George Sand

Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin[1] (French: [amɑ̃tin lysil oʁɔʁ dypɛ̃]; 1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her nom de plume George Sand (French: [ʒɔʁʒ sɑ̃d]), was a French novelist, memoirist, and socialist.[2][3] One of the most popular writers in Europe in her lifetime,[4] being more popular than both Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac in England in the 1830s and 1840s,[5] Sand is recognised as one of the most notable writers of the European Romantic era.

George Sand
George Sand
Portrait of George Sand by Auguste Charpentier (1838)
Amantine Lucile Dupin

1 July 1804
Paris, France
Died8 June 1876 (aged 71)
Nohant-Vic, France
MovementRomanticism Pastoralism
Casimir Dudevant
(m. 1822; separated 1835)
ChildrenMaurice Sand
Solange Sand
  • Maurice Dupin (father)
  • Sophie-Victorie Delaborde (mother)

Personal life

George Sand [6] – known to her friends and family as "Aurore" – was born in Paris and was raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother, Marie-Aurore de Saxe, Madame Dupin de Francueil, at her grandmother's estate, Nohant, in the French province of Berry (see House of George Sand).[7] Sand later used the estate setting in many of her novels. Her father, Maurice Dupin, was the grandson of the Marshal General of France, Maurice, Comte de Saxe, an illegitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and a cousin to the sixth degree to Kings Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X of France.[8] She was also more distantly related to King Louis Philippe of France through common ancestors from German and Danish ruling families. Sand's mother, Sophie-Victoire Delaborde, was a commoner.

Gender expression

Sand was one of many notable 19th-century women who chose to wear male attire in public. In 1800, the police issued an order requiring women to apply for a permit in order to wear male clothing. Some women applied for health, occupational, or recreational reasons (i.e. horseback riding), but many women chose to wear pants and other traditional male attire in public without receiving a permit, they did so as well for practical reasons, but also at times to subvert dominant stereotypes.[9] Sand was one of the women who did not apply for a permit and did sport men's clothing, which she justified by the clothes being, firstly less expensive, and also far sturdier than the typical dress of a noblewoman at the time. In addition to being comfortable, Sand's male attire enabled her to circulate more freely in Paris than most of her female contemporaries, and gave her increased access to venues from which women were often barred, even women of her social standing. Also scandalous was Sand's smoking tobacco in public; neither peerage nor gentry had yet sanctioned the free indulgence of women in such a habit, especially in public (though Franz Liszt's paramour Marie d'Agoult affected this as well, smoking large cigars). While there were many contemporary critics of her comportment, many people accepted her behaviour until they became shocked with the subversive tone of her novels.[5] Those who found her writing admirable were not bothered by her ambiguous or rebellious public behaviour. As Victor Hugo commented, “George Sand cannot determine whether she is male or female. I entertain a high regard for all my colleagues, but it is not my place to decide whether she is my sister or my brother.”[10]

Notable relationships

In 1822, at the age of eighteen, Sand married Casimir Dudevant[11] (1795–1871; first name "François"), illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children: Maurice (1823–1889) and Solange (1828–1899). In 1825 she had an intense but perhaps platonic affair with the young lawyer Aurélien de Sèze.[12] In early 1831, she left her husband and entered upon a four- or five-year period of "romantic rebellion." In 1835, she was legally separated from Dudevant, and took custody of their children.

Sand had romantic affairs with Jules Sandeau (1831), Prosper Mérimée, Alfred de Musset (summer 1833 – March 1835), Louis-Chrysostome Michel, Pierre-François Bocage, Charles Didier, Félicien Mallefille, Louis Blanc, and composer Frédéric Chopin (1837–1847).[13] Later in her life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert, and despite their differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, they eventually became close friends. She engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumours of a romantic affair.[14]

George Sand by Nadar, 1864
George Sand by Nadar, 1864

Relationship with Chopin

Sand spent the winter of 1838-1839 with Chopin in Majorca at the (formerly abandoned) Carthusian monastery of Valldemossa.[15] The trip to Majorca was described in her Un hiver à Majorque (A Winter in Majorca), first published in 1841.[16] Chopin was already ill with incipient tuberculosis at the beginning of their relationship, and spending a cold and wet winter in Majorca where they could not get proper lodgings exacerbated his symptoms.[17] They separated two years before his death for a variety of reasons.[18] In her novel Lucrezia Floriani, Sand used Chopin as a model for a sickly Eastern European prince named Karol. He is cared for by a middle-aged actress past her prime, Lucrezia, who suffers a great deal through her affection for Karol.[19] Though Sand claimed not to have made a cartoon out of Chopin, the book's publication and widespread readership may have exacerbated their later antipathy towards each other. The tipping point in their relationship involved her daughter Solange.

George Sand en Madeleine par Louis Boulanger
Sand as Mary Magdalene in a sketch by Louis Boulanger

Chopin continued to be cordial to Solange after she and her husband, Auguste Clésinger, had a falling out with Sand over money. Sand took Chopin's support of Solange to be extremely disloyal, and confirmation that Chopin had always "loved" Solange.[20] Sand's son Maurice also disliked Chopin. Maurice wanted to establish himself as the "man of the estate" and did not wish to have Chopin as a rival. Chopin was never asked back to Nohant; in 1848, he returned to Paris from a tour of the United Kingdom, to die at the Place Vendôme in the following year. Chopin was penniless at that time; his friends had to pay for his stay there, as well as his funeral at the Madeleine. The funeral was attended by over 3,000 people, including Eugène Delacroix, Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo and other famous people. George Sand was notably absent.


Sand died at Nohant, near Châteauroux, in France's Indre département on 8 June 1876, at the age of 71. She was buried in the private graveyard behind the chapel at Nohant-Vic.[21] In 2003, plans that her remains be moved to the Panthéon in Paris resulted in controversy.[22][23]

Career and politics

Casimir Dudevant.jpeg
Casimir Dudevant, Sand's husband, in the 1860s
George Sand
George Sand by Charles Louis Gratia (c. 1835)

George Sand was the most popular writer (of any gender) in Europe by the age of 27,[4] being more popular than both Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac in England in the 1830s and 1840s,[5] and remained immensely popular as a writer throughout her lifetime and long after her death. Early in her career, her work was in high demand and already by 1836, the first of several compendia of her writings was published in 24 volumes.[24][25] In total, 4 separate editions of her "Complete Works" were published during her lifetime in 1880 her children sold the rights to her literary estate for 125,000 Francs[24] (equivalent to 36kg worth of gold, or 1.3 Million Dollars in 2015 USD[26])

Drawing from her childhood experiences of the countryside, Sand wrote the pastoral novels La Mare au Diable (1846), François le Champi (1847–1848), La Petite Fadette (1849), and Les Beaux Messieurs de Bois-Doré (1857).[27] A Winter in Majorca described the period that she and Chopin spent on that island from 1838 to 1839. Her other novels include Indiana (1832), Lélia (1833), Mauprat (1837), Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840), Consuelo (1842–1843), and Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845). Theatre pieces and autobiographical pieces include Histoire de ma vie (1855), Elle et Lui (1859, about her affair with Musset), Journal Intime (posthumously published in 1926), and Correspondence. Sand often performed her theatrical works in her small private theatre at the Nohant estate.

Sand was well-known around the world, while her social practices, writings, and beliefs prompted much commentary, often by other members of the world of arts and letters.

Sand's literary debut came as a result of a collaboration with the writer Jules Sandeau. They published several stories together, signing them "Jules Sand." Sand's first published novel, Rose et Blanche (1831), was written in collaboration with Sandeau.[28] She subsequently adopted, for her first independent novel, Indiana (1832), the pen name that made her famous – George Sand.[29]

Political views

In addition, Sand authored literary criticism and political texts. Because of her early life, she sided with the poor and working class as well as women's rights. When the 1848 Revolution began, she was an ardent republican. Sand started her own newspaper, which was published in a workers' co-operative.[30]

However, she was appalled by the violence of the Paris Commune. She wrote: "The horrible adventure continues. They ransom, they threaten, they arrest, they judge. They have taken over all the city halls, all the public establishments, they’re pillaging the munitions and the food supplies."[31]

Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 041
Sand sewing, from Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand (1838), Delacroix

Politically, she became very active after 1841 and the leaders of the day often consulted with her and took her advice. She was a member of the provisional government of 1848, and during Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte’s coup d’état of December 1851, she negotiated pardons and reduced sentences for her friends.[4]

Sand was known for her implication and writings during the Paris Commune, where she took a position for the Versailles assembly against the "communards," urging them to take violent action against the "rebels."[32]


Opinions on her writings

Sand's writing was immensely popular during her lifetime and she was highly respected by the literary and cultural elite in France. Victor Hugo, in the eulogy he gave at her funeral, said "the lyre was within her."[34]

In this country whose law is to complete the French Revolution and begin that of the equality of the sexes, being a part of the equality of men, a great woman was needed. It was necessary to prove that a woman could have all the manly gifts without losing any of her angelic qualities, be strong without ceasing to be tender… George Sand proved it.

— Victor Hugo, Les funérailles de George Sand

Eugene Delacroix was a close friend and respected her literary gifts.[35] Flaubert, by no means an indulgent or forbearing critic, was an unabashed admirer. Honoré de Balzac, who knew Sand personally, once said that if someone thought she wrote badly, it was because their own standards of criticism were inadequate. He also noted that her treatment of imagery in her works showed that her writing had an exceptional subtlety, having the ability to "virtually put the image in the word."[36][37] Alfred de Vigny referred to her as "Sappho"[34]

Not all of her contemporaries admired her or her writing: poet Charles Baudelaire was one contemporary critic of George Sand:[38] "She is stupid, heavy and garrulous. Her ideas on morals have the same depth of judgment and delicacy of feeling as those of janitresses and kept women ... The fact that there are men who could become enamoured of this slut is indeed a proof of the abasement of the men of this generation."[39]

Influences on literature

Fyodor Dostoevsky "read widely in the numerous novels of George Sand" and translated her La dernière Aldini in 1844, but "discovered to his dismay that the work had already appeared in Russian".[40] In his novel Demons (1871), the character of Stepan Verkhovensky takes to translating the works of George Sand in his periodical, before the periodical was subsequently seized by the ever-cautious Russian government of the 1840s. The English poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806–61) wrote two poems: "To George Sand: A Desire" (1853) and "To George Sand: A Recognition". The American poet Walt Whitman cited Sand's novel Consuelo as a personal favorite, and the sequel to this novel, La Comtesse de Rudolstadt, contains at least a couple of passages that appear to have had a very direct influence on him. In the first episode of the "Overture" to Swann's Way—the first novel in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time sequence—a young, distraught Marcel is calmed by his mother as she reads from François le Champi, a novel which (it is explained) was part of a gift from his grandmother, which also included La Mare au Diable, La Petite Fadette, and Les Maîtres Sonneurs. As with many episodes involving art in À la recherche du temps perdu, this reminiscence includes commentary on the work. Sand is also referred to in Virginia Woolf's book-length essay A Room of One's Own along with George Eliot and Charlotte Brontë as "all victims of inner strife as their writings prove, sought ineffectively to veil themselves by using the name of a man."[41]

Frequent literary references to George Sand can be found in Possession (1990) by A. S. Byatt and in the play Voyage, the first part of Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia trilogy (2002). George Sand also makes an appearance in Isabel Allende's Zorro, going still by her given name, as a young girl in love with Diego de la Vega, i.e., Zorro.

In film

George Sand is portrayed by Merle Oberon in A Song to Remember, by Patricia Morison in Song Without End, by Rosemary Harris in Notorious Woman, by Judy Davis in James Lapine's 1991 British-American film Impromptu; and by Juliette Binoche in the 1999 French film Children of the Century (Les Enfants du Siècle).



  • Rose et Blanche (1831, with Jules Sandeau)
  • Indiana (1832)
  • Valentine (1832)
  • Lélia (1833)
  • Andréa (1833)
  • Mattéa (1833)
  • Jacques (1833)
  • Kouroglou / Épopée Persane (1833)
  • Leone Leoni (1833)
  • André (1834)
  • La Marquise (1834)
  • Simon (1835)
  • Mauprat (1837)
  • Les Maîtres mosaïstes (The Master Mosaic Workers) (1837)
  • L'Oreo (1838)
  • L'Uscoque (The Uscoque, or The Corsair) (1838)
  • Spiridion (1839)
  • Pauline (1839)
  • Horace (1840)
  • Le Compagnon du tour de France (The Journeyman Joiner, or the Companion of the Tour of France) (1840)
  • Consuelo (1842)
  • La Comtesse de Rudolstadt (1843, a sequel to Consuelo)
  • Jeanne (1844)
  • Teverino (1845) (translated as Jealousy: Teverino)
  • Le Péché de M. Antoine (The Sin of M. Antoine) (1845)
  • Le Meunier d'Angibault (The Miller of Angibault) (1845)
  • La Mare au Diable (The Devil's Pool) (1846)
  • Lucrezia Floriani (1846)
  • François le Champi (The Country Waif) (1847)
  • La Petite Fadette (1849)
  • Château des Désertes (1850)
  • Histoire du véritable Gribouille (1851, translated as The Mysterious Tale of Gentle Jack and Lord Bumblebee)
  • Les Maîtres sonneurs (The Bagpipers) (1853)
  • La Daniella (1857)
  • Les Beaux Messiers de Bois-Dore (The Gallant Lords of Bois-Dore or The Fine Gentlemen of Bois-Dore) (1857)
  • Elle et Lui (She and He) (1859)
  • Narcisse (1859)
  • Jean de la Roche (1859)
  • L'Homme de neige (The Snow Man) ( 1859)
  • La Ville noire (The Black City) (1860)
  • Marquis de Villemer (1860)
  • Valvedre (1861)
  • Antonia (1863)
  • Mademoiselle La Quintinie (1863)
  • Laura, Voyage dans le cristal (Laura, or Voyage into the Crystal) (1864)
  • Monsieur Sylvestre (1866)
  • Le Dernier Amour (1866, dedicated to Flaubert)
  • Mademoiselle Merquem (1868)
  • Pierre Qui Roule (A Rolling Stone) (1870)
  • Le Beau Laurence (Handsome Lawrence) (1870, a sequel to Pierre Qui Roule)
  • Malgretout (1870)
  • Cesarine Dietrich (1871)
  • Nanon (1872)
  • Ma Soeur Jeanne (My Sister Jeannie) (1874)
  • Flamarande (1875)
  • Les Deux Freres (1875, a sequel to Flamarande)
  • Marianne (1876)
  • La Tour de Percemont (The Tower of Percemont) (1876)


  • Gabriel (1839)
  • Cosima ou La haine dans l'amour (1840)
  • Les Sept cordes de la lyre (translated as A Woman's Version of the Faust Legend: The Seven Strings of the Lyre) (1840)
  • François le Champi (1849)
  • Claudie (1851)
  • Le Mariage de Victorine (1851)
  • Le Pressoir (1853)
  • French adaptation of As You Like It (1856)
  • Le Pavé (1862, "The Paving Stone")
  • Le Marquis de Villemer (1864)
  • Le Lis du Japon (1866, "The Japanese Lily")
  • L'Autre (1870, with Sarah Bernhardt)
  • Un Bienfait n'est jamais perdu (1872, "A Good Deed Is Never Wasted")

See also



  1. ^ Dupin's first Christian name is sometimes rendered as "Amandine".
  2. ^ Hart, Kathleen (2004). Revolution and Women's Autobiography in Nineteenth-century France. Rodopi. p. 91.
  3. ^ Lewis, Linda M. (2003). Germaine de Staël, George Sand, and the Victorian Woman Artist. University of Missouri Press. p. 48.
  4. ^ a b c Eisler, Benita (8 June 2018). "'George Sand' Review: Monstre Sacré". WSJ. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Thomson, Patricia (July 1972). "George Sand and English Reviewers: The First Twenty Years". The Modern Language Review. 67 (3): 501–516. doi:10.2307/3726119. JSTOR 3726119.
  6. ^ Belinda Jack"Introduction"
  7. ^ "George Sand | French novelist". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  8. ^ Musée de la Vie Romantique (family tree), Paris: CBX41.
  9. ^ "Clothes Make the (Wo)man? Pants Permits in Nineteenth-Century Paris". 2 September 2015.
  10. ^ "Classic Women Authors in Men's Clothing: Expressing the Masculine".
  11. ^ "George Sand | French novelist". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  12. ^ Leduc, Edouard (5 March 2015), La Dame de Nohant: ou La vie passionnée de George Sand, Editions Publibook, pp. 30–, ISBN 978-2-342-03497-4
  13. ^ Szulc 1998, pp. 160, 165, 194–95.
  14. ^ Jack, Belinda, George Sand, Random House.
  15. ^ Museoin, Valldemossa.
  16. ^ Travers, Martin (ed.), European Literature from Romanticism to Postmodernism: A Reader in Aesthetic Practice, Continuum publishing, 2006, p. 97, ISBN 9780826439604
  17. ^ Pruszewicz, Marek (22 December 2014). "The mystery of Chopin's death". BBC News. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  18. ^ "Frédéric Chopin and George Sand: A Collaborative Union | The Romantic Piano". WQXR. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  19. ^ Szulc 1998, p. 326.
  20. ^ From the correspondence of Sand and Chopin: Szulc 1998, p. 344.
  21. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 41516). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  22. ^ "Will George Sand Join the Immortals in the Pantheon?". The Wall Street Journal. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  23. ^ "Ashes to ashes, Sand to sand". The Guardian. 13 September 2003. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  24. ^ a b "L'Édition complète des œuvres de George Sand " chaos pour le lecteur " ou essai de poétique éditoriale". George Sand : Pratiques et imaginaires de l'écriture. Colloques de Cerisy. Presses universitaires de Caen. 30 March 2017. pp. 381–393. ISBN 9782841338023.
  25. ^ "Oeuvres complètes | George Sand | sous la direction de Béatrice Didier | 1836-1837".
  26. ^ "Historical Currency Converter".
  27. ^ Kristeva, Julia (1993). Proust and the Sense of Time. Columbia UP. p. 35. ISBN 9780231084789.
  28. ^
  29. ^ Bédé 1986, p. 218.
  30. ^ Paintault & Cerf 2004.
  31. ^ George Sand correspondence, edited by Pivot, Sylvain (2003)
  32. ^ Guillemin, Henri (13 August 2009), "La Commune de Paris", Les archives de la RTS, Switzerland: RTS
  33. ^ Saturday Review. Saturday Review. 1876. pp. 771–.
  34. ^ a b Anna Livia; Kira Hall (20 November 1997). Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-0-19-535577-2.
  35. ^
  36. ^ Pasco, Allan H (2006), "George Sand", Nouvelles Françaises du Dix-Neuviéme Siécle: Anthologie (in French), Rookwood Press, p. 161.
  37. ^ "Famous Affinities of History - the Story of George Sand (by Lyndon Orr)".
  38. ^ Robb, Graham (21 February 2005). "The riddle of Miss Sand".
  39. ^ Baudelaire, Charles (1975). Quennell, Peter (ed.). My Heart Laid Bare. Trans. Norman Cameron. Haskell House. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-8383-1870-6.
  40. ^ Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky: A Writer in His Time. Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 71; ISBN 1400833418.
  41. ^ Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own, Penguin Books, 1929, p. 52; ISBN 9780141183534.


External links

A Song to Remember

A Song to Remember is a 1945 Columbia Pictures Technicolor biographical film which tells a fictionalised life story of Polish pianist and composer Frédéric Chopin. Directed by Charles Vidor, the film stars Cornel Wilde (as Chopin), Merle Oberon (as George Sand), Paul Muni (as Józef Elsner), Stephen Bekassy (as Franz Liszt), and Nina Foch.

A Winter in Majorca

A Winter in Majorca (whose original title in French is Un hiver à Majorque) is an autobiographical travel novel written by George Sand, at the time in a relationship with Frédéric Chopin. Although published in 1842, it appeared for the first time in 1841 in the Revue des deux Mondes.

In the novel, Sand relates the details of her trip and stay with Chopin on the island of Majorca, due to the illness of the pianist. Sand, Chopin, and Sand's two children stayed in the charterhouse of Valldemossa for a few months, from the end of 1838 until February 1839, during which time they hoped that Chopin's tuberculosis would improve. However, the winter was hard and his health did not improve, and so they quickly returned to Barcelona, and eventually to Marseille and then Paris.


Calmann-Lévy is a French publishing house founded in 1836 by Michel Lévy (1821–1875) and his brother Kalmus "Calmann" Lévy (1819–1891), as Michel Lévy frères. It was renamed Calmann Lévy after the death of Michel in 1875.By 1875, the company was among the foremost publishing houses of Europe. It was the publisher of most

of the important French authors of the second half of the 19th century, including Balzac, Baudelaire, René Bazin, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Dumas, Flaubert, Victor Hugo, Lamartine, Ernest Renan, George Sand, Stendhal.

In 1893, Calmann was succeeded by his sons Georges, Paul and Gaston, who went on to publish authors including Anatole France, Pierre Loti and Proust.

During Nazi occupation, Gaston Lévy was interned, and the publishing company, run by the Germans, was renamed Éditions Balzac in 1943. After the liberation, the company was headed by Léon Pioton.

Authors edited in the postwar period include: Arthur Koestler, Elia Kazan, Anne Frank, and later Donna Leon, Nicolas Hulot, Patricia Cornwell, Guillaume Musso, among others.

Since 1993, Calmann-Lévy has been owned by Hachette (which is in turn owned by Lagardère Group).

Children of the Century

Children of the Century (French: Les Enfants du Siècle) is a 1999 French film based on the true tale of the tumultuous love affair between two French literary icons of the 19th century, novelist George Sand (Juliette Binoche) and poet Alfred de Musset (Benoît Magimel).


D'elles (meaning About Them or From Them) is a French-language studio album by Canadian singer Celine Dion, released by Columbia Records on 18 May 2007. It is a concept album which features thirteen songs written by influential female authors from France and Quebec, including: Françoise Dorin, Christine Orban, Nina Bouraoui, Marie Laberge, Lise Payette, Denise Bombardier, Nathalie Nechtschein, Jovette Alice Bernier, Janette Bertrand and George Sand. The themes throughout this album centre on "woman"; the album's title is a play on the title of her earlier album D'eux, replacing the third person plural masculine or neutral pronoun eux with the feminine elles.

The first single, "Et s'il n'en restait qu'une (je serais celle-là)" reached number one in France and number two in Quebec. It was followed by another Quebec top ten single, "Immensité".

D'elles received favorable reviews from music critics, some of whom noticed that it is Dion's most ambitious project in a long time. On the commercial level, the album debuted at number one in Canada and France, and also topped the chart in Belgium Wallonia and reached number three in Switzerland. It was certified two times platinum in Canada, platinum in France, and gold in Belgium and Switzerland.

Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (; French: [ʃɔpɛ̃]; Polish: [ˈʂɔpɛn]; 1 March 1810 – 17 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation."Chopin was born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin in the Duchy of Warsaw and grew up in Warsaw, which in 1815 became part of Congress Poland. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed his earlier works in Warsaw before leaving Poland at the age of 20, less than a month before the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising. At 21, he settled in Paris. Thereafter—in the last 18 years of his life—he gave only 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate atmosphere of the salon. He supported himself by selling his compositions and by giving piano lessons, for which he was in high demand. Chopin formed a friendship with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his other musical contemporaries (including Robert Schumann). In 1835, Chopin obtained French citizenship. After a failed engagement to Maria Wodzińska from 1836 to 1837, he maintained an often troubled relationship with the French writer Amantine Dupin (known by her pen name, George Sand). A brief and unhappy visit to Majorca with Sand in 1838–39 would prove one of his most productive periods of composition. In his final years, he was supported financially by his admirer Jane Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848. For most of his life, Chopin was in poor health. He died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39, probably of pericarditis aggravated by tuberculosis.

All of Chopin's compositions include the piano. Most are for solo piano, though he also wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces, and some 19 songs set to Polish lyrics. His piano writing was technically demanding and expanded the limits of the instrument: his own performances were noted for their nuance and sensitivity. Chopin invented the concept of the instrumental ballade. His major piano works also include mazurkas, waltzes, nocturnes, polonaises, études, impromptus, scherzos, preludes and sonatas, some published only posthumously. Among the influences on his style of composition were Polish folk music, the classical tradition of J.S. Bach, Mozart, and Schubert, and the atmosphere of the Paris salons of which he was a frequent guest. His innovations in style, harmony, and musical form, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period.

Chopin's music, his status as one of music's earliest superstars, his (indirect) association with political insurrection, his high-profile love-life, and his early death have made him a leading symbol of the Romantic era. His works remain popular, and he has been the subject of numerous films and biographies of varying historical fidelity.


Gargilesse-Dampierre is a commune in the Indre department in central France.

It is classified as one of "The most beautiful villages of France" and is situated near the confluence of the Gargilesse stream and the river Creuse. The 19th century writer George Sand lived in the village.

Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (French: [ɡystav flobɛʁ]; 12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist. Highly influential, he has been considered the leading exponent of literary realism in his country. He is known especially for his debut novel Madame Bovary (1857), his Correspondence, and his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. The celebrated short story writer Guy de Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert.

House of George Sand

The House of George Sand is a writer's house museum in the village of Nohant, in the Indre department of France. It was the home of George Sand (born as Aurore Dupin; 1804–1876), a French author, and was purchased by the French state in 1952. The house was preserved because it was where Sand wrote many of her books and hosted some of the most important artists and writers of her time, including Chopin,


Balzac, Turgenev, and Delacroix.

The writer and her family are buried in a small cemetery between the garden and the village church. The gardens are classified by the French Ministry of Culture as among the Notable Gardens of France. The house is open to the public and is managed by the Centre des monuments nationaux.

Impromptu (1991 film)

Impromptu is a 1991 British-American period drama film directed by James Lapine, written by Sarah Kernochan, produced by Daniel A. Sherkow and Stuart Oken, and starring Hugh Grant as Frédéric Chopin and Judy Davis as George Sand. The film was shot entirely on location in France as a British production by an American company. The main location used was at the Chateau des Briottières outside of Angers, in the Loire Valley.

Indiana (novel)

Indiana is a novel about love and marriage written by Amantine Aurore Dupin; it was the first work she published under her pseudonym George Sand. Published in April 1832, the novel blends the conventions of romanticism, realism, and idealism. As the novel is set partly in France and partly in the French colony of Réunion, Sand had to base her descriptions of the colony, where she had never been, on the travel writing of her friend Jules Néraud.

Jules Sandeau

Léonard Sylvain Julien (Jules) Sandeau (French: [sɑ̃do]; 19 February 1811 – 24 April 1883) was a French novelist.

Sandeau was born at Aubusson (Creuse), and was sent to Paris to study law, but spent much of his time in unruly behaviour with other students. He met George Sand, then Madame Dudevant, at Le Coudray in the house of a friend, and when she came to Paris in 1831 they had a relationship. The intimacy did not last long, but it produced Rose et Blanche (1831), a novel written together under the pseudonym J. Sand, from which George Sand took her famous pseudonym.

Sandeau continued to produce novels and plays for nearly fifty years. His major works are:

Marianna (1839), in which he draws a portrait of George Sand

Le Docteur Herbeau (1841)

Catherine (1845)

Mademoiselle de la Seiglière (1848), a successful picture of society under Louis Philippe, dramatized in 1851

Madeleine (1848)

La Chasse au roman (1849)

Sacs et parchemins (1851)

La Maison de Penarvan (1858)

La Roche aux mouettes (1871)The famous play, Le Gendre de M. Poirier, is one of several which he wrote in collaboration with Émile Augier—the novelist usually contributing the story and the dramatist the theatrical form. Sandeau's novels were less popular than his plays.

Sandeau had been made conservateur of the Mazarin library in 1853, elected to the Académie française in 1858, and appointed librarian of St Cloud in 1859. At the suppression of this latter office, after the fall of the Second French Empire, he was pensioned.

Jules Sandeau died in Paris in 1883 and was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse.

La Mare au Diable

La Mare au Diable (The Devil's Pool) is an 1846 novel by George Sand.

La Petite Fadette

La Petite Fadette, also published in English under the titles Little Fadette. A Domestic Story (1849), Fadette. A Domestic Story (1851) and Little Fadette (1967), is an 1849 novel by French novelist George Sand, née Amantine Dupin. Sand wrote the rural story together with François le Champi in the 1840s as she left behind her life as a glamorous writer in Paris to return to the countryside of Châteauroux. The novel is one of Sand's best known today. It was translated into English and published in 1900 by Henry Holt and Company, and an updated critical translation by Gretchen van Slyke was published by Penn State University Press in 2017. A 2004 French television movie was directed by Michaëla Watteaux.

Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand

The Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand was an 1838 unfinished oil-on-canvas painting by French artist Eugène Delacroix. Originally a double portrait, it was later cut in two and sold off as separate pieces. It showed composer Frédéric Chopin (1810–49) playing piano while writer George Sand (1804–76) sits to his right, listening and sewing (a favorite activity of hers). The sitters were lovers at the time, and both were close friends of the artist.The portrait remained in Delacroix's studio until his death. Shortly afterward, it was cut into two separate works, both of which are tightly focused. Chopin's portrait comprises only a head shot, while Sand's shows her upper body but is narrowly cut. This led to the loss of large areas of the original canvas. The reason for the divide is likely the then-owner's belief that two paintings would sell for a higher price than one. Today Chopin's portrait is housed at the Louvre in Paris, while Sand's hangs at Copenhagen's Ordrupgaard Museum.George Sand was a French Romantic novelist, one of the first female French writers to establish an international reputation. She became known for behavior unusual for a woman at the time, including openly conducting affairs, smoking a pipe and wearing men's clothing. Sand had been a friend of Delacroix for a number of years, though the painter did not hold her work in high regard. She met Chopin in 1836 and from 1838 conducted a relationship with him for ten years, until two years before he died. Much of the composer's best work was done during those ten years. Though their relationship began as physical, Chopin's failing health (described in Sand's autobiographical "Winter in

Mallorca") in time changed her role to that of caregiver.

Sand introduced Delacroix to Chopin in 1838, and the two men remained close friends until the composer's death.

The double portrait showed Chopin playing piano while Sand sat and listened. Little is known of the painting's origin or the circumstances of its execution. It is not known whether it was a commission or intended as a gift to the composer. It is known that Delacroix borrowed a piano so that the work could be painted in his studio. The double portrait was not finished, and one of the elements that was not painted was the piano.The Sand canvas is generally seen as the more interesting because, in its original form, it was intended as a counterpoint to the Chopin portrait, not as a stand-alone work. As such, it contravenes many conventions of portraiture. It was usual in 19th-century bust-sized paintings for the subject to be largely static, but here Sand is shown reacting to the music Chopin is playing, and highly animated and energetic in her emotional response.

Revue indépendante

Revue indépendante is a French symbolist journal. The journal was founded in 1841 by George Sand, Pierre Leroux, and Louis Viardot, and is notable for having published such novels as Les Lauriers sont coupés by Édouard Dujardin, En rade by Joris-Karl Huysmans, and Consuelo by George Sand. The magazine is based in Paris. In 1947 it became the official magazine of the Union of Journalists and Writers. Its editor-in-chief is Christian Grégoire. In March 2014 it went on online.

Song Without End

Song Without End, subtitled The Story of Franz Liszt (1960) is a biographical film romance made by Columbia Pictures. It was directed by Charles Vidor, who died during the shooting of the picture and was replaced by George Cukor. It was produced by William Goetz from a screenplay by Oscar Millard, revised (uncredited) by Walter Bernstein and based on screenwriter Oscar Saul's original 1952 script (uncredited). The music score was by Morris Stoloff and Harry Sukman with music by Franz Liszt, and the cinematography by James Wong Howe and Charles Lang (uncredited). The film also features music of those contemporaries of Liszt whom he unselfishly championed by featuring them in his numerous performances (e.g., Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, among others).The film stars Dirk Bogarde as Franz Liszt, Capucine (in her acting debut) as Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, and Geneviève Page as Marie d'Agoult, with Patricia Morison as George Sand, Alexander Davion as Frédéric Chopin, Lyndon Brook as Richard Wagner, Albert Rueprecht as Prince Felix Lichnowsky, Erland Erlandsen as Sigismond Thalberg, Ivan Desny, Martita Hunt, Lou Jacobi, and Marcel Dalio.

Valentine (novel)

Valentine (1832) is a novel published by French author George Sand. This was the second novel published in Sand's career as an independent author, the novel is notable for displaying many of Sand's preoccupations as an emerging novelist: love, social class, greed, liberty, and family ties. Like many of Sand's novels, the novel takes its name from its title character Valentine, who is born into an aristocratic family but falls in love with the peasant farmer, Benedict. Star-crossed lovers belonging to different social classes were to become a major theme in Sand's works, which interrogated what the author perceived as the hypocrisy and rigidity of social norms in the Restoration-period French republic.

George Sand

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