George Washington Bridge

The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City with the borough of Fort Lee in New Jersey. The bridge is named after George Washington, the first President of the United States. The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,[5][6] carrying over 103 million vehicles per year in 2016.[a] It is owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a bi-state government agency that operates infrastructure in the Port of New York and New Jersey. The George Washington Bridge is also informally known as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George,[7] and was known as the Fort Lee Bridge or Hudson River Bridge during construction.

The idea of a bridge across the Hudson River was first proposed in 1906, but it was not until 1925 that the state legislatures of New York and New Jersey voted to allow for the planning and construction of such a bridge. Construction on the George Washington Bridge started in October 1927; the bridge was ceremonially dedicated on October 24, 1931, and opened to traffic the next day. The opening of the George Washington Bridge contributed to the development of Bergen County, New Jersey, in which Fort Lee is located. The upper deck was widened from six to eight lanes in 1946. The six-lane lower deck was constructed beneath the existing span from 1958 to 1962 because of increasing traffic flow.

The George Washington Bridge is an important travel corridor within the New York metropolitan area. It has an upper level that carries four lanes in each direction and a lower level with three lanes in each direction, for a total of 14 lanes of travel. The speed limit on the bridge is 45 mph (72 km/h). The bridge's upper level also carries pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Interstate 95 (I-95) and U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9, composed of US 1 and US 9) cross the river via the bridge. US 46, which lies entirely within New Jersey, terminates halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York. At its eastern terminus in New York City, the bridge continues onto the Trans-Manhattan Expressway (part of I-95, connecting to the Cross Bronx Expressway).

The George Washington Bridge measures 4,760 feet (1,450 m) long and has a main span of 3,500 feet (1,100 m). It had the longest main bridge span in the world at the time of its opening and held that distinction until the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937.

George Washington Bridge
George Washington Bridge from New Jersey-edit
The bridge, looking east from Fort Lee toward Upper Manhattan.
Coordinates40°51′07″N 73°57′07″W / 40.852°N 73.952°W
Carries
  • 14 lanes (8 upper deck, 6 lower deck) of I-95 (entire span) / US 1-9 (entire span) / US 46 (NJ side)
  • Upper deck sidewalk (south side): pedestrians and bicycles
CrossesHudson River
LocaleFort Lee, New Jersey, and New York City (Washington Heights, Manhattan), New York, United States
Other name(s)
  • GWB
  • GW
  • GW Bridge
  • The George
Maintained byPort Authority of New York and New Jersey
Characteristics
DesignDouble-decked suspension bridge
MaterialSteel
Total length4,760 ft (1,450 m)[1]
Width119 ft (36 m)[1]
Height604 ft (184 m)[1]
Longest span3,500 ft (1,067 m)[2]
Clearance above14 ft (4.3 m) (upper level), 13.5 ft (4.1 m) (lower level)[3]
Clearance below212 ft (65 m) at mid-span[1]
History
DesignerOthmar Ammann (chief engineer)
Edward W. Stearns (assistant chief engineer)
Allston Dana (design engineer)
Cass Gilbert (architect)
Montgomery Case (construction engineer)
Construction startSeptember 21, 1927 (bridge construction)
June 2, 1959 (lower level)
OpenedOctober 24, 1931 (upper level)
August 29, 1962 (lower level)
Statistics
Daily traffic289,827 (2016)[4]
Toll(Eastbound only) As of August 29, 2019:
  • Cars $15.00 (cash)
  • $12.50 for Peak (E-ZPass)
  • $10.50 for Off-peak (E-ZPass)
  • $6.50 (when carpooling with three or more people with NY and NJ E-ZPass only)
  • $6.25 (New York or New Jersey issued E-ZPass with registered commuter plan and three or more trips into Staten Island, NY during a calendar month)
  • (Peak hours: Weekdays: 6-10 a.m., 4-8 p.m.; Sat. & Sun.: 11 a.m.-9 p.m.)
Location within New Jersey and New York

Description

George Washington Bridge NYC full span from Hudson
The bridge, looking south at sunset from the New York side of the Hudson River.

The George Washington Bridge was designed by chief civil engineer Othmar Ammann,[8][9] design engineer Allston Dana,[10][9] and assistant chief engineer Edward W. Stearns,[11]:163[9] with Cass Gilbert as consulting architect.[11]:43, 163 It connects Fort Lee, New Jersey, with Washington Heights, Manhattan, New York.[12][13]

Decks

The bridge carries 14 lanes of traffic, seven in each direction.[12][13] As such, the George Washington Bridge contains more vehicular lanes than any other suspension bridge, and is the world's busiest vehicular bridge.[11]:41[5][6] The fourteen lanes of the bridge are split unevenly across two levels: the upper level contains eight lanes while the lower level contains six lanes.[12][13] The upper level opened in 1931,[14] and is 90 feet (27 m) wide.[1] The upper level originally had six lanes, though two more lanes were added in 1946.[15] Although the lower level was part of the original plans for the bridge, it did not open until 1962.[13] The upper level has a vertical clearance of 14 feet (4.3 m), and all trucks and other oversize vehicles must use the upper level. Trucks are banned from the lower level, which has a clearance of 13.6 feet (4.1 m). All lanes on both levels are 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) wide.[3][16] Vehicles carrying hazardous materials (HAZMATs) are prohibited on the lower level due to its enclosed nature. HAZMAT-carrying vehicles may use the upper level, provided that they conform to strict guidelines as outlined in the Port Authority's "Red Book".[3][17]

There are two sidewalks on the upper span of the bridge, one on each side. However, cyclists and pedestrians can usually only utilize the southern sidewalk, since the northern sidewalk is normally closed.[18] The northern sidewalk was temporarily reopened in 2017 while a temporary suicide prevention fence was installed on the southern sidewalk, in preparation for the installation of permanent fences on both sidewalks.[19][20]

The George Washington Bridge measures 4,760 feet (1,450 m) long and has a main span of 3,500 feet (1,100 m).[1] Accounting for the height of the lower deck, the bridge stretches 212 feet (65 m) above mean high water at its center,[1] and 195 feet (59 m) above mean high water under the New York anchorage.[21] The bridge's main span was the longest main bridge span in the world at the time of its opening in 1931, and was nearly double the 1,850 feet (560 m) of the previous record holder, the Ambassador Bridge in Detroit.[22][23] It held this title until the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937.[2] The George Washington Bridge's total width is 119 feet (36 m).[1]

When the upper deck was built, it was only 12 feet (3.7 m) thick without any stiffening trusses on the sides, and it had a length-to-thickness ratio of about 350 to 1.[11]:59, 61 At the time of the George Washington Bridge's opening, most long suspension spans had stiffening trusses on their sides, and spans generally had a length-to-thickness ratio of 60 to 1.[11]:63[24] During the planning process, Ammann designed the deck around the "deflection theory", an as-yet-unconfirmed assumption that longer suspension decks did not need to be as stiff in proportion to its length, because the weight of the longer deck itself would provide a counterweight against the deck's movement. This had been tested by Leon Moisseiff in 1909 when he designed the Manhattan Bridge in 1909, though it was less than half the length of the George Washington Bridge.[24] Stiffening trusses were ultimately excluded from the George Washington Bridge's design to save money; instead, a system of plate girders was installed on the underside of the upper deck. This provided the stiffening that was necessary for the bridge deck, and it was replicated on the lower deck during its construction. The plate-girders underneath each deck, combined with an open-truss design on the bridge's side that connected the decks with each other, resulted in an even stiffer span that was able to resist torsional forces.[11]:63

Cables

DETAIL SHOWING SADDLE FOR HOLDING CABLE TOGETHER JUST BEFORE IT SPLAYS APART INTO ANCHORAGE BAY, NEW JERSEY END - George Washington Bridge, Spanning Hudson River between HAER NY,31-NEYO,161-62
Detail of main cables in New Jersey anchorage

The George Washington Bridge is supported by a total of 105,986 wires. There are four main cables, which suspend the upper deck and are held up by the suspension towers. Each main cable contained 61 strands, with each strand made of 434 individual wires, for a total of 26,474 wires per main cable. The cables were then covered by a sheath of weather-resistant steel.[11]:49[25][26] The bridge uses a wire-cable design of suspension, wherein the vertical suspender wires are attached directly to the main cables and the deck directly.[11]:50[27][28]

Each side of the bridge contains an anchorage for the main cables. The anchorage on the New York side is a concrete structure, while the anchorage on the New Jersey side is bored directly into the cliff of the Palisades.[29][11]:57 Originally, the ends of the main cables were supposed to contain one of several ornamented designs, such as a wing, fin, tire, or even a statue at the end of each main cable. This was later eliminated in order to save costs after the start of the Great Depression in 1929.[11]:57–59

Suspension towers

2015 George Washington Bridge west tower from below looking east
View of the suspension towers from the upper deck

The suspension towers on each side of the river are each 604 feet (184 m) tall.[1] They are composed of sections weighing between 37 and 40 short tons (33 and 36 long tons) and contain a combined 475,000 rivets.[11]:45

The original design for the George Washington Bridge's suspension towers called for them to be encased in concrete and granite in a Revival style, similar to the Brooklyn Bridge.[11]:45[30] The granite was supposed to help support the steel structure of the towers, though after further scrutiny of the proposed bridge's engineering, it was found that the steel alone could support the towers.[11]:43 It was ultimately decided that the supporting structure of the towers should be made entirely of steel, with the granite serving only as a facade.[31] The towers would have also contained elevators to carry sightseers to the top of each tower.[29] However, the facades were postponed in 1929 during the Great Depression.[11]:43, 45[32] The entire weight of the bridge was supported by the steel structure, and the purely decorative masonry could be added at a later date.[33]

Even though the steel towers had been left that way for cost reasons, aesthetic critiques of the bare steel towers were favorable.[32] Several groups, such as the American Institute of Steel Construction, believed that covering the steel framework with masonry would be both misleading and "fundamentally ugly".[34] The masonry facades were ultimately never built; the exposed steel towers, with their distinctive criss-crossed bracing, became one of the George Washington Bridge's most identifiable characteristics.[11]:49[2] The Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier wrote of the towers: "The structure is so pure, so resolute, so regular that here, finally, steel architecture seems to laugh."[11]:41, 43[23] After the George Washington Bridge was successfully constructed without masonry towers, Ammann did not incorporate any masonry towers in his bridge plans.[11]:45

American flag

Since 1947 or 1948, the bridge has flown the world's largest free-flying American flag, measuring at 90 feet (27 m) long, 60 feet (18 m) wide, and 450 pounds (200 kg).[35][12] Until 1976, the flag was taken out of a garage in New Jersey and manually erected on national holidays. During the United States' bicentennial, a mechanical hoisting system was installed, and the flag was stored along the bridge's girders when not in use.[35] It is hoisted on special occasions when weather allows,[36][37] and appears on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, and Veterans Day.[12] Since 2006, the flag is also flown on September 11 of each year, honoring those lost in the September 11 attacks.[37] On events where the flag is flown, the tower lights are lit from dusk until 11:59 p.m.[1]

History

The bridge sits near the sites of Fort Washington (in New York) and Fort Lee (in New Jersey), which were fortified positions used by General George Washington and his American forces as they attempted to deter the occupation of New York City in 1776 during the American Revolutionary War. Unsuccessful, Washington evacuated Manhattan by crossing between the two forts.[38][b]

Planning

Until the first decade of the 20th century, passage across the lower Hudson River was possible only by ferry.[40]:10[41]:9 The Hudson and Manhattan Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad built a total of six tunnels under the lower Hudson in the 1900s.[40]:10 The first vehicular crossing across the lower Hudson River, the Holland Tunnel, was opened in 1927, connecting Lower Manhattan with Jersey City.[42] Plans for a vehicular bridge across the Hudson River were considered as early as 1906, during the planning for the Holland Tunnel.[43] Three possible locations for a Hudson River bridge were considered in the vicinity of 57th, 110th, and 179th Streets in Manhattan.[44] These three locations were considered to be the only suitable locations for suspension bridges; other sites were rejected on the grounds of aesthetics, geography, or traffic flows.[43][45]

In January 1924, the New York State Chamber of Commerce voted against the 57th Street location in favor of another location upstream.[46] Despite this, the engineer Gustav Lindenthal proposed that the Hudson River bridge be built at 57th Street, and carry 16 railroad tracks and 12 lanes of automotive traffic.[47] In May 1924, Colonel Frederick Stuart Greene, the New York Superintendent of Public Works, announced a plan to construct a suspension bridge between Fort Lee in New Jersey, and 179th Street at Fort Washington in New York. At that location, both sides were surrounded by steep cliffs (The Palisades on the New Jersey side, and Washington Heights on the New York side). Thus, it was possible to build the bridge without either impeding maritime traffic or requiring lengthy approach ramps from ground level.[48]

A New Jersey state assemblyman introduced a bill for the Hudson River bridge that December.[49] This bill was passed in the New Jersey Assembly in February 1925.[50] After an initial rejection by New Jersey governor George Sebastian Silzer, the Assembly made modifications before passing the bill again in March,[51] after which Silzer signed the bill.[52] Around the same time, the New York state legislature was also considering a similar bill.[8] A dispute developed between New York civic groups, who supported the construction of the Hudson River Bridge; and the Parks Conservation Association, who believed that the bridge towers would degrade the quality of Fort Washington Park directly underneath the proposed bridge's deck.[53][54] In late March 1925, the chairman of the Parks Conservation Association noted that the proposed New York state legislation would provide for the actual construction of the bridge, rather than just the planning.[55] Ultimately, the Hudson River bridge bill was passed in the New York state legislature, and New York Governor Al Smith approved the bill that April.[56]

George Washington Bridge NY
Aerial view of the bridge, surrounded by cliffs on either side

In March 1925, New Jersey governor Silzer asked Othmar Ammann to devise preliminary plans for the Hudson River bridge. Ammann found that the width of the Hudson River decreased by more than 1,000 feet (300 m) when it passed between Fort Lee and Fort Washington. The ledges of Fort Lee and Fort Washington were respectively 300 feet (91 m) and 200 feet (61 m) above mean water level at this point, which was not only ideal geography for a suspension bridge, but also allowed the bridge to be high enough to give sufficient clearance for maritime traffic.[8] However, the differing heights meant that a large cut had to be made through the Fort Lee ledge so that the bridge approach could be built there.[57] The same month, the New Jersey legislature asked for funds for test bores to determine if the geological strata would support the bridge.[8] In response to continuing concerns from park preservationists, Ammann stated that placing the New York suspension tower anywhere else would make the bridge look asymmetrical, which he believed was a worse outcome than placing the tower within the park.[58]

After funding was secured, surveyors began examining feasible sites for the future bridge's approaches in August 1925. By law, the New York end of the Hudson River Bridge could only be constructed between 178th and 185th Streets, and the New Jersey end had to be built directly across the river.[57] Geologists made 300-foot (91 m) test bores on the New Jersey side to determine if the site was feasible for laying foundations for the bridge.[59] Othmar Ammann was hired as the bridge's chief engineer.[32] In Ammann's original plans for the bridge, which had been published in March 1925, he had envisioned that the bridge would contain two sidewalks; a roadway that could carry up to 8,000 vehicles per hour; and space for four railroad tracks, in case the two North River railroad tunnels downstream exceeded their train capacity.[8] Cass Gilbert was hired in January 1926 to design architectural elements for the Hudson River bridge, including the suspension towers. The bridge design had yet to be finalized, and its cost could not even be estimated at that point due to the complexity of factors.[60]

Gilbert released preliminary sketches of the Hudson River bridge that March; by then, the architect had decided that the span would be a suspension bridge.[30] The sketch accompanied a feasibility report that Ammann and other engineers presented to the Port of New York Authority (now the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey), the agency that was to operate the bridge. The central span was to be 3,500 feet (1,100 m) long, longer than any other suspension bridge in existence at the time, and 200 feet above mean high water. The span would initially carry 4 lanes of vehicular traffic and sidewalk lanes, with space to expand the bridge deck to 8 lanes.[61] There would also be space to build a second deck in the future below the main deck.[62] Ammann's team also found that the most feasible location for the bridge was at 179th Street in Manhattan (as opposed to 181st or 175th Streets). This was both because the 179th Street location was more aesthetically appealing than the other two locations, and because a 179th Street bridge would be cheaper and shorter in length than a bridge at either of the other streets.[61] At this point in the planning process, the Hudson River bridge's estimated cost was $40 million[30] or $50 million.[61] Because of the proposed bridge's length, engineers also had to test the strength of materials, including suspension cables, that were to be used in the span.[63][64]

By fall 1926, one engineer predicted that construction on the Hudson River bridge would start the following summer.[65] In December 1926, the final plans for the bridge were approved by the public[66] and by the War Department.[67] The Port Authority planned to sell off $50 million worth of bonds to pay for the bridge, and the initial $20 million bond issue was sold that December.[68] Further issues arose when the New Jersey Assembly passed a bill in March 1927, which increased the New Jersey governor's power to veto Port Authority contracts. Smith, the New York governor, and Silzer, the now-former New Jersey governor who had been appointed Port Authority chairman, both objected to the bill since the Port Authority had been intended as a bi-state venture.[69][70] Afterward, the then-current New Jersey governor A. Harry Moore worked with legislators to revise the legislation.[71] The revised law was ultimately not a significant deviation from the Port Authority's practice at the time, wherein the Port Authority was already submitting its contracts to New Jersey government for review.[72]

Construction

First contracts

In April 1927, the Port Authority opened the first bids for the construction of the Hudson River bridge. It was specifically seeking bids for the construction of the New Jersey suspension tower's foundation.[73] The Manhattan suspension anchorage's location was still undecided at this time.[74] A bid for the New Jersey tower was awarded later that month.[75] In May, the Port Authority opened more bids for the construction of the bridge's approaches and anchorage on the New Jersey side.[76] Dredging operations on the Hudson River, which would allow large ships to pass underneath the bridge, also started that May.[77] By late August, the Port Authority had started condemning plots of land for the bridge's approaches.[78]

Montgomery B. Case, chief construction engineer,[79] began construction on the Hudson River bridge began on September 21, 1927 with groundbreaking ceremonies held at the sites of both future suspension towers.[80][81] Each tower was to have a base with a perimeter measuring 89 by 98 feet (27 by 30 m), and descending 80 feet into the riverbed. The riverbed around the towers' sites was dredged first, and then steel pilings were placed in the riverbed to create a watertight cofferdam. The cofferdams for the bridge were the largest ever built at the time.[25][82] In early October of that year, the Port Authority received bids for the construction of the bridge deck. There were two main methods being considered for the span's construction: the cheaper "wire-cable" method and the more expensive "eyebar" method.[83][28] The wire-cable method, where the vertical suspender wires are attached directly to the main cables and the deck directly, would require a stiffening truss to support the deck. The eyebar method, where the suspender wires are attached to a chain of eyebars (metal bars with holes in them), would be self-supporting.[11]:49[84] Ultimately, the Port Authority chose the wire-cable design because of costs, and it awarded the contract for constructing the deck to John A. Roebling Sons' Company.[27][28][11]:49 The corresponding contract for manufacturing the steel was awarded to the McClintic-Marshall Company.[85] The first serious accident during the bridge's construction occurred in December 1927, when three men drowned while working in a caisson on the New Jersey side.[86]

Towers and anchorages

Under GWB Pillars
The Manhattan suspension tower, seen from below

Bids for the Manhattan suspension tower were advertised in March 1928.[87] At this point, 64% of the total projected worth of construction contracts had been awarded. The piers that provided foundation for the New Jersey suspension tower and approaches were being constructed.[62] The cliffs on both sides of the river were high enough that they could be used as anchorages for the Hudson River bridge. The towers' foundations could reach at most 190 feet (58 m) below mean low water, where the foundations would hit a layer of solid rock.[88] In May 1928, builders started drilling a 50-foot-deep (15 m) cut through the Palisades on the New Jersey side so that the Hudson River bridge approach could be built.[89] By June 1928, half of the money earned during the previous year's $20 million bond sale had been spent on construction.[90] By that October, nearly all blasting operations had been completed. The suspension tower on the New Jersey side had been constructed to a height of 250 feet (76 m), and the tower on the New York side was progressing as well.[91] The suspension towers consisted of 13 segments, each of which were almost 50 feet high.[25]

By March 1929, the concrete structure of the New York anchorage had been completed, three months ahead of schedule. The anchorage on the New Jersey side, which had been fully bored, consisted of two holes that had been bored 250 feet into the face of the Palisades. On the New Jersey side, 225,000 cubic yards (172,000 m3) of rock had to be blasted out to make way for the New Jersey approach. The suspension towers were nearly complete at the time of the report; only 100 feet of each tower's height remained to be built. Anchors were being placed in the two holes that were being drilled for the New Jersey anchorage, and this task was also nearing completion.[29]

In April, the Port Authority acquired the last of the properties that were in the path of the bridge's Manhattan approach.[92] Plans for the Manhattan approach were approved by the New York City Board of Estimate around the same time. The approach was to consist of scenic, meandering ramps leading to both Riverside Drive and the Henry Hudson Parkway, which run along the eastern bank of the Hudson River at the bottom of the cliff in Washington Heights. The bridge would also connect to 178th and 179th Streets, at the top of Washington Heights. A third connection would be made to an underground highway running between and parallel to 178th and 179th Streets; this connection would become the 178th–179th Street Tunnels, and would later be replaced by the Trans-Manhattan Expressway.[93] The original plan for the approach to the underground highway stated that the approach would be made using a monumental stone viaduct descending from the span at a 2.2% gradient.[82] The Port Authority started evicting residents in the approach's path in October 1929.[94] The same month, the Port Authority sold the final $30 million in bonds to pay for the bridge.[95]

The plans for the Hudson River bridge's Fort Lee approach were also changed in January 1930. Originally, the bridge would have terminated in a traffic circle,[96] a type of intersection design that was being built around New Jersey during the 1920s and 1930s.[97] However, the revised plans called for a grade-separated highway approach that would connect to a traffic "distributing basin" with ramps to nearby highways.[96] The total cost of land acquisition for the bridge approaches on both sides of the Hudson River exceeded $10 million.[98]

Cable spinning

DETAIL SHOWING SUSPENDER CABLE AND SADDLE - George Washington Bridge, Spanning Hudson River between Manhattan and Fort Lee, NJ, New York, New York County, NY HAER NY,31-NEYO,161-29
A close up view of a vertical suspender cable, which is connected to the larger main cable with what is called a "saddle"

After the towers were completed, two temporary catwalks were built between the two suspension towers.[11]:55[25] Then, workers began laying the bridge's four main cables, a series of thick cables that stretch between the tops of the two towers and carry what would later become the upper deck. The first strand of the first main cable was hoisted between both towers in July 1929, in a ceremony attended by the governors of both states and the mayors of New York City and Fort Lee.[99] The two temporary catwalks allowed workers to spin the wires for the main cables on-site.[11]:55[100] The wires for the cables were spun by dozens of reels at a dock near the base of the New York anchorage; each reel contained 30 miles of wire at any given time.[26] A total of 105,986 wires were used in the bridge when it was completed.[25][26]

By February 1930, the bridge was halfway complete; since construction was two months ahead of schedule, the bridge was scheduled to open in early 1932. A team of 350 men was spinning the wires for each of the 36-inch-wide (91 cm) main cables, which were 22% complete. In addition, the builders had started ordering steel for the deck.[101] By April, the spinning of the main cables was half complete.[102] The first main cable was completed in late July 1930,[103] and the other three main cables were completed that August,[104] with the laying of the last wire being marked by a ceremony.[9] The spinning of the main cables had taken ten months in total.[11]:57

After the main cables were laid, workers spun the suspender wires that connected the main cables with the deck. When it was finished, the system of cables would support 90,000 short tons (80,000 long tons) of the deck's weight, though the cables would be strong enough to carry 350,000 short tons (310,000 long tons), four times as much weight.[105][26] The construction of a lower deck for rail usage was postponed, since the start of the Depression meant that there would not be enough railroad traffic to justify the construction of such a deck in the near future.[106]

Nearing completion

Edgewater north 1931
View of the bridge looking north from Edgewater, New Jersey, early 1931

In July 1930, the Port Authority opened the bidding process for contracts to build the Hudson River bridge's approaches on the New York side. These included contracts for the 178th-179th Street Tunnels and the Riverside Drive connection.[107] The tunnel contracts were awarded later that month.[103] In August, the bidding process for the Fort Lee approaches was opened.[108] Bids for the Riverside Drive connection were received the following month.[109]

Prior to and during construction, the bridge was unofficially known as the "Hudson River Bridge" or "Fort Lee Bridge".[110] The Hudson River Bridge Association started seeking suggestions for the bridge's official name in October 1930. Residents of New York and New Jersey were encouraged to send naming choices to the association, which would then forward the suggestions to the Port Authority.[111] According to ballot voting submitted to the Port Authority, the "Hudson River Bridge" name was the most popular choice selected by residents of New York and New Jersey. The "Hudson River Bridge" name beat out a host of other proposed names, including the Port Authority's preference for the name "George Washington Bridge".[110] The Port Authority formally adopted the "George Washington" name on January 13, 1931, honoring the general and future president's evacuation of Manhattan at the bridge's location during the Revolutionary War.[112] This had the potential for confusion, since there was already a "Washington Bridge" connecting 181st Street with [[The Bronx}|the Bronx]], directly opposite Manhattan from where the "George Washington Bridge" was being built across Hudson River.[113] Shortly afterward, the Port Authority Board of Commissioners voted to reconsider the renaming of the Hudson River Bridge, stating that it was open to alternate names.[114] Hundreds of naming choices had been submitted by this time.[115] The most popular naming choices were those of Washington, Christopher Columbus, and Hudson River namesake Henry Hudson.[116] The span was again officially named for George Washington in April 1931.[117][118]

The system of girders to support the deck were installed throughout 1930, and the last girder was installed in late December 1930.[119] In March 1931, the Port Authority announced that the Hudson River Bridge was set to open later that year, rather than in 1932 as originally planned. At that time, the Port Authority had opened bids for paving the road surface.[120] Later that month, the agency published a report, which stated that the bridge's early opening date was attributable to how quickly and efficiently the various materials had been transported.[121] In June 1931, forty bankers became the first people to cross the bridge.[122]

Work was progressing quickly on the bridge approaches in New Jersey,[123] and the New York City government was considering building another bridge between Manhattan and the Bronx (the Alexander Hamilton Bridge) to connect with the George Washington Bridge.[124] Bids for constructing tollbooths and floodlight towers were opened in July 1931.[125]

Opening and early years

George Washington Bridge eastbound upper
Eastbound view

The George Washington Bridge was dedicated on October 24, 1931, with a ceremony attended by 30,000 guests. The opening ceremony was accompanied by a show from military airplanes, as well as speeches from politicians including New Jersey governor Morgan Foster Larson and New York governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. The first people to cross the George Washington Bridge were reportedly two elementary school students who roller-skated across the bridge from the New York side.[14] Pedestrians were allowed to walk the length of the George Washington Bridge between 6 p.m. and 11 p.m. The bridge was formally opened to traffic the next day.[126] The Port Authority collected tolls for drivers who used the bridge in either direction; as with the Holland Tunnel, the toll was set at 50 cents for passenger cars, with different toll rates for other vehicle types.[126] Pedestrians paid a toll of 10 cents each, which was lowered to 5 cents in 1934.[127] Within the first 24 hours of the George Washington Bridge's official opening, 56,312 cars used the span, as well as 100,000 pedestrians (including those who had walked across after the ceremony).[126] The Port Authority reported that 33,540 pedestrians crossed the bridge on the first day, of which 20,000 paid a toll to cross.[12]

During the George Washington Bridge's construction, the cost of the bridge was estimated at $75 million,[128] and the bridge was expected to carry eight million vehicles and 1.5 million pedestrians in its first year of operation.[59] When the George Washington Bridge opened, it was estimated that eight million vehicles would use the bridge in its first year, and that the bridge could ultimately carry 60 million vehicles annually after a second deck was added. The bridge's final cost was estimated at $60 million.[129][11]:39 Real-estate speculators believed that the bridge's construction would raise real-estate values in Fort Lee, since the borough's residents would be able to more easily access New York City. During the construction of the George Washington Bridge, speculators spent millions of dollars to buy land around the bridge's New Jersey approach.[130] The bridge was later credited with helping raise land prices and encouraging residential development in formerly agricultural parts of Bergen County. It also spurred the rise of the trucking industry along the United States' East Coast, supplanting much of the freight railroads that used to carry cargo.[131]

In the George Washington Bridge's first week of operation, the bridge carried 116,265 vehicles, compared to the Holland Tunnel's 173,010 vehicles, despite the fact that the tunnel had fewer lanes than the bridge did. During that time span, 56,000 pedestrians used the bridge.[132] A week after the bridge opened, the 10-lane tollbooth was expanded to 14 lanes because of heavy weekend traffic volumes.[133] In its first year of operation, the George Washington Bridge saw 5.5 million vehicular crossings and nearly 500,000 pedestrian crossings.[134]

New Jersey Route 4, which connected directly to the bridge's western end, opened in July 1932.[135] The 178th-179th Street Tunnels, which connected Amsterdam Avenue on the eastern side of Manhattan to the bridge's eastern end on the west side of Manhattan, were supposed to be completed in fall 1932.[136] The tunnels, as well as direct approaches to Riverside Drive and the Hudson River Parkway, were not completed until 1938-1939. A ramp eastward from the bridge and southward to the Harlem River Drive was also completed around this time. On the New Jersey side, state highways were also being modernized to handle bridge traffic.[137] The bridge's westbound entrance ramp from Fort Washington Avenue, at the top of the cliff on the Manhattan side, opened in April 1939.[138] The corresponding eastbound exit ramp, as well as the 178th-179th Street Tunnels, opened that July.[137]

Expansion and late 20th century

GWBridgeUSSNautilus.agr
USS Nautilus passes under the bridge in 1956, when the bridge had only a single deck.

Traffic counts on the George Washington Bridge grew year after year. By the time of the bridge's tenth anniversary in 1941, the span had been used by 72 million vehicles total, including a record 9.1 million vehicles in 1940.[139] Originally, the George Washington Bridge's single deck consisted of six lanes, with an unpaved center median. In 1946, the median was paved over and two more lanes were created on the upper level, widening it from six lanes to eight lanes.[15][11]:39 The two center lanes on the upper level served as reversible lanes, which could handle traffic in either direction depending on traffic flows.[140] However, a fixed median was not added until the 1970s.[12]

The bridge was initially lit by 200 lights to provide warning to pilots flying at night.[141] The Port Authority enacted a photography ban during World War II in the 1940s.[142] Additionally, from May 1942 to May 1945, the lights on the bridge were shut off at night as a precautionary measure. After the war ended, the lights were turned back on, but the photography ban was upheld.[143]

The completion of the George Washington Bridge's lower deck, as well as the construction of a new bus terminal and other highway connections near the bridge, were recommended in a 1955 study that suggested improvements to the New York City area's highway system. The lower deck was approved by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.[144][145] A Bergen County leader voted against the construction of the lower level in 1956, temporarily delaying construction plans.[146] The New York City Planning Commission approved the George Washington Bridge improvement in June 1957,[147] and the Port Authority allocated funds to the improvement that July.[148][149] The $183 million project included the construction of the lower deck; the George Washington Bridge Expressway, a 12-lane expressway connecting to the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and the Cross Bronx Expressway (later I-95 and US 9); the George Washington Bridge Bus Station above the expressway; and a series of new ramps to and from the Henry Hudson Parkway.[149][150] On the New Jersey side, two depressed toll plazas, one in each direction, were to be constructed for lower level traffic.[145][150] Highway connections were also being built on the New Jersey side, including a direct approach from I-95.[151]

Construction of the approaches started in September 1958.[140] Work on the lower level itself started on June 2, 1959,[106] but work was briefly halted later that year because of a lack of steel.[152] By February 1960, construction was underway on the lower level; the supporting steelwork for the future deck had been completed, and the sections for the lower deck were being installed.[149] The George Washington Bridge's lower deck would comprise 75 steel slabs; each slab weighed 220 tons and measured 108 feet (33 m) wide by 90 feet (27 m) feet long, with a thickness of 130 feet (40 m). The construction of the slabs proceeded from either side of the bridge.[140] The right-of-way for the George Washington Bridge Expressway had been almost entirely cleared except for the ventilation buildings for the 178th-179th Street Tunnels.[149] The segments of the lower deck had been laid completely by September 1960, at which point workers started pouring the concrete for the deck's roadway, a process that took five weeks.[153] The layer of concrete measured 4 inches (10 cm) thick.[140] Finally, the deck was paved over with a 2.5-inch (6.4 cm) layer of asphalt.[154][140]

New ramps to the George Washington Bridge in New Jersey, including from the newly completed I-95, opened in summer 1962.[155] The lower deck was opened to the public on August 29, 1962.[13][140] The lower level, nicknamed "Martha" after George's wife Martha Washington,[156]:81–82[38] increased the capacity of the bridge by 75 percent,[140] and simultaneously made the George Washington Bridge the world's only 14-lane suspension bridge.[13][157] In addition to providing extra capacity, the lower level served to stiffen the bridge in high winds; before the lower deck was constructed, the George Washington Bridge was known to swing up to 30 inches (76 cm).[150] The George Washington Bridge Bus Station and the Alexander Hamilton Bridge both opened on January 18, 1963, thus allowing more traffic to use the George Washington Bridge.[158] In the first year after the lower level's opening, the expanded bridge had carried 44 million vehicles. By comparison, 35.86 million vehicles had crossed the bridge in an 11-month period between September 1, 1961 and July 31, 1962. In addition, traffic congestion at the George Washington Bridge had been reduced since the lower level opened, and the Port Authority was able to make repairs to the upper level for the first time in the bridge's history.[159] In 1980, the bridge carried 82.8 million vehicles.[23]

The George Washington Bridge was designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers on October 24, 1981, the 50th anniversary of the bridge's dedication ceremony.[2] The 50th anniversary was also marked with a parade of automobiles. At that point, 1.8 billion vehicles had used the bridge throughout its lifetime.[131]

In 1990, the Port Authority announced a minor rehabilitation for the George Washington Bridge. As part of the project, the supporting structural steel for the upper deck would be replaced, and some ramps would be rebuilt.[160] The ramps on the New York side, connecting with Riverside Drive and the Henry Hudson Parkway, were to be reconstructed for $27.6 million after studies in the late 1980s showed deterioration on these ramps.[161] Although the Port Authority had announced the repairs in advance, the start of roadwork in September 1990 caused extensive traffic jams.[162]

2000s and 2010s

Interstate 95 - New Jersey (6333107599)
Lower level deck

Starting on July 4, 2000, and for subsequent special occasions, each of the George Washington Bridge's suspension towers is illuminated by 380 light fixtures that highlight the exposed steel structure.[163] On each tower there are a mix of 150 and 1000 watt metal halide lamp fixtures.[164] The architectural lighting design was completed by Domingo Gonzalez Associates.[165]

In 2000, the Port Authority proposed building a ramp from the lower level to the Palisades Interstate Parkway on the New Jersey side.[166] Originally, the ramp would have cost $86.5 million and would have been completed in 2003 or 2004. However, the connection was ultimately not built.[167]

From September 9 to 13, 2013, dedicated toll lanes for one of the local Fort Lee entrances to the bridge's upper level were reduced from three to one, with the two other lanes diverted to highway traffic, without notification to local government officials and emergency responders. The closures were performed on orders from aides and appointees of New Jersey Governor Chris Christie causing a political controversy called "Bridgegate".[168] The local toll lane reductions caused massive traffic congestion, with major delays for school transportation and police and emergency service responses within Fort Lee.[169][170] The repercussions and controversy surrounding these actions have been investigated by the Port Authority,[171] federal prosecutors,[172] and a New Jersey legislature committee.[173][174]

2010s repairs

In December 2011, the Port Authority announced plans to repair the bridge. For the first time, the vertical suspender cables would be replaced, at an expected cost of more than $1 billion paid for by toll revenue.[175] On August 5, 2013, repair crews began an $82-million effort to fix cracks in upper-deck structural steel caused by traffic, particularly heavy trucks. The plan called for replacing 632 road deck panels, which would add at least 20 years of service life to the roadway. The work proceeded at night, and was slated to be complete by year's end. However, delays prevented completion and ultimately the work was halted for the winter.[176] Work restarted in June 2014, and was expected to last another 12 weeks.[177]

The Port Authority also started work on some other projects to renovate or replace bridge components. The lower level was repaved in 2016, and repainting work and maintenance platform replacement on the lower deck was completed in 2017.[178] The bridge's 592 suspender ropes, which run vertically between the main suspension cables and the deck, were to be replaced between 2017 and 2023 to fix damage caused by excessive heat and humidity.[6][178] The staircases leading to the sidewalks on both the northern and southern sides of the upper deck were also being replaced with ramps that were compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The Trans-Manhattan Expressway was being renovated in conjunction with this project.[178] On the New Jersey side, the Palisades Interstate Parkway cloverleaf ramp onto the eastbound George Washington Bridge would be replaced at a cost of $112.6 million by 2019. Two overpasses near the bridge would also be refurbished by 2022.[179][180]

Road connections

New Jersey

The George Washington Bridge carries I-95 and US 1/9 between New Jersey and New York. Coming from New Jersey, US 46 terminates at the state border in the middle of the bridge. Further west, I-80, US 9W, New Jersey Route 4, and the New Jersey Turnpike also feed into the bridge via either I-95, U.S. 1/9, or U.S. 46 but end before reaching it. The Palisades Interstate Parkway connects directly to the bridge's upper level, though not to the lower level;[181] however, a ramp to link the Interstate Parkway to the lower level was proposed in 2000.[166] The marginal roads and local streets above the highways are known as GWB Plaza.[181] The bridge's toll plaza, which collects tolls from eastbound traffic only, is located on the New Jersey side.[11]:71[1][182]

New York

ENTRANCE TO THE GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE FROM THE WEST SIDE HIGHWAY IN UPPER MANHATTAN. THE ROAD PASSING UNDER THE... - NARA - 548332
Ramps on the New York side, seen in 1973

On the New York side, the 12-lane Trans-Manhattan Expressway heads east across the narrow neck of Upper Manhattan, from the bridge to the Harlem River. It provides access from both decks to 178th and 179th Streets, which cross Manhattan horizontally; the Henry Hudson Parkway and Riverside Drive, on the Hudson River's eastern bank along the west side of Manhattan; and to Amsterdam Avenue and the Harlem River Drive, on the Harlem River's western bank on the east side. The expressway connects directly with the Alexander Hamilton Bridge, which spans the Harlem River as part of the Cross-Bronx Expressway (I-95), providing access to the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87).[181] Heading towards New Jersey, local access to the bridge is available from 179th Street. There are also ramps connecting the bridge to the George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal,[183] a commuter bus terminal with direct access to the New York City Subway at the 175th Street station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line (served by the A train).[184]

Originally, the approach to the George Washington Bridge from the New York side to the George Washington Bridge consisted of a roundabout encircling a fountain, which was designed by Cass Gilbert. This plan was scrapped after it was deemed to be infeasible, due to the congestion that the weaving movements would create.[11]:63 The final plans called for meandering roadways from Riverside Drive and Henry Hudson Parkway, which run along the eastern bank of the Hudson River at the bottom of the cliff in Washington Heights. The Henry Hudson Parkway actually passes under the New York side's anchorage using an underpass designed by Gilbert.[93][11]:71 The connection to the 178th–179th Street Tunnels, which connected to the southbound Harlem River Drive, opened in 1939.[137] The tunnels were replaced by the Trans-Manhattan Expressway, which opened in 1962.[13][140] The tunnels and expressway were built to minimize disruption to the Washington Heights neighborhood, which had already been developed at the time.[11]:66

Alternate routes

Further south along the Hudson River, the Lincoln Tunnel (Route 495) and Holland Tunnel (Interstate 78/Route 139) also enter Manhattan.[185] Both tunnels are operated by the Port Authority, which collects tolls from drivers crossing the Hudson River eastbound toward New York City.[186] The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge (I-278), connecting the New York City boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn, is the southernmost alternate route. It connects to the Bayonne Bridge, Goethals Bridge, and Outerbridge Crossing between Staten Island and New Jersey.[185] All four bridges to Staten Island collect tolls for drivers driving into the island.[c]

Further north within the New York metropolitan area, the Tappan Zee Bridge (Interstates 87/287 and New York State Thruway) avoids the congested Cross Bronx Expressway and the city proper. Thruway traffic sometimes uses the George Washington Bridge as a detour, since there are no road crossings of the Hudson River between the George Washington and the Tappan Zee Bridges.[188] The Tappan Zee Bridge also charges tolls for eastbound drivers.[189]

Tolls

Eastbound vehicles must pay a toll to cross the bridge; as with all Hudson River crossings along the North River, westbound vehicles cross for free.[190] As of December 6, 2015, the cash tolls going from New Jersey to New York are $15 for both cars and motorcycles. E-ZPass users are charged $10.50 for cars and $9.50 for motorcycles during off-peak hours, and $12.50 for cars and $11.50 for motorcycles during peak hours. Trucks are charged cash tolls of $20.00 per axle, with discounted peak, off-peak, and overnight E-ZPass tolls. A discounted carpool toll ($6.50) is available at all times for cars with three or more passengers using NY or NJ E-ZPass, who proceed through a staffed toll lane (provided they have registered with the free "Carpool Plan"). There is an off-peak toll of $7.00 for qualified low-emission passenger vehicles, which have received a Green E-ZPass based on registering for the Port Authority Green Pass Discount Plan.[186]

GWB Bridgegate entrance Sept 2016
The upper-level toll plaza with heavy traffic congestion

Tolls are collected at a series of tollbooths on the New Jersey side. The bridge has 29 toll lanes: 12 in the main upper-level toll plaza, 10 in the lower-level toll plaza, and seven in the Palisades Interstate Parkway toll plaza leading to the upper level.[1][182] The toll plazas on the lower level and Palisades Parkway are not staffed during the overnight hours and accept only E-ZPass transactions during this period.[3][182]

Originally, tolls were collected in both directions. The original toll booth was designed by Gilbert, who also designed a classical-style maintenance booth, neither of which is extant.[11]:71 In August 1970, the toll was abolished for westbound drivers, and at the same time, eastbound drivers saw their tolls doubled. The tolls of eleven other New York–New Jersey and Hudson River crossings along a 130-mile (210 km) stretch, from the Outerbridge Crossing in the south to the Rip Van Winkle Bridge in the north, were also changed to eastbound-only at that time.[191] E-ZPass was accepted for toll payment on the George Washington Bridge starting in July 1997.[192] Soon afterward, the Port Authority proposed removing the tollbooths for the E-ZPass lanes on the lower level and Palisades Parkway toll plazas, replacing them with electronic toll collection gantries to allow motorists to maintain highway speeds.[193]

Pedestrians and cyclists may cross free of charge on the south sidewalk. Pedestrians traveling in either direction originally paid tolls of 10 cents when the bridge opened.[12] The pedestrian toll was reduced to 5 cents in 1935[194] and discontinued altogether in 1940.[195]

In January 2007, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced a two-year, $3.2-million deal with GEICO, the auto insurance giant, that would have posted a large billboard atop the toll plaza that said "GEICO Drive Safely", along with GEICO signs on the tollbooths and approach roads.[196] A week later, however, the Port Authority canceled the contract after critics said the signs would mar the landmarked bridge, that the Port Authority had failed to negotiate a good price for the deal, and that the signs might violate Fort Lee's regulations.[197]

In 2019, the Port Authority proposed raising cash tolls to $16. If approved by the Port Authority board, the toll increase will take place in early 2020.[198][199]

Open road tolling will be implemented in 2021. The tollbooths will be dismantled, and drivers will no longer be able to pay cash at the bridge. Instead, there will be cameras mounted onto new overhead gantries. A vehicle without E-ZPass will have a picture taken of its license plate and a bill for the toll will be mailed to its owner. For E-ZPass users, sensors will detect their transponders wirelessly.[200]

Historic toll rates

Tolls for the bridge cost $.50 one way in 1931, but have been raised over the years to a $15 cash toll for passenger vehicles, which was enacted on December 6, 2015.[201]

Historic vehicular toll rates for the George Washington Bridge
Years Toll Toll equivalent
in 2018[202]
Direction collected Ref.
1931–1970 $0.50 $3.23–8.24 each direction [203]
1970–1975 $1.00 $4.66–6.45 eastbound only [191]
1975–1983 $1.50 $4.56–6.98 eastbound only [204]
1983–1987 $2.00 $4.41–6.08 eastbound only [205]
1987–1991 $3.00 $5.52–6.62 eastbound only [206]
1991–2001 $4.00 $5.66–7.36 eastbound only [207]
2001–2008 $6.00 $6.98–8.49 eastbound only [208]
2008–2011 $8.00 $8.91–9.31 eastbound only [209]
2011–2012 $12.00 $13.10–13.37 eastbound only [210]
2012–2014 $13.00 $13.76 – 13.98 eastbound only [211]
2014–2015 $14.00 $14.80 – 14.82 eastbound only [212]
2015 (Dec)– $15.00 $15.00 eastbound only [213][186]

Non-motorized access

GWB to New York
Southern sidewalk

The George Washington Bridge contains two sidewalks that can be used by pedestrians and bicyclists. The southern sidewalk (accessible by a long, steep ramp on the Manhattan side of the bridge) is shared by cyclists and pedestrians. The entrance in Manhattan is at 178th Street, just west of Cabrini Boulevard, and also has access to the Hudson River Greenway north of the bridge. Both sidewalks are accessible on the New Jersey side from Hudson Terrace.[214] The George Washington Bridge carries New York State Bicycle Route 9, a bike route that runs from New York City north to Rouses Point.[215]

The Port Authority closed the northern sidewalk at all times in 2008.[214] Though it offers direct access into Palisades Interstate Park, the northern sidewalk requires stairway climbs and descents on both sides, which was inaccessible for people with physical disabilities and posed a risk in poor weather conditions.[216] Advocacy groups such as Transportation Alternatives also suggested improvements.[217]

As part of the project to replace the bridge's vertical support cables, the connections to both sidewalks will be enhanced or rebuilt and made ADA-compliant. While the south-side cables are being replaced, that sidewalk will be closed and the north sidewalk will be open. Once the entire project is completed in 2023, pedestrians will use the south sidewalk and bicycles will use the north sidewalk. The sidewalk aspect of the project is expected to cost $118 million.[179][180]

Incidents

Suicides and deaths

The George Washington Bridge is among the most frequently chosen sites in the New York metropolitan area for committing suicide by jumping or falling off the bridge.[218] The first death by jumping occurred before the bridge even opened, though it was unintentional. On September 21, 1930, a stunt jumper named Norman J. Terry jumped off the bridge's deck in front of a crowd of thousands, but because his body was facing the wrong way, he broke his neck upon hitting the water.[219][220][221] The first intentional suicide occurred on November 3, 1931, a little more than one week after the bridge opened.[222]

Several suicide attempts off the George Washington Bridge have been widely publicized. In 1994, a person going by the name "Prince" called The Howard Stern Show while on the bridge, threatening to commit suicide, but Howard Stern managed to talk him out of it.[223][224] The 2010 suicide of Tyler Clementi, who had jumped from the bridge, drew national attention to cyberbullying and the struggles facing LGBT youth.[225]

In 2012, a record 18 people threw themselves off the bridge to their deaths, with 43 suicide attempts overall.[226] There were 18 deaths reported in both 2014 and 2015. In 2014, there were 74 people were stopped by the Port Authority police, while the next year, another 86 people were stopped by the Port Authority police. In 2016, there were 12 reported deaths, a decrease from previous years, while 70 people were stopped by the Port Authority police.[227] In 2017, the Port Authority proposed equipping a two-person Emergency Services Unit team with harnesses to prevent suicides from the bridge.[228] Following 15 reported deaths and 68 attempts in 2017, the Port Authority installed protective netting and an 11-foot-high (3.4 m) fence along each upper level sidewalk. The netting partially overhangs the sidewalks in order to prevent potential jumpers from scaling the fence directly.[229][19] The southern sidewalk was closed from September to December 2017 so that a temporary fence could be installed there. Once the temporary fence had been erected, the permanent 11-foot-high barrier was constructed on the northern sidewalk, followed by the permanent barrier on the southern sidewalk.[19][20]

Other incidents

George Washington Bridge, HAER NY-129-8
The bridge seen in 1978

On December 28, 1966, a 19-year-old pilot made an emergency landing on the bridge's New Jersey side after his plane's engine failed. There were no deaths reported, because there was very little traffic at the time, but the pilot and his passenger were injured.[230][12] At the time, there was no median barrier on the bridge's upper deck.[12]

In June 1977, two tractor-trailers nearly fell off the lower level after jackknifing, then going through both the roadway barrier and a mesh net next to the roadway. One of the drivers was hurt slightly, while the other driver was not hurt. The accident also involved a third tractor-trailer and two passenger cars, none of whose occupants were hurt.[231] Accidents involving trucks dumping their cargo have also occurred on the George Washington Bridge. Watermelons, frozen chicken parts, and horse manure have all fallen onto the bridge's roadway at some point.[23]

The first-ever complete closure of the George Washington Bridge occurred on August 6, 1980, when a truck carrying highly flammable propane gas across the bridge started to leak.[23][232] As a safety precaution in case the fuel started to ignite, traffic across the bridge was halted for several hours, and 2,000 people living near the bridge were evacuated. Since the George Washington Bridge is the primary crossing between New Jersey and New York City, the closure caused traffic jams that stretched for up to 30 miles, and the effects of this congestion could be seen more than 45 miles away.[232] Two police officers eventually plugged the leak with an inexpensive device.[233] Up to that point, trucks carrying flammable material had been allowed to use the George Washington Bridge.[234] After the incident, New York City officials conducted a study on whether to prohibit hazardous cargo from traveling through the city.[235]

In popular culture

The landmark George Washington Bridge is seen in a number of movies set in New York, commonly in establishing shots.[156]:123 The first film to show the bridge was Ball of Fire (1941), a screwball comedy.[156]:125 In the 1976 film Network, the character Max Schumacher (William Holden) tells a funny story in which, having overslept for a news shoot about the new lower deck at the bridge, he gets into a cab wearing a raincoat over his pajamas and tells the taxi driver to "take me to the middle of the George Washington Bridge." The taxi driver, concerned that Schumacher intended to jump from the bridge, turns around and begs him: "Don't do it buddy! You're a young man!"[156]:124 The 2016 film Sully, a movie depicting Captain Chesley Sullenberger's 2009 emergency landing of US Airways Flight 1549 on the Hudson River, reenacts how Sullenberger overflew the George Washington Bridge by a few hundred feet.[236] The bridge was also shown in The Godfather (1972),[156]:124[237] and Cop Land (1997), among other films.[156]:126[238]

The bridge has been featured in music. In the opening singalong for the children's TV series Sesame Street, Ernie often sang the words "George Washington Bridge" to the tune of Sobre las Olas ("The Loveliest Night of the Year").[156]:133–134 William Schuman's 1950 work for concert band is called George Washington Bridge.[156]:133[239][240] Other media have also featured the George Washington Bridge. In the first issue of the comic Atomic War! published in November 1952, the George Washington Bridge is shown collapsing during a bombing of New York City.[241] Additionally, painters George Ault and Valeri Larko have both created artworks named after the bridge.[156]:130 Video games such as Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty also showed the George Washington Bridge.[242]

Several books have been written about the George Washington Bridge.[243] The construction of the bridge is detailed in the books George Washington Bridge: A Timeless Marvel[244] and George Washington Bridge: Poetry in Steel.[156][243] The bridge and the nearby Little Red Lighthouse are the subjects of Hildegarde Swift's 1942 children's book The Little Red Lighthouse and the Great Gray Bridge.[245][243]

The George Washington Bridge and its surroundings have been featured in films. In the 1948 crime film noir Force of Evil, Leo Morse (Thomas Gomez) is buried under the bridge by the mob of gangsters employing his brother, Joe Morse (John Garfield).[156]:124[243]

From Riverside Drive, at night
From Riverside Drive, at night

See also

References

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ There were 51 million motorists paying eastbound tolls in 2016, so the traveled number is approximately twice this figure[4]
  2. ^ In 1910, the Washington Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution erected a stone monument to the Battle of Fort Washington. The monument is about 100 yards (91 m) northeast of the Little Red Lighthouse, near the eastern bridge anchorage.[39]
  3. ^ MTA Bridges and Tunnels collects tolls for the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge[187] while the Port Authority collects tolls for the other three bridges to Staten Island.[186]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Facts & Info - George Washington Bridge". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d "George Washington Bridge". ASCE Metropolitan Section. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d "Traffic Restrictions - George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of NY & NJ. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Collins, Beth (December 2, 2011). "10 record-breaking bridges". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
    • "George Washington Bridge". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved May 10, 2019. George Washington Bridge - The busiest bridge in the world, connecting northern Manhattan and Fort Lee, NJ.
  6. ^ a b c Maag, Christopher (May 9, 2019). "How crews will re-suspend the GWB while 280,000 cars drive beneath them daily". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved May 10, 2019. High above the Hudson, engineers are working to rehang the world's busiest bridge — while it remains in service.
  7. ^ Rose, Lacey (March 2, 2006). "Inside the Booth". Forbes. Retrieved January 15, 2008. Like the PATH trains, which also connect New York to New Jersey, the G.W. Bridge is run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a public agency that employees 7,000 workers and has annual revenues of $2.9 billion.
  8. ^ a b c d e "HUDSON BRIDGE IS NEARER REALIZATION; Jersey Chooses a Location -- Gov. Smith Favors Project Without Naming Site". The New York Times. March 1, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d "LAST WIRE OF SPAN SPUN OVER HUDSON; Port Authority Head Starts Flag Decked Carrier Across River With Tiny Wire. FINISHES MIGHTY CABLES Workers Begin Clamping Strands of Supports Capable of Carrying 350,000 Ton Burden". The New York Times. August 8, 1930. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  10. ^ "Allston Dana Is Engineer of Design for the Ft. Lee Bridge". Scarsdale Inquirer (Volume XI, Number 6). Scarsdale Women's Club Publications. December 27, 1927. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Rastorfer, D. (2000). "Chapter 2: The George Washington Bridge". Six Bridges: The Legacy of Othmar H. Ammann. Six Bridges: The Legacy of Othmar H. Ammann. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08047-6. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "George Washington Bridge 80th Anniversary". The Port Authority of NY & NJ. October 25, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Ingraham, Joseph C. (August 30, 1962). "Lower Deck of George Washington Bridge Is Opened". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
  14. ^ a b "Two Governors Open Great Hudson Bridge As Throngs Look On". The New York Times. October 25, 1931. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
  15. ^ a b "History - George Washington Bridge". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
  16. ^ "New York City Truck Route Map: Reverse Side" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. June 8, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
  17. ^ For the Red Book itself, see: "HAZARDOUS MATERIALS: Transportation Regulations at Tunnel and Bridge Facilities" (PDF). The Port Authority of NY & NJ. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  18. ^ "Pedestrian & Bicycle Information - George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of NY & NJ. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  19. ^ a b c "Suicide Prevention Fence Coming To George Washington Bridge Walkway « CBS New York". CBS New York. September 18, 2017. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  20. ^ a b Krisel, Brendan (September 19, 2017). "Safety Fences Coming To George Washington Bridge Walkways". Washington Heights-Inwood, NY Patch. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  21. ^ "TIDES OF BRIDGE TRAFFIC; With a Capacity of 30,000,000 Cars a Year, the New Span Promises Relief From Congestion". The New York Times. October 18, 1931. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  22. ^ "THE WORLD'S GREAT SPANS; Detroit River Bridge Was Longest From Pier to Pier Until the New Hudson Structure Was Completed East River Bridges". The New York Times. October 18, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c d e Carmody, Deirdre (October 10, 1981). "A 50-YEAR VIEW OF THE GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  24. ^ a b Billington, D.P. (1985). The Tower and the Bridge: The New Art of Structural Engineering. Princeton paperbacks. Princeton University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-691-02393-9. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
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  27. ^ a b "FORT LEE CONTRACT GOES TO ROEBLING; Port Authority Finds Wire Cable Type of Bridge Is Cheaper Than Eye Bar. FIRM'S BID IS $12,339,977 McClintoc-Marshali Company Gets $10,134,440 Steel Tower and Floor Work". The New York Times. October 14, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
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  29. ^ a b c "WORK IS SPEEDED ON HUDSON BRIDGE; Massive Anchorage on New York Side Finished 3 Months Ahead of Schedule. TO RUSH TOWER ERECTION Port Authority Says Slinging of Cables Now is Expected to Start in Midsummer. PALISADES ARE TUNNELED Sightseers Will Have Elevators to Take Them Up in 600-Foot Steel Towers. Unusual Conditions Met. Elevators for Sightseers". The New York Times. March 24, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  30. ^ a b c "Sketch of Proposed $40,000,000 Bridge Across the Hudson". The New York Times. March 11, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
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  33. ^ Brock, H. i (September 6, 1931). "A SPAN THAT SYMBOLIZES THE STEEL AGE; Bare of Masonry, the Great Memorial Bridge Over the Hudson Breaks With the Tradition of Monuments A SYMBOL OF THE AGE OF STEEL". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  34. ^ "CRITICIZE MASONRY FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Experts Question Architectural Integrity of Concealing Steel Beneath Stone. FRENCH BRANDS IT A". The New York Times. July 7, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
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  36. ^ "George Washington Bridge Interesting Facts" (PDF). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 14, 2006. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
  37. ^ a b "World's Largest Free-Flying American Flag to Fly at George Washington Bridge in Honor of 9/11 Victims" (Press release). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. September 8, 2006. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  38. ^ a b "85 Years Strong, George Washington Bridge Still Adds Grace to NYC Skyline". ASCE News. June 21, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  39. ^ Renner, James (January 1998). "DAR Monument". Washington Heights & Inwood Online. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
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  41. ^ "National Register Information System – Holland Tunnel (#93001619)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
  42. ^ "GREAT CROWD TREKS INTO HOLLAND TUBES AFTER GALA OPENING; Thousands Pour In as Coolidge on Yacht Turns Switch With Golden Key. AUTOS START AT MIDNIGHT Hundreds of Honking Cars Rush Through Tunnels From New York and Jersey Sides. OFFICIALS HAIL THE EVENT Governor Smith, Governor Moore, Edwards, Edge and Others Extol Engineering Triumph. Impressive Ceremonies in Two States Mark Opening of Holland Tunnel SCENES AT THE OPENING OF THE HOLLAND TUNNEL UNDER THE HUDSON". The New York Times. November 13, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  43. ^ a b "Vehicular Tunnel Under the Hudson Seems Assured". New York Sun. January 26, 1919. pp. 1, 7 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  44. ^ "WANT THREE BRIDGES ACROSS NORTH RIVER; Engineers Favor Structures to Jersey at 57th, 110th, and 179th Streets. COST WOULD BE HEAVY They Recommend Also Bridges from Staten Island to Bayonne, Elizabethporf, and Perth Amboy". The New York Times. December 6, 1908. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  45. ^ "TUNNELS NOT BRIDGE FAVORED TO JERSEY; New York State Commission Implies in Report That Cost of Span Is Prohibitive". The New York Times. April 22, 1913. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  46. ^ "CHAMBER OPPOSES BRIDGE AT 57TH ST.; State's Business Men Fear a Structure Over the Hudson Would Hinder Shipping. SUPPORT PORT AUTHORITY Favor a Crossing Further Upstream -- Vehicular Tunnel Is Warmly Debated". The New York Times. January 4, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  47. ^ Lindenthal, Gustav (January 13, 1924). "Lindenthal Outlines Hudson Bridge Plan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  48. ^ "GREENE TELLS PLAN FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Colonel Would Utilize Palisades Instead of Tower for Cables at New Jersey End". The New York Times. May 4, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  49. ^ "FOR NEW HUDSON BRIDGE.; Bill Will Be Introduced in the New Jersey Assembly". The New York Times. December 30, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  50. ^ "ARTHUR KILL SPANS VOTED IN TRENTON; Senate Passes Bill Calling for Bridges From Perth Amboy and Elizabeth. EDGE SPEAKS FOR MEASURE Gov. Silzer Asks That Faults Be Removed From Law Barring Women From Night Work". The New York Times. February 11, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  51. ^ "PASS FORT LEE BRIDGE BILL.; Jersey Assemblymen Concur in Changes Requested by Silzer". The New York Times. March 3, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  52. ^ "SILZER SIGNS BILL FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Measures for Perth Amboy-Elizabethtown-Staten Island Spans Also Become Laws". The New York Times. March 10, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  53. ^ "TO FIGHT FOR BRIDGE AT 178TH STREET; Civic Bodies Deny Hudson River Project Will Impair Fort Washington Park. TO ASK ACTION AT ALBANY Thirty Persons Attend Bronx Mass Meeting to Criticize Protests of Park Conservationists". The New York Times. March 19, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  54. ^ "Location of Great Anchorage for Fort Lee Bridge in Park Is Cause of New York Protests" (PDF). Newburgh News. February 15, 1926. p. 1. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  55. ^ "CITES BILL PUTTING PARK IN JEOPARDY; Roulstone Declares the Port Authority Is Empowered to Get City Land. FOR USE OF HUDSON BRIDGE Conservation Association Says This Means the Destruction of Fort Washington Plot". The New York Times. March 22, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  56. ^ "GOVERNOR APPROVES 128 BILLS, VETOES 17; STOPS SALARY GRAB; Validates Measure Carrying $18,000,000 in Appropriations and Saves $2,633,000. SANCTIONS HUDSON BRIDGE He Also Authorizes Funds for Two Staten Island-New Jersey Structures. PUTS TEETH IN MARTIN ACT Hearing Dates for Staten Island Tunnel, Voting Machines and Teachers' Pay Are Set. GOVERNOR APPROVES 128 BILLS, VETOES 17". The New York Times. April 3, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  57. ^ a b "SURVEY HUDSON SITE FOR LONGEST BRIDGE; Engineers Pick Foot of 178th Street in Beginning Search for Best Location. TEST BORINGS TO BE MADE Results of Traffic Studies Will Be Considered in the Final Selection". The New York Times. August 18, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  58. ^ "DEFENDS THE PLANS FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Engineer Says to Move the Approach Out of Park Would Mar the Structure". The New York Times. February 25, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  59. ^ a b Staff (January 1930) "Giant of World's Bridges Rising in New York", Popular Mechanics p.464
  60. ^ "GILBERT TO DESIGN THE HUDSON BRIDGE; Architect Is Engaged to Make It a Model of Beauty and Engineering Skill. MAY BE SUSPENSION TYPE Port Authority Engages York & Sawyer as Architects for Arthur Kill Spans". The New York Times. 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  61. ^ a b c "$50,000,000 BRIDGE TO FT. LEE APPROVED BY INTERSTATE BOARD; Towers to Be Higher Than the Washington Monument -- Span the Greatest in the World. COULD BE OPENED IN 1933 Self-Sustaining After the First Year and Paid Up in 30 Years, Engineers Say. TOLLS ON 4 TRAFFIC LANES Huge Arches Planned in Hudson's Picturesque Setting -- Public Hearings to Be Held. $50,000,000 BRIDGE TO FT. LEE APPROVED". The New York Times. March 13, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  62. ^ a b "REPORTS PROGRESS ON HUDSON BRIDGE; Amman, Chief Engineer, Tells Port Authority of Economy in Construction. WORK ON JERSEY TOWER Contract for Bridge Floors Let to McClintic-Marshall--Steel Award to Roebling's Sons. 3,500-Foot River Span Planned. Bridge to Have Two Decks. $5,250,000 Estimated 1932 Revenue". The New York Times. March 11, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  63. ^ "HUDSON SUSPENSION SPAN WILL BE CAREFULLY TESTED; But Improved Methods and Materials Have Almost Eliminated Bridge Perils". The New York Times. July 18, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  64. ^ "Materials Entering Into Big Span Across Hudson River at Fort Lee Will be Well Tested" (PDF). Newburgh News. August 12, 1926. p. 16. Retrieved June 8, 2018 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  65. ^ "TELLS HUDSON SPAN PLANS.; Engineer Says Work on New Bridge Will Start Next Summer". The New York Times. October 21, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  66. ^ "FINAL HEARING BACKS HUDSON BRIDGE PLAN; 200 Organizations Present to Express Approval With No Dissenting Voice. GOES TO WASHINGTON, NOW Approval of Secretary of War Expected in Month, Clearing Way Toward Construction. MAY ALTER THE CLEARANCE 95 Feet In Present Drawings -- -Not Enough for Leviathan, but Ample for Warships". The New York Times. December 3, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  67. ^ "GETS FINAL PERMIT FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Port Authority Receives War Department Approval -- Plans to Call for Bids Soon. BONDS ON MARKET TODAY Syndicate Headed by National City Company Will Offer a $20,000,000 Issue". The New York Times. December 14, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  68. ^ "FORT LEE BRIDGE BONDS ARE AWARDED; Port Authority Accepts Bid on $20,000,000 to Finance Span Over the Hudson. MAY BE OFFERED MONDAY National City Co. Headed Bankers, Bidding 95.6377 -- Work on Structure to Begin Soon". The New York Times. December 10, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  69. ^ "JERSEY BRIDGE BILL FACES COURT FIGHT; Attack on Measure Is Expected by Silzer, With Damage to Port Authority Work. PASSED BY BOTH HOUSES Governor Indicates He Will Sign Measure Despite Protest of New York Executive. DOUBT CONSTITUTIONALITY Commission's Power Over All Contracts Violates Treaty, Foes of Proposal Declare". The New York Times. March 26, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  70. ^ "Treaty Abrogation on Port Authority Between New York and New Jersey Go to Court" (PDF). Ballston Spa Daily Journal. March 28, 1927. p. 1. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  71. ^ "STILL SEEK WAY OUT OF BRIDGE TANGLE; Jersey Legislators Meet Again Today in Effort to Repeal the Simpson Act. FACE SMITH TEST OF LAW Silzer Denies Ban on Cable Firms' Bids Was Planned -- Wire Firm Repudiates Legislation". The New York Times. April 1, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  72. ^ "NO UPSET LIKELY IN BRIDGE PROGRAM; Governor Moore Is Not Expected to Alter Policy Despite New Veto Power. AIMS OF ACT OUTLINED Its Effect Will Be to Check Up on State Executives and Port Authority Alike". The New York Times. April 3, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  73. ^ "FIRST BIDS OPENED FOR FT LEE BRIDGE; Port Authority Takes Initial Step Toward the Actual Construction of Span. $1,160,200 LOWEST BID Contracts for Foundations and Tower Bases Will Be Let Within 14 Days". The New York Times. April 12, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  74. ^ "MORE TIME ON BRIDGE BIDS.; Port Heads Get Extension to Await City Action on Fort Lee Span". The New York Times. April 25, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  75. ^ "FIRST CONTRACT LET FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Silas B. Mason Gets Award for Foundations on the New Jersey Side. THE LOW BID IS $1,160,200 Port Authority Buys Washington Heights Real Estate for the Manhattan Approach". The New York Times. April 30, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  76. ^ "18 BIDS RECEIVED ON HUDSON BRIDGE; New Jersey Anchorage and Approach Offers Opened by Port Authority". The New York Times. June 1, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  77. ^ "Biggest Dredge in World Starts Work To Prepare Hudson River for Bridge". The New York Times. May 8, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  78. ^ "SEEKS LAND AT FORT LEE.; Port Authority Starts Condemnation Proceedings for New Bridge Work". The New York Times. August 29, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  79. ^ "New Span To Be Lecture Subject". The Montclair Times. November 6, 1931.
  80. ^ "GROUND IS BROKEN FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Acting Mayor McKee Digs Earth at 178th Street, Mayor White on New Jersey Shore. PLANES SOAR OVER RIVER Governors of Both States Heard by Radio on Both Banks From Steamer in Hudson. SEE FRIENDSHIP CEMENTED Smith Says Span Will Increase Prosperity -- Moore Calls It Monument to Progressive Spirit". The New York Times. September 22, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  81. ^ International News Service (September 22, 1927). "Start Digging For New Span" (PDF). Yonkers Statesman. p. 9. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via Fultonhistory.com.
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  83. ^ "OPEN BIDS FOR SPAN OVER HUDSON RIVER; Port Authority Commissioners Find Sharp Contest Between Cable and Eyebar Methods. LOWEST OFFER $22,474,417 Award for Steel Superstructure of $60,000,000 Project Will Be Made Later This Month". The New York Times. October 4, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  84. ^ Steinman, David Barnard (1922). A Practical Treatise on Suspension Bridges: Their Design, Construction and Erection. Wiley.
  85. ^ "BRIDGE STEEL ORDERED.; McClintic-Marshall Gets Contract for Hudson River Span". The New York Times. October 21, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  86. ^ "3 DROWN AT WORK IN HUDSON CAISSON; Rush of Water Through Leak Traps Men Fifty Feet Below Surface of River. TWO ESCAPE UP LADDER Divers Find Only Two Bodies of Builders of Foundation for Interstate Span. THE HUDSON BRIDGE DISASTER. 3 DROWN AT WORK IN HUDSON CAISSON". The New York Times. December 24, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  87. ^ "HUDSON BRIDGE BIDS IN FOR MANHATTAN SIDE; Lowest of 32 Offers Is Made by Arthur McMullen Company With $986,600". The New York Times. March 6, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  88. ^ "FAST BRIDGE WORK AT STATEN ISLAND; Two Great Spans Over the Arthur Kill Will Be Opened in July. TWO STATES WILL BENEFIT Former Governor Silzer of New Jersey Stresses Future Commercial Values". The New York Times. April 15, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  89. ^ "GROOVE CUT IN PALISADES FOR HUDSON BRIDGE ROAD; Trap Rock Now Being Bored for the Cable Anchorages--Work Is Ahead of Schedule Tower Piers Ready". The New York Times. May 6, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  90. ^ "BOND MEN WATCH HUDSON RIVER SPAN; Question Is Raised Whether the Port Authority Will Do Any More Financing This Year. $30,000,000 MORE NEEDED Of $20,000,000 Securities Sold $10,000,000 Had Been Spent on June 30 in $50,000,000 Project". The New York Times. September 29, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  91. ^ Poore, C. G. (October 7, 1928). "BRIDGING THE HUDSON A SPECTACULAR JOB; Great Towers Are Rising at the Anchorages and Soon Men Will Weave the Long Span". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  92. ^ "BUYS FINAL PLOT FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Port Authority Rounds Out Manhattan Approach on Upper West Side. OWNED BY FOGEL ESTATE Surrogate Authorized Deal After Adjusting Orphanage Bequests in Original Will. Surrogate Permitted Sale. Gentleman's Agreement Fulfilled". The New York Times. April 14, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  93. ^ a b "Bridge Approaches Beautify Hudson; Riverside Drive Approach to Hudson River Bridge". The New York Times. April 18, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  94. ^ "TO RAZE 20 FLATS IN PATH OF BRIDGE; Wreckers Soon to Clear Three Washington Heights Blocks for Approach. 2 CHURCHES ALSO DOOMED Half of 3,000 Tenants Ousted for Hudson River Span Stay in the Vicinity, Realty Men Report". The New York Times. October 27, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  95. ^ "MUNICIPAL LOANS.; Port of New York Authority". The New York Times. October 23, 1929. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  96. ^ a b "Plan to Eliminate Hudson Span Plaza; New Plan for Jersey Approach to Bridge". The New York Times. January 8, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  97. ^ Peterson, Iver (November 12, 1991). "Squaring Traffic Circles With Lights and Bridges". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  98. ^ "Land for the New Hudson River Bridge Approaches to Cost Over $10,000,000". The New York Times. April 20, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  99. ^ "FIRST WIRE HOISTED FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Officials of Two States on Boat See 3,500-Foot Cable Stretched Across River. LEHMAN AND LARSON TALK Hail Advance in New York-Jersey Relations--Knights Asks Union of Port Authority and Commission. Lehman Heads New York Group. Calls It". The New York Times. July 10, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  100. ^ Poore, C. G. (September 15, 1929). "A DIZZY TASK FOR MEN WITHOUT NERVES; Sure-Footed Are the Workers Who Have Raised the Mighty Towers of The Hudson River Bridge A DIZZY TASK IN THE AIR". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  101. ^ "HUDSON RIVER BRIDGE NOW 50% COMPLETE; Work Is Two Months Ahead of Schedule, Report of Chief Engineer Will Show". The New York Times. February 25, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  102. ^ "PUSHES HUDSON SPAN WORK; Engineer Says Bridge Cables Are About Half Completed". The New York Times. April 19, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  103. ^ a b "FINISH FIRST CABLE FOR HUDSON BRIDGE; Workmen to Complete Three Others on 178th Street Span Within Two Weeks. TASK AHEAD OF SCHEDULE Mayor Transfers Approach Site for $279,000--Contracts Let for Manhattan Ramp and Tunnel". The New York Times. July 29, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  104. ^ "TO COMPLETE SPAN CABLES.; Workmen to String Last Wires Thursday on Hudson Bridge". The New York Times. August 5, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  105. ^ Poore, C. G. (July 14, 1929). "WEAVING BRIDGE CABLES HIGH ABOVE THE HUDSON; The First Thin Strand Connecting the Two Shores Is the Beginning of a Web That Must Ultimately Hold Up 180,000,000 Pounds Between the Towers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  106. ^ a b "NEW DECK BEGUN ON BRIDGE HERE; Platforms Being Put Up on George Washington Span for Building 2d Level". The New York Times. June 2, 1959. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  107. ^ "WILL GET BIDS MONDAY ON BRIDGE APPROACH; Port Authority Plans Tunnel and Ramp at City End of Hudson Span". The New York Times. July 10, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  108. ^ "FT. LEE BRIDGE TO HAVE APPROACH 350 FT. WIDE; New Jersey Will Receive Bids for Roadway Containing 35 Lanes of Ten Feet Each". The New York Times. August 6, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  109. ^ "12 BID ON BRIDGE DRIVES.; Connections With Hudson Span to Cost $995,969 to $1,497,740". The New York Times. September 16, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  110. ^ a b Maeder, Jay (February 17, 2011). "Name That Bridge, 1931 Edition". The New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
  111. ^ "SEEK NAME FOR BRIDGE.; Suggestions Being Received for New Hudson Span". The New York Times. October 26, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  112. ^ "Washington Memorial Bridge Is Name of New Hudson Span". The New York Times. January 14, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  113. ^ "INFORMS PRESIDENT OF BRIDGE NAMING; Washington Memorial Group Calls at White House About Fort Lee Span. DEDICATION IS CONSIDERED Hoover Is Expected to Deliver Address--Two Other Bridges HereCalled Washington". The New York Times. January 15, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  114. ^ "Port Board Votes to Rename Hudson Bridge; Bows to Protests on 'Washington Memorial'". The New York Times. January 23, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  115. ^ "NEW BRIDGE NAMES POUR IN; Wide Range of Suggestions for Hudson Span Sent to Port Authority". The New York Times. January 30, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  116. ^ "WASHINGTON LEADS AS NAME FOR BRIDGE; But More Individual Letters to the Port Authority Propose Palisades Designation. MAIL SWAMPS COMMITTEE Columbus and Hendrik Hudson Are Next in Popularity as Flood of Suggestions Grows". The New York Times. February 12, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  117. ^ "HUDSON SPAN NAMED GEORGE WASHINGTON; Port Commissioners Approve Disputed Designation as a Tribute to Early Patriots. RECALL HISTORY OF SITE Deem Structure a Monument to the Valor of Republic's Founders-- One Votes in Dissent". The New York Times. April 24, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  118. ^ "GIANT SPAN GIVEN NAME" (PDF). Buffalo Courier Express. April 24, 1931. p. 2. Retrieved June 8, 2018 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  119. ^ "FINAL RIVETS DRIVEN IN BRIDGE GIRDERS; Workers on Hudson Span Begin Laying Floor Plates for EightLane Roadway". The New York Times. December 30, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  120. ^ "NEW HUDSON BRIDGE TO OPEN THIS YEAR; Port Authority Also Reveals Kill van Kull Span Will Be Ready Before 1932. TO PUSH PIER PURCHASE Tenth Annual Report Urges Aid for Hoboken in Acquisition--Freight Terminals Planned". The New York Times. March 4, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  121. ^ "LAUDS PORT FACILITIES IN BUILDING OF BRIDGE; Authority Describes Ease and Efficiency of Moving Tons of Materials to Hudson Site". The New York Times. March 15, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  122. ^ "FORTY BANKERS HIKE OVER HUDSON BRIDGE; Representatives of Interests That Bought $50,000,000 Bonds for It First to Cross. RIDE TO TOP OF TOWER Expectation of $4,500,000 in Tolls for First Year Called Basis of Good Investment. Have Luncheon in New Jersey. Those Who Made the Trip". The New York Times. June 24, 1931. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  123. ^ "New Jersey Hlghways to Serve New Hudson River Bridge". The New York Times. April 26, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  124. ^ "ASKS FUNDS TO PLAN NEW HARLEM BRIDGE; Goldman Seeks $50,000 to Survey for Link to Speed TrafficUsing Hudson River Span.177TH ST. SITE PROPOSEDAction Is Requested to ExpediteTravel Across the Bronx IntoWestchester and New England". The New York Times. May 6, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  125. ^ "BRIDGE BIDS OPENED.; Four Cover Work of Building Washington Span Booths and Towers". The New York Times. July 7, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  126. ^ a b c "56,312 Cars Cross Bridge on First Day". The New York Times. October 26, 1931. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
  127. ^ "PEDESTRIANS TO GET LOWER BRIDGE TOLL; Charge on George Washington Span Will Be Cut From 10 to 5 Cents About Jan. 1". The New York Times. November 9, 1934. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  128. ^ "Speeding the Hudson Bridge". Popular Science. November 1929. p. 49. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
  129. ^ Warner, Arthur (October 18, 1931). "AN ASTOUNDING SPAN OF STEEL AND WIRE; The New Bridge and Approaches Stretch For a Distance of Nearly Two Miles Eight Traffic Lanes. A Barrier Conquered. Six Months Ahead of Schedule. A Heavy Traffic Increase". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  130. ^ "HEAVY REALTY SALES IN BERGEN COUNTY; Hirliman Firm Reports Deals Exceeding $7,000,000 Since Work on Bridge Started". The New York Times. June 8, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
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  132. ^ "More Autos Use Tunnel Than New Bridge; Extra Force to Handle Travel on Span Today". The New York Times. November 1, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
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External links

Route map:

Media related to George Washington Bridge at Wikimedia Commons

175th Street station (IND Eighth Avenue Line)

175th Street (also known as 175th Street–George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal) is a station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. Located in the neighborhood of Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan, at 175th Street and Fort Washington Avenue, it is served by the A train at all times.

Fort Lee, New Jersey

Fort Lee is a borough at the eastern border of Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, situated on the Hudson Waterfront atop the Hudson Palisades.

As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 35,345, reflecting a decline of 116 (−0.3%) from the 35,461 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,464 (+10.8%) from the 31,997 counted in the 1990 Census.Fort Lee is named for the site of an American Revolutionary War military encampment, At the turn the 20th century it became the birthplace of the American film industry. In 1931 the borough became the western terminus of the George Washington Bridge, which crosses the Hudson River and connects to the borough of Manhattan borough in New York City. Fort Lee's population and housing density increased considerably during the 1960s and 1970s with the construction of highrise apartment buildings.

Fort Lee lane closure scandal

The Fort Lee lane closure scandal, also known as the George Washington Bridge lane closure scandal or Bridgegate, is a U.S. political scandal in which a staff member and political appointees of New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, a Republican, colluded to create traffic jams in Fort Lee, New Jersey, by closing lanes at the main toll plaza for the upper level of the George Washington Bridge.The problems began on Monday, September 9, 2013, when two of three toll lanes for a local street entrance were closed during morning rush hour. Local officials, emergency services, and the public were not notified of the lane closures, which Fort Lee declared a threat to public safety. The resulting back-ups and gridlock on local streets ended only when the two lanes were reopened on Friday, September 13, 2013, by an order from Port Authority Executive Director and Democrat from New York, Patrick Foye. He said that the "hasty and ill-informed decision" could have endangered lives and violated federal and state laws.It was later suggested that the lanes had been closed intentionally to cause the massive traffic problem for political reasons, and especially theorized that they were a retributive attack against Fort Lee's Mayor Mark Sokolich, a Democrat who had not supported Christie as a candidate in the 2013 New Jersey gubernatorial election. The ensuing investigations centered on several of Christie's appointees and staff, including David Wildstein, who ordered the lanes closed, and Bill Baroni, who had told the New Jersey Assembly Transportation Committee that the closures were for a traffic study.The United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey Paul J. Fishman launched a federal investigation, resulting in a sweeping nine-count indictment against Bridget Anne Kelly, the deputy chief of staff, Baroni and Wildstein. Wildstein entered a guilty plea, and testified against Baroni and Kelly, who were found guilty on all counts in November 2016. David Samson pleaded guilty to one felony count of conspiracy in July 2016, for acts unrelated to the lane closures but unearthed by the federal Bridgegate investigation.Governor Chris Christie's political standing was badly damaged by the scandal, and his approval ratings from the scandal onward only continued to fall. Once considered a leading contender for the 2016 Republican nomination for President, Christie dropped out of the presidential race after a poor showing in the New Hampshire primary. The scandal was widely cited as a major factor in the early demise of Christie's 2016 presidential ambitions. Christie called Bridgegate "a factor" in why he was bypassed by Donald Trump as the vice presidential nominee. In September 2016, both the prosecution and the defense in the trial of two of Christie's former aides argued that Christie knew of his close associates' involvement in a plan to shut down lanes leading to the George Washington Bridge as it was happening, and that the closings were to punish Sokolich for declining to support Christie's reelection bid. This was the first time Christie had been officially accused of contemporaneous knowledge of the plot.The defendants in the case appealed their convictions. In June 2019, the United States Supreme Court granted certiorari and will hear the case. One defendant, already serving his prison term, asked for immediate release.

Fort Washington Park (Manhattan)

Fort Washington Park is located in the Washington Heights section of Upper Manhattan, New York City, along the banks of the Hudson River next to Riverside Drive from West 155th Street to Dyckman Street. The George Washington Bridge crosses above the park, and below the bridge is the small point of land also called Jeffrey's Hook, which is the site of the Little Red Lighthouse.

The 160-acre park features river-side views of the New Jersey Palisades and the George Washington Bridge. Amenities include pedestrian and greenway paths, baseball fields, basketball courts, tennis courts, volleyball courts, a soccer field and a playground.

The park references the nearby site of Fort Washington, a fortified position that was the site of the 1776 Battle of Fort Washington during the American Revolutionary War. The fort is physically located and commemorated in Bennett Park.

George Washington Bridge Bus Station

The George Washington Bridge Bus Station is a commuter bus terminal located at the east end of the George Washington Bridge in the Washington Heights area of Manhattan in New York City, New York. The bus station is owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. On a typical weekday, approximately 20,000 passengers on about 1,000 buses use the station.The building, an example of 1960s urban renewal, has been described as a blight on its surrounding environment and "a brutal assault on the senses". Its upper-level bus ramps cross Fort Washington Avenue, blocking light and the view of the George Washington Bridge.

Major renovations, including an expansion of retail space from 30,000 to 120,000 square feet (3,000 to 11,000 m2), began in late 2013 and were expected to cost more than US$183 million. Although scheduled to be completed in early 2015, the renovated station reopened on May 16, 2017, two years behind schedule, $17 million over budget, and still unfinished.

George Washington Bridge Plaza

The George Washington Bridge Plaza, also known as GWB Plaza or Bridge Plaza, is the convergence of roads and highways around the George Washington Bridge toll plaza in Fort Lee, New Jersey, United States. The plaza is located north of and parallel to Fort Lee's Main Street. The surrounding busy area is characterized by a mix of commercial and residential uses and an architectural variety that includes parking lots, strip malls, houses, gas stations, mid-rise office buildings and high-rise condominiums. Just to the east is Fort Lee Historic Park, Palisades Interstate Park and the bridge's western tower.

Interstate 80 in New Jersey

Interstate 80 (I-80) is a major Interstate Highway in the United States, running from San Francisco, California eastward to the New York City Metropolitan Area. In New Jersey, I-80 runs for 68.54 miles (110.30 km) from the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge at the Pennsylvania state line to its eastern terminus at I-95 in Teaneck, Bergen County. I-95 continues from the end of I-80 to the George Washington Bridge for access to New York City. The highway runs parallel to U.S. Route 46 (US 46) through rural areas of Warren and Sussex counties before heading into more suburban surroundings in Morris County. As the road continues into Passaic and Bergen counties, it heads into more urban areas. The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) identifies I-80 within the state as the Christopher Columbus Highway.A freeway along the I-80 corridor had been planned in 1936 and again in 1955 to provide relief along US 46 between the George Washington Bridge and the Delaware Water Gap. With the establishment of the Interstate Highway System, this planned freeway, which had been identified in some planning documents as the Bergen-Passaic Expressway, would be incorporated into I-80. The freeway was built across New Jersey in various stages from the 1960s to 1973. The westernmost four miles in New Jersey was originally a rerouting of US 611 when built; that route was later realigned back into Pennsylvania. In the 1990s, high-occupancy vehicle lanes had existed on a part of I-80 in Morris County but were opened to regular traffic due to under-use.

Interstate 95 in New Jersey

Interstate 95 (I-95) is a major Interstate Highway that traverses nearly the full extent of the East Coast of the United States, from Florida to Maine. In the state of New Jersey, it runs along much of the mainline of the New Jersey Turnpike (exit 6 to exit 18), as well as the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension (formerly and still commonly known as the Pennsylvania Turnpike Connector; from exit 6 to the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge), and the New Jersey Turnpike's I-95 Extension (from exit 18) to the George Washington Bridge for a total of 77.96 mi (125.46 km). Located in the northeastern part of the state near New York City, the 11.03-mile (17.75 km) Western Spur of the New Jersey Turnpike, considered to be Route 95W by the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT), is also part of I-95.

I-95 enters the state from the Pennsylvania Turnpike on the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge, following the length of the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension to exit 6 on the New Jersey Turnpike mainline, continuing north along the remainder of the latter road to U.S. Route 46 (US 46), where it continues as the turnpike's I-95 Extension to the George Washington Bridge, on which it enters New York. All of I-95 in New Jersey is maintained by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority (NJTA) except for the George Washington Bridge, which is maintained by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ).

Until 2018, I-95 had been discontinuous within New Jersey. From Pennsylvania, I-95 entered New Jersey on the Scudder Falls Bridge and ended at US 1 in Lawrence Township, where the freeway then turned south as I-295. From New York, I-95 continued from the George Washington Bridge southward along the New Jersey Turnpike and west along the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension to end at the Pennsylvania state line. This discontinuity was caused by the 1983 cancellation of the Somerset Freeway, which would have connected the former Trenton segment of I-95 in Hopewell Township northeast to I-287 in Piscataway Township. From here, I-95 would have followed present-day I-287 to exit 10 on the New Jersey Turnpike in Edison.

In order to fill the gap, the Pennsylvania Turnpike/Interstate 95 Interchange Project saw the construction of an interchange between the Pennsylvania Turnpike and I-95 in Bristol Township, Pennsylvania, with I-95 being rerouted to use the Pennsylvania Turnpike to the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge. By March 2018, the former I-95 around the north side of Trenton to just across the Scudder Falls Bridge in Pennsylvania became an extension of I-295, with I-295 extended to the interchange by July of the same year. On September 22, 2018, the ramps connecting I-95 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike opened, allowing a direct freeway route from Philadelphia to New York City and finally completing I-95 as a whole.

Interstate 95 in New York

Interstate 95 (I-95) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Miami, Florida, to the Canada–United States border near Houlton, Maine. In the U.S. state of New York, I-95 extends 23.50 miles (37.82 km) from the George Washington Bridge in New York City to the Connecticut state line at Port Chester. From the George Washington Bridge, which carries I-95 across the Hudson River from New Jersey into New York City, it runs across upper Manhattan on the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and continues east across the Harlem River on the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and onto the Cross Bronx Expressway. In the Bronx, I-95 leaves the Cross Bronx at the Bruckner Interchange, joining the Bruckner Expressway to its end. North of the interchange with Pelham Parkway, it then continues northeast via the New England Thruway (which is part of the New York State Thruway system) out of New York City into Westchester County and to the Connecticut state line, where I-95 continues on the Connecticut Turnpike.

List of NJ Transit bus routes (100–199)

New Jersey Transit operates interstate bus routes in northern New Jersey, most terminating at the Port Authority Bus Terminal (PABT) in Midtown Manhattan. There are several routes to the George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal and one serves Lower Manhattan via the Holland Tunnel. Some of the routes that use the Lincoln Tunnel to the PABT travel along the marginal road of Route 495 allowing for local connections in Hudson County.

Below, the routes are listed by division, region, and number.

List of bridges and tunnels in New York City

New York City is home to over 2,000 bridges and tunnels. Several agencies manage this network of crossings, including the New York City Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York State Department of Transportation and Amtrak.

Many of the city's major bridges and tunnels have broken or set records. Opened in 1927, the Holland Tunnel was the world's first mechanically ventilated underwater vehicular tunnel. The Brooklyn Bridge, Williamsburg Bridge, George Washington Bridge, and Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge were the world's longest suspension bridges when opened in 1883, 1903, 1931, and 1964 respectively.

New Jersey Route 4

Route 4 is a state highway in Bergen County and Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. The highway stretches 10.83 mi (17.43 km) from Route 20 (McLean Boulevard) in Paterson east to an interchange with Interstate 95 (I-95), U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9), US 46, and US 9W at the George Washington Bridge approach in Fort Lee.

The route is a four- to six-lane 40 to 50 mph (64 to 80 km/h) divided highway its entire length, with the portion east of the Route 208 interchange in Fair Lawn a limited-access road consisting of interchanges and right-in/right-out intersections with many businesses along the road, particularly in Paramus, where the route passes through a major shopping area consisting of numerous malls, Hackensack, Englewood, and Fort Lee. West of Route 208, the route is a surface arterial that runs through commercial areas. Route 4 intersects many important roads, including Route 208 in Fair Lawn and the Garden State Parkway and Route 17 in Paramus. The highway is officially named the Mackay Highway, but is rarely referred to as such.

Originally legislated to traverse the state from Cape May to the George Washington Bridge, Route 4 was reduced to its current alignment in 1953. Today's stretch of the route was completed by 1934; the state planned to upgrade it to a full freeway, but plans never materialized. Despite this, the route has seen improvements, such as to the interchanges with Route 17 in 1999 and with Route 208 in 2002.

Route 4 is a heavily used commuter, retail, and long-distance artery. As well as providing a critical commuter route from the Hudson Valley and Bergen County into New York City via the George Washington Bridge, it gives New Yorkers access to popular shopping areas such as Garden State Plaza and Bergen Town Center, and forms part of the straightest route from New York City and Long Island to Upstate and Western New York destinations. Locally, especially west of the Hackensack River, it is seen as a socioeconomic dividing line between wealthier, more affluent suburbs like Ridgewood and Oradell to the north, and more urbanized, industrialized, working-class areas like Hackensack to the south. Trucks are permitted on Route 4, but due to its narrow lanes and short on/off ramps, tractor trailers tend to prefer nearby I-80 when traveling through the area.

Othmar Ammann

Othmar Hermann Ammann (March 26, 1879 – September 22, 1965) was a Swiss-American structural engineer whose bridge designs include the George Washington Bridge, Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. He also directed the planning and construction of the Lincoln Tunnel.

Plaza Lafayette

Plaza Lafayette is a small, 0.09-acre (0.036 ha) park and surrounding streets in the Hudson Heights neighborhood of Washington Heights, Manhattan, New York City. Named after the Marquis de Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolution, the park is roughly trapezoidal in shape, and is bounded by Riverside Drive – originally called Boulevard Lafayette in this area – on the west, the westbound lane of West 181st Street – also called "Plaza Lafayette" here – on the north, the eastbound lane of West 181st Street/Plaza Lafayette on the south, and Haven Avenue on the east. The land was acquired by the city on February 23, 1918.The park itself has no amenities, but across what is now Riverside Drive is a small viewing area. This and the parklet itself are located near the highest natural point in Manhattan – about 5 block away in Bennett Park – and the viewing platform has unobstructed views of the George Washington Bridge, the Hudson Palisades, and the Hudson River.The platform has stairs leading down to what is now the Henry Hudson Parkway, which was once Riverside Drive. The staircase is now gated off, but can still be seen from the Hudson River Greenway, on the other side of the parkway, which is reachable by a pedestrian bridge about a block north of the Plaza.

Spanish Transportation

Spanish Transportation, officially Spanish Transportation Service Corporation, and operating under the name Express Service, is a privately operated bus company, which leases minibuses to individual operators, who provide service in and between various communities in northeastern New Jersey and to Manhattan in New York City. The fleet consists mostly of jitneys, often called "the Spanish bus" or "dollar vans" by their English-speaking users, or guaguas by their majority-Spanish clientele.

Trans-Manhattan Expressway

The Trans-Manhattan Expressway is an east–west limited-access highway in New York City, in the United States. It traverses the northern end of the borough of Manhattan at one of its narrowest points, running for 0.8 miles (1.3 km) in a cut through Washington Heights. The highway connects the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson River to the Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River. Designated Interstate 95 (I-95) and U.S. Route 1, approximately 280,000 vehicles traverse the highway on a daily average basis.Completed in 1960, the expressway is located below ground level, in an open cut; however, the George Washington Bridge Bus Station and the high-rise Bridge Apartments are built over the expressway, creating intermittent tunnels. It is maintained by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.Although the highway is aligned compass east-west, it carries the north-south routings of I-95 and US 1. The westbound lanes carry southbound route designations, while the eastbound lanes carry northbound route designations.

U.S. Route 1/9

U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9) is the 31.01-mile (49.91 km) long concurrency of US 1 and US 9 from their junction in Woodbridge Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, north to New York City. The route is a multilane road, with some freeway portions, that runs through urbanized areas of northern New Jersey adjacent to New York City. Throughout most of its length in New Jersey, the road runs near the New Jersey Turnpike/Interstate 95 (I-95). In Fort Lee, US 1/9 merges onto I-95 and crosses the Hudson River on the George Washington Bridge, where the two U.S. routes split a short distance into New York. US 1/9 intersects several major roads, including I-278 in Linden, Route 81 in Elizabeth, I-78 and US 22 in Newark, Route 139 in Jersey City, Route 3 and Route 495 in North Bergen, and US 46 in Palisades Park. Between Newark and Jersey City, US 1/9 runs along the Pulaski Skyway. Trucks are banned from this section of road and must use US 1/9 Truck. The concurrency between US 1 and US 9 is commonly referred to as "1 and 9". Some signage for the concurrency, as well as the truck route, combines the two roads into one shield, separated by a hyphen (1-9) or an ampersand (1&9).The current alignment of US 1/9 south of Elizabeth was planned as pre-1927 Route 1 in 1916; this road was extended to the Holland Tunnel in Jersey City in 1922. When the U.S. Highway System was created in 1926, US 1 and US 9 were marked concurrent through northern New Jersey between Rahway on the current alignments of Route 27 and US 1/9 Truck. In 1927, pre-1927 Route 1 became Route 25, and Route 1 and Route 6 were legislated along the current US 1/9 north of Jersey City. US 1/9 originally went to the Holland Tunnel on Route 25; after the George Washington Bridge opened the two routes were realigned to their current routing north of Jersey City. After the Pulaski Skyway opened in 1932, US 1/9 and Route 25 were routed to use this road, which soon had a truck ban resulting in the creation of Route 25T (now US 1/9 Truck). South of Newark, US 1/9 was moved from Route 27 to Route 25. In 1953, the state highways running concurrent with US 1/9 in New Jersey were removed. In 1964, the approaches to the George Washington Bridge were upgraded into I-95.

U.S. Route 1 in New Jersey

U.S. Route 1 (US 1) is a United States highway which parallels the East Coast of the United States, running from Key West, Florida in the south to Fort Kent, Maine at the Canadian border in the north. Of the entire length of the route, 66.06 miles (106.31 km) of it runs through New Jersey. It enters the state from Pennsylvania on the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge over the Delaware River in the state capital of Trenton, running through the city on the Trenton Freeway. From here, US 1 continues northeast as a surface divided highway through suburban areas continuing into Middlesex County and passing through New Brunswick and Edison. US 1 merges with US 9 in Woodbridge, and the two routes continue through northern New Jersey as US 1/9 to the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson River in Fort Lee. At this point, the road continues into New York City along with I-95.

The current alignment of US 1 between Trenton and New Brunswick was chartered as the Trenton and New Brunswick Turnpike in 1803 and struggled throughout its 100-year existence. In 1913, the Lincoln Highway across the United States was created and connected Trenton to Newark within New Jersey. The Lincoln Highway was legislated as Route 13 between Trenton and New Brunswick in 1917 and as part of Route 1 between New Brunswick and Elizabeth, later extended to Jersey City. With the creation of the U.S. Highway System in 1926, US 1 was designated to follow the Lincoln Highway between Trenton and Newark and the current alignment of US 1/9 Truck to Jersey City, where it continued to the Holland Tunnel. In 1927, the Lincoln Highway portion of US 1 became Route 27. The current alignment of US 1 between Trenton and Newark was legislated as Route 26, Route S26 and Route 25, while the current route north from Jersey City to the George Washington Bridge became Route 1 and Route 6. In subsequent years, US 1 was moved onto its current routing between Trenton and the George Washington Bridge. The state highways running concurrent with US 1 were removed in 1953, around the same time the route was moved to the Trenton Freeway within Trenton and the old alignment became US 1 Alternate, part of which is now US 1 Business. By 1969, the Trenton Freeway was extended north to Whitehead Road in Lawrence Township, and that segment became Route 174. When the Trenton Freeway was completed north to US 1, the US 1 designation was shifted to the freeway, replacing Route 174.

Upper Manhattan

Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but some of the most common usages are 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park (110th Street), 125th Street or 155th Street.Upper Manhattan is generally taken to include the neighborhoods of Marble Hill, Inwood, Washington Heights (including Fort George, Sherman Creek and Hudson Heights), Harlem (including Sugar Hill, Hamilton Heights and Manhattanville), East Harlem and parts of the Upper West Side (Morningside Heights and Manhattan Valley).

The George Washington Bridge connects Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan across the Hudson River to Fort Lee, New Jersey, and is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.In the late 19th century, the IRT Ninth Avenue Line and other elevated railroads brought people to the previously rustic Upper Manhattan. Until the late 20th century it was less influenced by the gentrification that had taken place in other parts of New York over the previous 30 years.

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