Georgian–Armenian War

The Georgian–Armenian War was a short border dispute fought in December 1918 between the newly-independent Democratic Republic of Georgia and the First Republic of Armenia, largely over the control of former districts of Tiflis Governorate, in Borchaly (Lori) and Akhalkalaki.

In March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and in doing so agreed to return to the Ottoman Empire territory gained during the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War. These territories were, however, no longer under the functional control of the Russian central government; rather, they were being administered collectively by the Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis through the Transcaucasian Sejm. The Trebizond Peace Conference aimed to resolve the dispute, but when the conference failed to produce a resolution, the Ottomans pursued a military campaign to control the disputed territories. Under persistent attack, the Transcaucasian collective eventually dissolved with the Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis declaring independent nation states in quick succession in late-May 1918. On 4 June, the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Batum with each of the three Transcaucasian states, which brought the conflict to an end and awarded the southern half of the ethnically-Armenian Lori Province and Akhalkalaki district to the Ottomans. Against the wishes of Armenia, Georgia, supported by German officers, took possession of northern Lori and established military outposts along the Dzoraget River.

When the Ottomans signed the Armistice of Mudros in October, they were subsequently required to withdraw from the region. Armenia quickly took control of territory previously controlled by the Ottomans, and skirmishes between Armenia and Georgia arose starting on 18 October. Open warfare began in early December, after diplomatic efforts failed to resolve the issue of the disputed border, and continued until 31 December, when a British-brokered ceasefire was signed, leaving the disputed territory under joint Georgian and Armenian administration.

Georgian–Armenian War
Part of the aftermath of World War I
Democratic Republic of Georgia map
Date7–31 December 1918
Location
Borchaly (Lori) and Akhalkalaki districts
Result Inconclusive[1]
Territorial
changes
The disputed Lori district becomes a neutral zone
Belligerents
 First Republic of Armenia  Democratic Republic of Georgia
Commanders and leaders
Drastamat Kanayan Giorgi Mazniashvili
Giorgi Kvinitadze
Valiko Jugheli
Strength
In Lori:
initially 4,000 in total incl. partisans[2]
or 28 infantry companies and 4 cavalry squadrons excl. partisans.[3]
6,500 troops at peak, supported by local rebels.[4]
In Akhalkalaki:
probably much fewer.[5][6]
In Lori:
several hundred initially incl. German troops.[7]
Gradually increasing.
More than 3,500 National Guard and People's Guard troops during the final stages of the war.[8][9]
In Akhalkalaki:
over 6,000.[5]
Casualties and losses
hundreds killed, wounded or taken prisoner.[10][11]
1610 taken prisoner according to the government of Georgia[12]
hundreds killed, wounded or taken prisoner.[10][11]
About 1,000 taken prisoner according to Hovannisian[1]
total death toll may range in the thousands[13]

Background

Russian revolution

Russia-Transcaucasian-1918-Banknote-10-Reverse
10 ruble banknote of the Transcaucasian Commissariat

After the February Revolution, the Russian Provisional Government installed the Special Transcaucasian Committee to govern the area.[14] However, following the October Revolution, the Special Transcaucasian Committee was replaced on 11 November 1917 by the Transcaucasian Commissariat centered in Tbilisi.[15] The Commissariat concluded the Armistice of Erzincan with the Ottoman Empire on 5 December 1917, ending localized armed conflict with the Ottoman Empire.[16] The Commissariat actively sought to suppress Bolshevik influence while concurrently pursuing a path towards Transcaucasian independence from Bolshevik Russia. This included establishing a legislative body, the Transcaucasian Sejm, to which the Commissariat surrendered its authority on 23 January 1918, following the dispersal of the Russian Constituent Assembly by the Bolsheviks.[15] The secessionist and anti-Bolshevik agenda eventfully brought Transcaucasian into conflict with the central government. On 3 March, the Russians signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk marking Russia's exit from World War I.[17] In the treaty, Russia agreed to return territory gained during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), giving little care to the fact that this territory was under the effective control of Armenian and Georgian forces.[17] The Trebizond Peace Conference, between the Ottoman Empire and the Sejm, began on 4 March and continued until April.[18] The Ottomans offered to surrender all the Empire's ambitions in the Caucasus in return for recognition of the re-acquisition of the east Anatolian provinces awarded at Brest-Litovsk.[19]

Independence

Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation
The flag of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic

During the peace conference negotiations, the Ottoman representatives placed a great deal of pressure on the Transcaucasian delegation to declare independence, as they were only willing to sign a treaty with Transcaucasian if they were independent from Russia.[20] The Transcaucasian Sejm recalled its representatives on 31 March to discuss the Ottoman position.[20] On 5 April, the head of the Transcaucasian delegation Akaki Chkhenkeli accepted the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as a basis for future negotiations.[21] The Sejm also declared formal independence from Soviet Russia by proclaiming the establishment of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic on 22 April.[20] Hostilities nevertheless resumed between the new republic and the Ottoman Empire, and by 25 April the Ottoman army had taken control of Kars and largely returned to its pre-war positions.[22] On 11 May, a new peace conference between the Republic and the Ottoman Empire began in Batumi. At the conference the Ottomans further extended their demands to include Tbilisi, Alexandropol and Echmiadzin.[23] The Ottoman army resumed hostilities on 21 May with the Battle of Sardarabad, Battle of Bash Abaran and Battle of Kara Killisse.

Members of the National Council of Georgia
Members of the Georgian National Council

By this point, leading Georgian politicians viewed an alliance with Germany as the only way to prevent Georgia from being occupied by the Ottoman Empire.[24] Consequently, the Georgian National Council declared the independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia on 24 May and two days later signed the Treaty of Poti with Germany, placing itself under German protection.[25][24] The following day, the Muslim National Council announced the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan.[26] Having been largely abandoned by its allies, the Armenian National Council declared its independence on May 28.[27] On 4 June, the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Batum with each of the three Transcaucasus states, bringing the conflict with the Ottoman Empire to an end.[28] The treaty awarded the southern half of the ethnically-Armenia Lori Province and Akhalkalaki district to the Ottomans but did not firmly delineate the borders between the new Transcaucasus states.[29] In response, and to deny the Ottomans a direct route to Tbilisi, Georgian units supported by German officers took possession of northern Lori and established outposts along the Dzoraget River.[29]

Initial clashes

Armoured train, occupied by Georgian irregular fighters, in Tiflis IWM (Q 86730).
A Georgian armoured train

In early October 1918, the Ottomans pulled back from southern Lori, which eliminated the territorial buffer between Armenia and Georgia.[30] The Armenian military quickly filled the void by taking control of much of southern Lori on 18 October and in the absence of any resistance probed further north.[31] The first incident between Armenia and Georgia occurred the same day when an Armenian army detachment seized the railway station in the village of Kober near Tumanyan, refusing a subsequent demand from the Germans that they withdraw.[32][7] The local border guards called for help, and the Georgian government responded by sending two armoured trains and a detachment of 250 soldiers, which forced the Armenians to leave Kober.[7] Five days later, three Armenian companies attacked and overwhelmed a German garrison near the village of Karinj. Earlier, the Georgian government in Tbilisi had received a letter from Armenian Prime Minister Hovhannes Kajaznuni insisting that Georgia had no claims on the Lori district, and for the sake of avoiding a catastrophic crisis for both countries, Georgian troops should leave the region. Clashes intensified from 25–27 October, with neither side gaining the advantage, until the Georgians sent a company-sized force with an armoured train to support their German allies. Just a day later, the Georgian government received a telegram from Armenia explaining that the attacks were the result of a misunderstanding and proposed that a conference be convened to resolve the border issue.[33] On 27 October, Armenian troops left the two villages, they had occupied, and retreated south.[33]

Failed diplomatic attempts

The terms of the Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies required the Ottomans pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus. The departure of the Ottomans created a power vacuum in the border area, in particular that between Armenia and Georgia. Armenia and Georgia began bilateral talks in November 1918, with Georgia sending a special envoy to Yerevan.[34] Simultaneously, Georgia invited the recently independent governments of the Caucasus to Tbilisi for a conference with the principal aim of addressing boundary delimitation and issues of common concern.[34] The general idea of a conference was well received by the Armenian government, however, the Armenia government took exception to the scope and quick timelines of the conference.[34] In particular, Armenia was not interested in discussing border issues at a conference.[34] Armenia indicated it would participate, recognizing the rapidly changing political environment following World War I, but reemphasized that they would not discuss the issues of delimitation.[34][35] In general, however, Georgia was of the position that the border with Armenia should be inline with the border of the former Russian imperial Tiflis Province; whereas, Armenia was of the position that the border should correspond to ethnic composition or more historical boundaries.[36]

The conference began in Tbilisi on 10 November with only the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in attendance.[37] The Armenia delegation initially stated that they were unable to attend due to poor rail service between Yerevan and Tbilisi.[38] The Georgian delegation suggested that the conference start be postponed until 13 November to accommodate, but Armenia declined for several reasons, including the lack or readiness and clarity on several issues.[38] The Armenian delegation continued to postpone, and in order to accommodate the Armenians, Georgia first postponed the start of the conference to 20 November and then to 30 November.[38] After the final delay, the conference fell apart, and five days later, on 5 December, the Georgian mission headed by Simon Mdivani left Yerevan.[38] Georgia subsequently informed Armenia of its willingness to exclude the discussion of boundary disputes from a conference program but Armenia once again delayed a response, allegedly due to sabotage of telegraph lines.[38]

Prior to leaving Yerevan, the Mdivani mission did engage in talks with the Armenia government during which Armenia indicated a readiness to give up claims in Akhalkalaki and Borchalo if the Georgians would help them in either retaking Karabakh or assist with historical territorial claims within Western Armenia. The Georgian government, however, declined such offers, as they did not wish to become entangled in another conflict with the Ottoman army. Amidst failed negotiations, Georgia deployed troops in the villages near the border which only increased the tenseness of the situation.[39][40]

Open hostilities

Armenian offensive

Armenian soldiers 1918
Armenian troops in 1918

In early December 1918, the Georgians were confronted with regional rebellion in the Lori area, chiefly in the village of Uzunlar.[41] The local garrison in the village of Uzunlar was attacked by disgruntled local villagers, resulting in one Georgian soldier being killed and the remaining soldiers being disarmed and taken prisoner.[7] The Georgians argued that Armenian soldiers from the 4th Infantry Regiment had disguised themselves as bandits and were fomenting rebellion; whereas, Armenia took the position that the events were the result of Georgia's oppressive behavior towards the local ethnic-Armenian population.[42] In response, General Varden Tsulukidze sent a 200-soldier detachment to the area to quell the unrest.[43] The detachment was, however, unable to provide any relief, as they were driven back by heavy gunfire.[42]

Borchali/Lori district

Still not realising the actual scale of the threat he was facing, Tsulukidze's headquarters in Sanahin was quickly approached and besieged by regular Armenian army units resulting in heavy fighting around the railway station. The Armenians sabotaged rails and also succeeded in ambushing and trapping an armoured train that was carrying two Georgian infantry companies. Tsulukidze withdrew from Sanahin to Alaverdi — which was also being attacked by Armenian forces, using the artillery of the derailed trains to cover his troops' retreat. More Georgian reinforcements arrived on December 12, securing the heights around Alaverdi, but were unsuccessful in breaking out the ~60 Georgians who remained trapped on the rails between the two villages. Another train with reinforcements got derailed on the same day. At that point, the Georgians had less than 700 troops engaged in combat, while most of them took defensive positions in Alaverdi, equipped with a few guns and mortars. On December 14, they were encircled by an estimated 4,000 Armenian soldiers from regiments of the 1st and 2nd Rifle Divisions. Confronted with a hopeless situation, General Tsulukidze ordered a general retreat and made a successful breakout towards Sadakhlo.

Simultaneously, from 12 to 14 December, Georgian forces under General Tsitsianov were struck by Armenian troops around the villages of Vorontsovka and Privolnoye. On 12 December, the National Guard detachment that was guarding Vorontsovka was called back to Tbilisi to participate in a military parade marking the 1st anniversary of the National Guard of Georgia. Tsitsianov's few hundred men, although heavily outnumbered, offered brutal resistance with their artillery, using shrapnel ammunition at point-blank range. The Armenians eventually managed to take both towns. The Georgian forces, having suffered more than 100 killed, some material, retreated towards Katharinenfeld. On December 14, the Armenians, who had already amassed more than 6,500 regular troops supported by thousands of armed local militia, steamrolled what resistance remained in the Alexandrovka-Vorontsovka-Privolnoye triangle. By the end of the second day of that attack, the Armenian army had captured almost all of the contested villages. Sanahin and Alaverdi also fell. Georgian defenders and refugees started to evacuate the area by train on December 17. The Georgians sustained heavy losses, leaving behind hundreds of prisoners, one train and both derailed armoured trains. The Armenian army's left flank, commanded by colonels Nikogosov and Korolkov, performed decisive flanking manoeuvers that surprised and encircled the Georgians in Ayrum and culminated in the capture of the town on December 18. Despite a successful breakout, the Georgian 5th and 6th Infantry Regiments lost around 560 men killed, wounded or taken prisoner, and about 25 machine guns and two cannons in total.

On the same day, the Armenian vanguard pushed against Sadakhlo, where Tsulukdize's forces had fortified themselves at the station and nearby strategic heights. The initial Armenian attack was repulsed, and in order to outflank the defenders, the town of Shulaveri was captured the next day. Korolkov called for all Armenian men in the area able to fight to mobilize and support the army's offensive. On 20 December, the Armenians were blockading a vital train station that connected Sadakhlo with Tbilisi, preventing further reinforcements. A day after, they massed their artillery and launched an attack on the town, only to be repulsed with heavy casualties by the defenders, who were equipped with an armoured train. Using the same train, the remaining Georgian troops broke out of the encirclement to join a defensive line further north. Following that defeat, Tsulukidze resigned and was replaced by General Sumbatashvili. The Georgian army was already mobilizing in the Lori district and started to prepare for major counterattacks.[44][45][46]

Akhalkalaki district

Less significant were the clashes in the Akhalkalaki district. The Armenian operation was thwarted by the massive Georgian military presence and lack of support by the local Armenian population. The region was garrisoned with over 6,000 troops commanded by general Abel Makashvili.[5][47] Despite the odds, Armenian forces mounted an offensive, seizing four villages. Makashvili demanded they leave the area immediately otherwise punitive actions would take place. On 14 December the Armenians met the demand and left the villages, only to renew their attacks a few days later, this time around with cavalry support. The village of Troitskoe changed hands several times until the Georgians ultimately retook it and repelled all Armenian units from the area.[5][48] On 19 December Armenian forces once again attempted to take Troitskoe but were repulsed, losing 100 men to Georgian machine gun fire.[5] Due to heavy winter storms, neither side could achieve any military breakthrough in the region. Confrontations in the Akhalkalaki district ceased for the rest of the war while all Georgian troops there had to remain, on the order of high command, despite the critical situation in Lori.[5]

Georgian counterattack and end of hostilities

Battles at Katharinenfeld and Shulaveri

The Armenian army kept advancing and occupied most Armenian dominated villages in the Lori/Borchali province, then proceeded to enter the town Bolnisi-Knachen near heavily fought Katharinenfeld and rested only a few dozen kilometers away from the Georgian capital. Even though attacking Tbilisi was not a primary goal for the Armenians it was an alarming immediate threat to the Georgian government. The mobilization order was not issued earlier than December 18 and approved only 2 days later. Commander Jugheli was put in charge of the ill-disciplined Georgian National Guard troops in Katharinenfeld while general Akhmetashvili was appointed commander in chief of the Georgian army forces in the Lori theatre. Jugheli's 600 men encamped in a poorly and carelessly organised position without even posting guards allowing Armenian militia to sneak up on them overnight and capture several cannons and machineguns and position themselves on the roofs to surprise the Georgians. However, despite the momentum the Armenians had gained, the Georgians with Jugheli leading them while under attack managed to recapture the equipment in close combat and forced the Armenians out of town, but with heavy casualties, losing 30 killed and 70 wounded. The Armenians also suffered heavy losses during retreat with 100 killed and 100 taken prisoner when they were run down by Georgian cavalry led by Colonel Cholokashvili. Georgian troops crossed the river Khrami with the first main objective to crush the Armenian force in the Dagheti-Samshvilde area. The Armenian troops including 500 well-entrenched militia were engaged by Georgian artillery and on 24 December the villages Dagheti, Bolnisi, Khacheni and Samshvilde were captured by the Georgian army eliminating most of the resistance in the process.[49]

Georgian-cavalry-1918
Georgian cavalrymen in 1918 armed with carbines and sabres

With the expulsion of Georgian troops under Tsulukidze from Sadakhlo the Armenians were effectively controlling most of the contested areas within the Borchali/Lori district, except Katharinenfeld which the Georgians had retaken. Following the demand of general Dro, who directly threatened an attack beyond the Khram and indirectly an attack on Tbilisi if the Georgians didn't concede and officially transfer the Akhalkalaki district to Armenia,[50] the Georgians quickly switched from a defensive posture to offensive operations. The Georgian government appointed their most respected military leader general Mazniashvili commander in charge of the planned Shulaveri operation while being supported by generals Kvinitadze and Sumbatashvili.[50][51] On December 24 the Armenians defending the railway station Ashaga-Seral were surprised and overwhelmed by a Georgian cavalry charge supported by artillery fire from an armoured train. Just hours later Georgian infantry entered several villages and Little Sulaveri and secured a railway bridge while a single battalion cleared the strategic mountain between Ashaga and Shulaveri.[50] Those actions allowed the general staff to move closer to the frontline at the station. General Dro's forces maintained the initiative as they had the superior numbers and positions while the Georgians were still amassing sufficient force to mount decisive attacks. Instead Mazniashvili resorted to deep outflanking manoeuvers by single local infantry and cavalry detachments to prevent a coordinated Armenian advance while the main army was still assembling.[52] If the Armenians had launched an attack before the Georgian army arrived in full force, nothing would have prevented them from taking Tbilisi. Mazniashvili's plan was to distract with diversionary flanking manoeuvers that threatened Shulaveri and the strategically important railway connection. The Armenian commanders responded by deploying and concentrating the bulk of their army in and around Shulaveri taking up defensive positions and mobilising all available forces to oppose a potential Georgian assault on the town. Mazniashvili had succeeded with his plan. He focused what available troops he had at hand, around 1000 men, for several simultaneous attacks on the flanks seizing a number of villages around Shulaveri on December 25. To the north of Shulaveri a Georgian National Guard battalion secured a mountain directly facing the town providing a decisive strategic stronghold that oversaw most of the area. An Attack on Shulaveri itself followed almost instantly carried out by artillery and two Georgian aircraft which dropped bombs on the Armenian positions.[52][51] The general assault was scheduled for the next day on December 26. However the battalion that was supposed to guard the mountain, left it to resupply and rest as its soldiers felt uncomfortable to rest on the mountain itself. As a result, the Armenians retook it, only to be repulsed on the same day. Paradoxically exactly the same event occurred shortly after. The Georgians once again left the mountain for the same reason losing it a third time. The commander in charge of the battalion resigned due to the behaviour of his men. As a consequence the operation was postponed until December 27. Mazniashvili attempted to take Shulaveri with a frontal attack personally leading the assault but was repelled by the Armenian defenders.[53] A day later the Armenians got reinforced by another regiment and the Georgian army followed by a 2-hour artillery barrage renewed its offensive with around 3,500 men and was able to seize the strategic heights east of the town which put them in an advantageous position. Shulaveri was retaken by nightfall on the same day while the Georgian general staff entered the town on December 29. Suffering almost 200 killed and many wounded the Armenian army split in two groups and retreated.[8][9] One of the groups heading towards Sadakhlo along the railway line was intercepted and scattered by Georgian cavalry. The other group fell back to the village of Sioni. 24 hours later on 30 December the Georgians seized Sadakhlo after it changed hands several times and the village Lamballo.[8][9] Unaware and not timely informed by the government of a scheduled ceasefire that would begin on 1 January 1919, Mazniashvili had planned another major offensive but not earlier than January 1. The Armenians on the other hand were informed and had already prepared to retake Sadhaklo and Lamballo on December 31 and got reinforced for that operation. In the subsequent fighting on 31 December neither side achieved its goals. The Armenians were able to take Lamballo once again but failed to take Sadakhlo entrenching themselves at the nearby railway station while the Georgians kept hold of the town itself.[1] The Georgians on the other side were not able to retake Lamballo after several attempts even when reinforced. Both armies rested on irregular lines.[1] On 1 January 1919 hostilities ceased and the two nations' army commanders held peace talks which continued in Tbilisi. The conflict was officially ended on January 9 with the involvement of a British special envoy.

Aftermath

Both parties signed a peace agreement in January 1919 brokered by the British. Armenian and Georgian troops left the territory and both sides agreed to begin talks on designating a neutral zone. The neutral zone later was divided between the Armenian SSR and Georgian SSR.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d Hovannisian 1971, p. 119.
  2. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 27.
  3. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 111.
  4. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 29.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 28.
  6. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 125.
  7. ^ a b c d Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 18.
  8. ^ a b c Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 44.
  9. ^ a b c Hovannisian 1971, p. 118.
  10. ^ a b Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, pp. 26-45.
  11. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, pp. 111-119.
  12. ^ სომეხი ტყვეები 1918 წლის ომის დროს 2016, p. 1.
  13. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 48.
  14. ^ Mikaberidze 2015, p. 612-613.
  15. ^ a b Mikaberidze 2015, p. 32.
  16. ^ Swietochowski 1985, p. 119.
  17. ^ a b Smele 2015, pp. 226-227.
  18. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 23.
  19. ^ Shaw 1977, p. 326.
  20. ^ a b c Hille 2010, p. 76.
  21. ^ Hovannisian 1997, pp. 292–293.
  22. ^ Macfie 2014, p. 154.
  23. ^ Payaslian 2008, p. 150.
  24. ^ a b Hille 2010, p. 71.
  25. ^ Lang 1962, pp. 207-208.
  26. ^ Hille 2010, p. 177.
  27. ^ Hovannisian 1997, pp. 186-201.
  28. ^ Payaslian 2008, p. 152.
  29. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, p. 71.
  30. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 73.
  31. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 73-75.
  32. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 75.
  33. ^ a b Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 20.
  34. ^ a b c d e Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 23.
  35. ^ Walker 1980, pp. 267-268.
  36. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 17.
  37. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 97.
  38. ^ a b c d e Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 24.
  39. ^ Hovannisian 1971, p. 103.
  40. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 25.
  41. ^ The village is currently named Odzun but was named Uzunlar until 1967.
  42. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, p. 104.
  43. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 26.
  44. ^ Armeno-Georgian War of 1918 and Armeno-Georgian Territorial Issue in the 20th Century, Andrew Anderson
  45. ^ The Republic of Armenia Volume I: 1918-1919, Richard G. Hovannisian
  46. ^ INDEPENDENT GEORGIA (1918-1921), David Marshall Lang
  47. ^ Hovannisian 1971, pp. 101.
  48. ^ Hovannisian 1971, pp. 102.
  49. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 39.
  50. ^ a b c Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 40.
  51. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, p. 114.
  52. ^ a b Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 42.
  53. ^ Andersen & Partskhaladze 2015, p. 43.

Bibliography

  • Andersen, Andrew; Partskhaladze, George (2015). Armeno-Georgian War of 1918 and Armeno-Georgian Territorial Issue in the 20th Century. academia.edu.
  • Hovannisian, Richard (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918-1919. Volume I. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hille, Charlotte Mathilde Louise (2010), State Building and Conflict Resolution in the Caucasus, Eurasian Studies Library, BRILL
  • Hovannisian, Richard (1997), The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times: Foreign Domination to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century, Volume II, ISBN 978-0-333-61974-2, OCLC 312951712
  • Lang, David Marshall (1962), A Modern History of Georgia, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
  • Macfie, Alexander Lyon (2014), The End of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1923, Routledge
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015), Historical Dictionary of Georgia, Rowman & Littlefield
  • Payaslian, S. (2008), The History of Armenia, Springer
  • Shaw, Ezel Kural (1977), Reform, revolution and republic : the rise of modern Turkey (1808-1975), History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, 2, Cambridge University Press, OCLC 78646544
  • Smele, Jonathan (2015), Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926, Rowman & Littlefield
  • Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1985), Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-26310-8
  • სომეხი ტყვეები 1918 წლის ომის დროს, legionerebi, 2016
  • Walker, Christopher (1980). Armenia: The Survival of a Nation (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
1918 in Armenia

The following lists events that happened during 1918 in Armenia.

Armenians in Georgia

Armenians in Georgia (Armenian: Վիրահայեր, translit. Virahayer) are Armenian people living within the country of Georgia. The Armenian community is mostly concentrated in the capital Tbilisi, Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and Samtskhe-Javakheti region. Official Georgian statistics put the Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti at about 54% of the population. In Abkhazia, Armenians are the third biggest ethnic group in the region after the Georgians and the Abkhazian majority.

Armenia–Georgia relations

Armenian–Georgian relations refers to foreign relations between Armenia and Georgia. Both countries were former Soviet Republics of the former USSR. Armenia and Georgia governments have had generally positive relations, but there have also been some problems in the past. Georgia is a member of GUAM, which leaves Armenia out of regional transportation and energy projects.

Relations with Georgia are of particular importance for Armenia because, under the border blockades imposed against Armenia by Turkey and Azerbaijan due to the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Georgia offers Armenia its only land connection with Europe and access to its Black Sea ports. However, because of Armenia's reliance on Russia and Georgia, both of whom fought in the 2008 South Ossetia war and severed diplomatic and economic relations as a result; and as 70% of Armenia's imports entered via Georgia especially from Russia which has imposed an economic blockade on Georgia.

The Javakheti region in southern Georgia contains a large Armenian population and although there have been local civic organizations (such as United Javakhk) pushing for autonomy, there has been no violence between Armenians and Georgians in the area. The border disputes resulted in the Georgian–Armenian War. Since independence Georgian clergy have occupied the Armenian churches. Armenians in Georgia and Armenia have demonstrated against the destruction. On November 28, 2008, Armenian demonstrators in front of the Georgian embassy in Armenia demanded that the Georgian government immediately cease encroachments on the Armenian churches and punish those guilty, calling the Georgian party's actions White Genocide. Some Armenians believe they are victims of a policy to shift the Samtskhe-Javakheti region's demographic balance as a number of Georgian families were settled there and Armenians are also underrepresented in the government leading to the perception of discrimination and mutual distrust. There were several protests, and some of them turned violent after clashes with law enforcement agents. Georgia also supported Azerbaijan against to Armenia in United Nations General Assembly Resolution 62/243. Despite the stated differences, disagreements and conflicting interests, bilateral relations between the two countries are stable and developing.

Armistice of Erzincan

The Armistice of Erzincan (also spelled Erzindzhan or Erzinjan) was an agreement to suspend hostilities during World War I signed by the Ottoman Empire and Transcaucasian Commissariat in Erzincan on 18 December 1917 (5 December O.S.). The armistice brought temporary peace to the Caucasian and Persian Fronts until 12 February, when the fighting was resumed.

The status of the Transcaucasian Commissariat was unclear at the time: the Ottomans regarded it as an independent entity, a legal successor of the Russian Empire, while the Commissariat still considered itself a part of the Russian Republic. The Ottoman Empire was already party to the Brest-Litovsk armistice with Russia (15 December) that covered the Caucasian and Persian Fronts. After receiving a ceasefire proposal from Vehib Pasha, commander of the Ottoman Third Army, the Commissariat authorised the commander of the Russian Caucasus Front, General Przhevalski, to negotiate an armistice with his Ottoman opposite. The result was the Erzincan Armistice, after which the Russian troops began to withdraw, leaving the Transcaucasian Commissariat completely undefended.

A supplement to the armistice was signed on the same day, demarcating the line of occupation between the two sides. On 12 February, Ottoman forces began advancing across the line in defiance of the armistice, having rejected the Transcaucasian Commissariat's authority to sign it and accused the Armenians of massacring Muslims behind the Ottoman line on 15–16 January. On 24 February the Brest-Litovsk armistice was broken by Germany and became of no effect. Both armistices were superseded by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia, signed on 3 March 1918, and the Treaty of Batum with the successor states of the Transcaucasian Commissariat, signed 4 June.

Armistice of Salonica

The Armistice of Salonica (also known as the Armistice of Thessalonica) was signed on 29 September 1918 between Bulgaria and the Allied Powers in Thessaloniki. The convention followed after a request by the Bulgarian government on 24 September asking for a ceasefire. The armistice effectively ended Bulgaria's participation in World War I on the side of the Central Powers and came into effect on the Bulgarian front at noon on 30 September. The armistice regulated the demobilization and disarmament of the Bulgarian armed forces.

The signatories were, for the Allies, the French General Louis Franchet d'Espérey, commander of the Allied Army of the Orient, and a commission appointed by the Bulgarian government, composed of General Ivan Lukov (member of the Bulgarian Army HQ), Andrey Lyapchev (cabinet member) and Simeon Radev (diplomat).

Baranovichi Offensive

The Baranovichi Offensive was a battle fought on the Eastern Front during World War I between an army of Russia and the forces of Germany and Austria-Hungary in July 1916.

Battle of Valenciennes (1918)

The Battle of Valenciennes was part of the Hundred Days Offensive at the end of World War I. Occurring on 1 and 2 November 1918, it resulted in the capture of Valenciennes from the Germans by Canadian and British forces. A vivid account of this battle, from the Maresches section of the eleven-mile front, is provided by Private A S Bullock in his wartime memoir. Sergeant Hugh Cairns, was awarded the Victoria Cross for conspicuous bravery during the fighting.

Centenary of the outbreak of World War I

The centenary of the outbreak of World War I was commemorated in Europe in late July and early August 2014. A century earlier, the July Crisis, which occurred after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, had culminated in Austria-Hungary declaring war on the Kingdom of Serbia, which Austria-Hungary blamed for the assassination, on 28 July 1914. Over the following days and weeks, this action and the invasion of Luxembourg and Belgium by the German Empire led to a succession of other declarations of war that drew the major European powers into a worldwide conflict. A century later, governments in Europe held a series of official commemorative events to mark the occasion.

Drastamat Kanayan

Drastamat Kanayan (Armenian: Դրաստամատ Կանայեան; 31 May 1884 – 8 March 1956), better known as Dro (Դրօ), was an Armenian military commander and politician, a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. He served as Defense Minister of Armenia in 1920, during the country's brief independence. During World War II, he led the Armenian Legion.

First Republic of Armenia

The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (classical Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.The republic was established in the Armenian-populated territories of the disintegrated Russian Empire, known as Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia. The leaders of the government came mostly from the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF or Dashnaktsutyun). The First Republic of Armenia bordered the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north, the Ottoman Empire to the west, Persia to the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to the east. It had a total land area of roughly 70,000 km² (174,000 km² under the Treaty of Sèvres), and a population of 1.3 million.

The Armenian National Council declared the independence of Armenia on 28 May 1918. From the very onset, Armenia was plagued with a variety of domestic and foreign problems. A humanitarian crisis emerged from the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide as tens of thousands of Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire settled there. The republic lasted for over two years, during which time it was involved in several armed conflicts caused by territorial disputes. By late 1920, the nation was conquered by the Soviet Red Army. The First Republic, along with the Republic of Mountainous Armenia which repelled the Soviet invasion until July 1921, ceased to exist as an independent state, superseded by the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic that became part of the Soviet Union in 1922. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the republic regained its independence as the current Republic of Armenia in 1991.

Giorgi Mazniashvili

Giorgi Mazniashvili (Georgian: გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი) (6 April 1870 – 16 December 1937) was a Georgian general and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921). During the service in the Russian army, he was also known by a Russian transliteration of his surname – Mazniev.

HMS E23

HMS E23 was an E class submarine built by Vickers, Barrow-in-Furness. She was laid down on 28 September 1914 and was commissioned on 6 December 1915. E23 torpedoed the German dreadnought SMS Westfalen (18,900 tons), holing her off Terschelling on 19 August 1916. E23 was sold on 6 September 1922 in Sunderland.

History of Armenia

Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat. The original Armenian name for the country was Hayk, later Hayastan (Armenian: Հայաստան), translated as the land of Haik, and consisting of the name of the ancient Mesopotamian god Haya (ha-ià) and the Persian suffix '-stan' ("land"). The historical enemy of Hayk (the legendary ruler of Armenia), Hayastan, was Bel, or in other words Baal (Akkadian cognate Bēlu).The name Armenia was given to the country by the surrounding states, and it is traditionally derived from Armenak or Aram (the great-grandson of Haik's great-grandson, and another leader who is, according to Armenian tradition, the ancestor of all Armenians). In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Soon after the Hayasa-Azzi were the Nairi (1400–1000 BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu (1000–600 BC), who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by King Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni has been described as "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a fully royal capital."The Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Assyrian for Ararat) was replaced by the Orontid dynasty. Following Persian and subsequent Macedonian rule, the Artaxiad dynasty from 190 BC gave rise to the Kingdom of Armenia which rose to the peak of its influence under Tigranes II before falling under Roman rule.In 301, Arsacid Armenia was the first sovereign nation to accept Christianity as a state religion. The Armenians later fell under Byzantine, Sassanid Persian, and Islamic hegemony, but reinstated their independence with the Bagratid Dynasty kingdom of Armenia. After the fall of the kingdom in 1045, and the subsequent Seljuk conquest of Armenia in 1064, the Armenians established a kingdom in Cilicia, where they prolonged their sovereignty to 1375.Starting in the early 16th century, Greater Armenia came under Safavid Persian rule, however over the centuries Eastern Armenia remained under Persian rule while Western Armenia fell under Ottoman rule. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia was conquered by Russia and Greater Armenia was divided between the Ottoman and Russian Empires.In the early 20th century Armenians suffered in the genocide inflicted on them by the Ottoman government of Turkey, in which 1.5 million Armenians were killed and many more dispersed throughout the world via Syria and Lebanon. Armenia, from then on corresponding to much of Eastern Armenia, regained independence in 1918, with the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia, and in 1991, the Republic of Armenia.

History of Georgia (country)

The nation of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო sakartvelo) was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished during the 10th to 12th centuries under King David IV the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great, and fell to the Mongol invasion by 1243, and after a brief reunion under George V the Brilliant to the Timurid Empire. By 1490, Georgia was fragmented into a number of petty kingdoms and principalities, which throughout the Early Modern period struggled to maintain their autonomy against Ottoman and Iranian (Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar) domination until Georgia was finally annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. After a brief bid for independence with the Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1918–1921, Georgia was part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936, and then formed the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The current republic of Georgia has been independent since 1991. The first president Zviad Gamsakhurdia stoked Georgian nationalism and vowed to assert Tbilisi's authority over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Gamsakhurdia was deposed in a bloody coup d'état within the same year and the country became embroiled in a bitter civil war, which lasted until 1995. Supported by Russia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia achieved de facto independence from Georgia. The Rose Revolution forced Eduard Shevardnadze to resign in 2003. The new government under Mikheil Saakashvili prevented the secession of a third breakaway republic in the Adjara crisis of 2004, but the conflict with Abkhazia and South Ossetia led to the 2008 Russo–Georgian War and tensions with Russia remain unresolved.

The history of Georgia is inextricably linked with the history of the Georgian people.

Lake Naroch Offensive

The Lake Naroch Offensive in 1916 was an unsuccessful Russian offensive on the Eastern Front in World War I. It was launched at the request of Marshal Joseph Joffre and intended to relieve the German pressure on French forces. Due to lack of reconnaissance, Russian artillery support failed to overcome and neutralise the well-fortified German defenses and artillery positions, leading to costly and unproductive direct attacks, hindered by the weather. On 30 March General Evert ordered to stop the offensive.

Military history of Georgia

The country of Georgia has known a rich military history, both as a battlefield of empires and as an independent political and military power. The strategic significance and natural wealth of its territory made it the target of many invasions, and the country's independence was preserved against multiple enemies by a succession of states. Before the unification of the country by the Bagrationi dynasty in the 10th century, several states, such as Iberia and Colchis had managed to subsist between the Roman empire (later Byzantine Empire in the West) and the Sassanid Empire (later replaced by the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates). Between the 11th and 15th centuries, the Kingdom of Georgia was a major regional power, which withstood invasions by the Great Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, and Timurid Empire, before its fragmentation and submission to the Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Many Georgians fought in the armies of the empires that ruled the country from the 16th century, be it the Safavids (and successive Afsharids and Qajars), the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union, and the nation kept a reputation for military valour and skill. Since 1991, the newly independent Georgia has taken part in many conflicts: its conflicts with Russia culminated in the 2008 Russo–Georgian War, while its alliance with the United States led to Georgia's participation in the Afghan and Iraq Wars.

Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War

Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War within the territory of the former Russian Empire sought for creation of independent and non-Bolshevik nation states after the October Revolution. They were often supported politically or militarily by the Entente Powers. Some of them cooperated with the Russian White Movement, others were opposed to it. Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war.The following list presents some of the pro-independence movements and the conflicts they were involved in during this period.

World War I cryptography

Codes and ciphers were used extensively in World War I. The decoding by British Naval intelligence of the Zimmermann telegram helped bring the United States into the war.

Trench codes were used by field armies of most of the combatants (Americans, British, French, German) in World War I.The most commonly used codes were simple substitution codes. More important messages generally used mathematical encryption for extra security, though. The use of these codes required the distribution of codebooks to military personnel, which proved to be a security liability since these books could be stolen by enemy forces.

Theatres
Principal
participants
Timeline
Aspects
History
Geography
Politics
Foreign
relations
Economy
Culture

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.