-Mk III, India's 'Baahubali' rocket for Gaganyaan, Chandrayaan II".
  18. ^ "Indian Space Research Organisation preparing for three more PSLV launches". The Hindu. 29 April 2011. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  19. ^ Ramachandran, R. (22 January 2014). "GSLV MkIII, the next milestone". Frontline. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  20. ^ Sengupta, Rudraneil (5 June 2017). "Cryogenic rocket engine has been developed from scratch: Isro chief". LiveMint. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  21. ^ "India launches 'monster' rocket". BBC News. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  22. ^ "India's 'Bahubali' GSLV Mk III lifts less luggage than lighter rockets". The Economic Times. 16 June 2017. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. ^ "Government approves Rs 10,000-crore continuation programmes for PSLV, GSLV". The Economic Times. 7 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  24. ^ Kumar, Chetan (15 August 2018). "India to launch first manned space mission by 2022: PM Modi - Times of India". The Times of India.
  25. ^ "Gaganyan: How to send an Indian into space".
  26. ^ www.ETtech.com. "Four years is tight, but can achieve the human spaceflight: ISRO's K Sivan - ETtech". ETtech.com. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  27. ^ "ISRO is developing the technologies necessary for an indigenous human spaceflight programme". Tech2. First Post. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Chandrayaan 2 lifts off successfully". Times of India. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  29. ^ a b "With Chandrayaan-2 launch, India's ISRO shoots for the Moon". TechCrunch. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  30. ^ a b "India Launches Chandrayaan-2 Moon Mission". The New York Times. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  31. ^ ISRO Not To Fly Living Being Before Actual Manned Space Mission: Official. NDTV Indo-Asian News Service. September 14, 2018.
  32. ^ a b "India's GSLV Mk-3 First Flight Pushed Back to April 2014". Sawfnews. 4 April 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  33. ^ "Successful static testing of Solid Propellant Booster Rocket Stage S200 for GSLV Mk III Launch Vehicle". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  34. ^ "Second Static Testing of Solid Propellant Booster Rocket Stage S200 for GSLV-Mk III Successfully Conducted". VSSC.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  35. ^ "విజయవంతంగా భూస్థిర పరీక్ష". Sakshi. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  36. ^ Reporter, Staff (15 June 2015). "Static test of S200 motor successful". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  37. ^ "ISRO successfully conducts static testing of new age rocket". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  38. ^ "ISRO Press Release:Successful Static Testing of L 110 Liquid Core Stage of GSLV - Mk III". Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  39. ^ "ISRO Successfully Tests C25 Cryogenic Upper Stage of GSLV MkIII". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  40. ^ a b "ISRO Successfully Tests its Cryogenic Stage (C25) for GSLV MkIII for the Flight Duration". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  41. ^ a b Department of Space, Government of India. "Outcome Budget 2016-17" (PDF). isro.gov.in. Department of Space, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  42. ^ a b c d "GSLV Mk. III Launch Vehicle Overview". Spaceflight 101. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  43. ^ N. Gopal Raj. "GSLV Mark III faces its first experimental flight". The Hindu.
  44. ^ a b LVM3 Archived 25 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine ISRO 23 December 2014
  45. ^ "Why ISRO's New Engine and Mk III Rocket Are Reasons to Forget 1990 Cryogenic Scandal". TheWire. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  46. ^ Rajwi, Tiki (2 March 2015). "Semi-cryogenic Engine: ISRO Charting a Revised Plan". New Indian Express. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  47. ^ "ISRO developing heavy lift launch vehicles". The Hindu. 30 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  48. ^ "The ISRO Tender Notice With Fascinating New Details of Gaganyaan". Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  49. ^ Singh, Surendra (28 January 2019). "GSLV Mk III: Isro eyes kerosene to boost GSLV Mk III's lifting power to 6 trillion". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  50. ^ "India launches largest rocket and unmanned capsule". BBC. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  51. ^ "ISRO inches closer to manned mission". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014. We will be checking the crew capsule for all parameters.
  52. ^ "ISRO's unmanned crew module reaches Chennai". The Hindu. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  53. ^ As it happened: Isro's launch of India's heaviest rocket Times of India 18 December 2014
  54. ^ Sangeetha Kandavel. "GSLV Mark III takes to the skies in test flight". The Hindu.
  55. ^ "Isro to test GSLV Mk-III, crew module on December 18". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  56. ^ "GSLV Mk III breaks Isro's jinx of failure in debut rocket launches".
  57. ^ Clark, Stephen (5 June 2017). "India's launcher fleet gets an upgrade with successful test flight". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  58. ^ "GSLV Mk-III: ISRO successfully test flies its heaviest rocket". The Economic Times. New Delhi. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  59. ^ "First Experimental Flight of India's Next Generation Launch Vehicle GSLV Mk-III Successful". 18 December 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  60. ^ "GSLV MkIII to launch Isro's next mission". Hindustan times. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  61. ^ "India's GSAT-19 Reaches Geostationary Orbit after Off-Target Injection". Spaceflight101. 10 June 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  62. ^ "GLSV Mark III rocket conducts 'all-up' launch with GSAT-19 satellite". NASA Spaceflight. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  63. ^ "Isro successfully launches its monster rocket GSLV Mk III". The Economic Times. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  64. ^ "GSLV Mk III-D1/GSAT-19 Mission - ISRO". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  65. ^ "Successful Qualification of High Thrust Vikas Engine - ISRO". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  66. ^ "GSLV F08-GSAT6A Brochure - ISRO". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  67. ^ "With eye on lunar mission, ISRO to test high-thrust Vikas engine". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  68. ^ "Annual Report 2018" (PDF). ISRO. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  69. ^ "Annual Report 2017-18, Department of Space". ISRO.gov.in. Department of Space, Government of India. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  70. ^ Gaganyaan mission to take Indian astronaut to space by 2022: PM Modi. The Hindu. 15 August 2018.
  71. ^ "It's not just an ISRO project, it's a national one: K Sivan".
  72. ^ "India's human space programme gets a fillip". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  73. ^ Inside India's 2022 Space Mission: NDTV Special, retrieved 23 July 2019
  74. ^ a b Indian Manned Spacecraft. Astronautix. 2014.
  75. ^ "India seeks collaborators for a mission to Venus, the neglected planet". Science | AAAS. 21 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  76. ^ Jatiya, Satyanarayan (18 July 2019). "Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2955" (PDF). Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  77. ^ "India plans second Mars mission in 2018". CNN-News18. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  78. ^ Madhumathi, D.S. (10 August 2016). "ISRO sets the ball rolling for Mars Mission-2". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 April 2017.

External links

2017 in spaceflight

Notable spaceflight activities in 2017 included the maiden flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (also called LVM3) on 5 June and the first suborbital test of Rocket Lab's Electron rocket, inaugurating the Mahia spaceport in New Zealand. The rocket is named for its innovative Rutherford engine which feeds propellants via battery-powered electric motors instead of the usual gas generator and turbopumps.

Chandrayaan-2

Chandrayaan-2 (candra-yāna, transl. "mooncraft"; pronunciation ) is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), after Chandrayaan-1. It consists of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The main scientific objective is to map and study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.The mission was launched on its course to the Moon from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). The craft reached the Moon's orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander. Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region at a latitude of about 70° south at approximately 20:23 UTC on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks.

However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory starting at 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) altitude, and had lost communication when touchdown confirmation was expected. Initial reports suggesting a crash have been confirmed by ISRO chairman K. Sivan, stating that the lander location had been found, and "it must have been a hard landing".As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram. Both ISRO and NASA are in the process of trying to restore communications through their respective Deep Space Networks. Communication attempts will likely cease on 21 September 2019, fourteen days after Vikram's landing attempt. The orbiter, part of the mission with eight scientific instruments, remains operational and is expected to continue its seven-year mission to study the Moon.

Exploration of Jupiter

The exploration of Jupiter has been conducted via close observations by automated spacecraft. It began with the arrival of Pioneer 10 into the Jovian system in 1973, and, as of 2016, has continued with eight further spacecraft missions. All of these missions were undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and all but two have been flybys that take detailed observations without the probe landing or entering orbit. These probes make Jupiter the most visited of the Solar System's outer planets as all missions to the outer Solar System have used Jupiter flybys to reduce fuel requirements and travel time. On 5 July 2016, spacecraft Juno arrived and entered the planet's orbit—the second craft ever to do so. Sending a craft to Jupiter entails many technical difficulties, especially due to the probes' large fuel requirements and the effects of the planet's harsh radiation environment.

The first spacecraft to visit Jupiter was Pioneer 10 in 1973, followed a year later by Pioneer 11. Aside from taking the first close-up pictures of the planet, the probes discovered its magnetosphere and its largely fluid interior. The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes visited the planet in 1979, and studied its moons and the ring system, discovering the volcanic activity of Io and the presence of water ice on the surface of Europa. Ulysses further studied Jupiter's magnetosphere in 1992 and then again in 2000. The Cassini probe approached the planet in 2000 and took very detailed images of its atmosphere. The New Horizons spacecraft passed by Jupiter in 2007 and made improved measurements of its and its satellites' parameters.

The Galileo spacecraft was the first to have entered orbit around Jupiter, arriving in 1995 and studying the planet until 2003. During this period Galileo gathered a large amount of information about the Jovian system, making close approaches to all of the four large Galilean moons and finding evidence for thin atmospheres on three of them, as well as the possibility of liquid water beneath their surfaces. It also discovered a magnetic field around Ganymede. As it approached Jupiter, it also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9. In December 1995, it sent an atmospheric probe into the Jovian atmosphere, so far the only craft to do so.

In July 2016, the Juno spacecraft, launched in 2011, completed its orbital insertion maneuver successfully, and is now in orbit around Jupiter with its science programme ongoing.

The European Space Agency selected the L1-class JUICE mission in 2012 as part of its Cosmic Vision programme to explore three of Jupiter's Galilean moons, with a possible Ganymede lander provided by Roscosmos. JUICE is proposed to be launched in 2022.

Indian Space Research Organisation plans launch the first Indian mission to Jupiter in 2020s through Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.Chinese National Space Administration plans to launch a mission to Jupiter around 2029 to explore the planet and its moons.

GSAT-19

GSAT-19 is an Indian communications satellite launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation aboard a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III on 5 June 2017.

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle abbreviated as GSLV, is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). GSLV has been used in thirteen launches to date, since its first launch in 2001. Even though Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III shares the name it is an entirely different launcher.

History of the Republic of India

The history of the Republic of India begins on 26 January 1950. The country became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on 15 August 1947. Concurrently the Muslim-majority northwest and east of British India was separated into the Dominion of Pakistan, by the partition of India. The partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and Pakistan and the death of about one million people. Indian National Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India, but the leader most associated with the independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi, accepted no office. The new constitution of 1950 made India a democratic country.

The nation faced religious violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies, especially in Jammu and Kashmir and northeastern India. India has unresolved territorial disputes with China, which in 1962 escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India was neutral in the Cold War, and a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement. It purchased its military weapons from the Soviet Union, while its arch-foe Pakistan was closely allied to the United States and loosely to the People's Republic of China.

India is a nuclear-weapon state, having conducted its first nuclear test in 1974, followed by another five tests in 1998. From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist-inspired policies. The economy was influenced by extensive regulation, protectionism and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow economic growth. Beginning in 1991, neoliberal economic reforms have transformed India into the third largest and one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, though corruption remains a pervasive problem. Today, India is a major world power with a prominent voice in global affairs and is seeking a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council. Many economists, military analysts and think tanks expect India to become a superpower in the near future.

Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, ) (Hindi; IAST: bhārtīya antrikṣ anusandhān saṅgṭhan) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration". The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established in the tenure of Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in 1962, with the urging of scientist Vikram Sarabhai recognizing the need in space research. INCOSPAR grew and became ISRO in 1969, also under the DAE. In 1972, Government of India setup a Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS), bringing ISRO under the DOS. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space research activities in India. It is managed by the DOS, which reports to the prime minister of India.ISRO built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. It was named after the mathematician Aryabhata. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and Earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.ISRO sent a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008, which discovered lunar water in the form of ice, and the Mars Orbiter Mission, on 5 November 2013, which entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its maiden attempt to Mars, as well as the first space agency in Asia to reach Mars orbit. On 18 June 2016, ISRO launched twenty satellites in a single vehicle, and on 15 February 2017, ISRO launched one hundred and four satellites in a single rocket (PSLV-C37), a world record. ISRO launched its heaviest rocket, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), on 5 June 2017 and placed a communications satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this launch, ISRO became capable of launching 4-ton heavy satellites into GTO. On 22 July 2019, ISRO launched its second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an orbiter, lander and rover, to study the lunar geology and the distribution of lunar water.

Future plans include development of the Unified Launch Vehicle, Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, development of a reusable launch vehicle, human spaceflight, a space station, interplanetary probes, and a solar spacecraft mission.

List of ISRO missions

The Indian Space Research Organisation has carried out 97 spacecraft missions,69 launch missions and planned many missions including Aditya (spacecraft).

List of orbital launch systems

This is a list of conventional orbital launch systems. This is composed of carrier rockets, and other conventional systems, used to place satellites into orbit.

Current
In development
Retired
Classes
India Indian space programme
Organisations
Programmes
Satellites
Space observatories
Lunar and
planetary spacecraft
Crewed spacecraft
Rockets
Facilities
Related

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.