George S. Boutwell

George Sewall Boutwell (January 28, 1818 – February 27, 1905) was an American politician, lawyer, and statesman from Massachusetts. He served as Secretary of the Treasury under U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant, the 20th Governor of Massachusetts, a Senator and Representative from Massachusetts and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue under U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. He was a leader in the impeachment of U.S. President Andrew Johnson.

Boutwell, an abolitionist, is primarily known for his leadership in the formation of the Republican Party, and his championship of African American citizenship and suffrage rights during Reconstruction. As U.S. Representative, he was instrumental in the construction and passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. As Secretary of Treasury, he made needed reforms in the Treasury Department after the chaos of the American Civil War and the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson. He controversially reduced the national debt by selling Treasury gold and using greenbacks to buy up Treasury bonds, a process that created a cash shortage. Boutwell and President Grant thwarted an attempt to corner the gold market in September 1869 by releasing $4,000,000 of gold into the economy. As U.S. Senator, Boutwell sponsored the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

In 1877, President Rutherford B. Hayes appointed Boutwell commissioner to codify the Revised Statutes of the United States and in 1880 to serve as United States counsel before the French and American Claims Commission. He also practiced international law in other diplomatic fora. At the turn of the 20th century, he abandoned the Republican Party, opposed the acquisition of the Philippines, and supported William Jennings Bryan for President.

George Boutwell
George Boutwell, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
March 17, 1873 – March 3, 1877
Preceded byHenry Wilson
Succeeded byGeorge Hoar
28th United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
March 12, 1869 – March 16, 1873
PresidentUlysses S. Grant
Preceded byHugh McCulloch
Succeeded byWilliam Richardson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1863 – March 12, 1869
Preceded byDaniel W. Gooch
Succeeded byGeorge M. Brooks
Commissioner of Internal Revenue
In office
July 17, 1862 – March 4, 1863
PresidentAbraham Lincoln
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byJoseph J. Lewis
20th Governor of Massachusetts
In office
January 11, 1851 – January 14, 1853
LieutenantHenry W. Cushman
Preceded byGeorge N. Briggs
Succeeded byJohn H. Clifford
Personal details
George Sewall Boutwell

January 28, 1818
Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedFebruary 27, 1905 (aged 87)
Groton, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (Before 1855)
Republican (1855–1898)
Spouse(s)Sarah Thayer
George S. Boutwell's signature

Early life

George S. Boutwell was born on January 28, 1818 in Brookline, Massachusetts.[1][2] According to his autobiographical memoir, Boutwell was raised on his family's farm in Lunenburg and attended public schools until the age of seventeen.[3] During the summer months he worked barefooted, tending oxen and picking chestnuts.[4] Boutwell was educated in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and Latin grammar.[5] From 1830 to 1835, Boutwell worked as an apprentice and clerk for Simeon Heywood, who owned a palm leaf hat store.[6] While completing his education, Boutwell worked briefly as a teacher in Pound Hill.[7] Boutwell finished his primary school education in February 1835.[8]

From 1835 to 1838, Boutwell worked as a clerk and shopkeeper in Groton, Massachusetts.[2][9] In 1836, he began to study law under attorney Bradford Russell, whose office was above the store where he clerked. Boutwell did not take the bar exam or enter into active practice until many years later.[2][10] In 1838, the shop owner offered Boutwell a partnership in the shop.[11] While Boutwell ran the store, he began a personal regimen of reading and writing in an effort to make up for having chosen not to attend college.[2][12]

Boutwell made his public career debut in 1839, when he served as a pension agent for widows of the American Revolutionary War, which had ended in 1783. He traveled to Washington D.C. and was impressed after seeing Daniel Webster. After talking with a black slave woman whose youngest child had been sold to Louisiana, Boutwell became dedicated to the anti-slavery cause.[13]

Boutwell married Sarah Adelia Thayer on July 8, 1841. Sarah was the daughter of Nathan Hayler from Hollis, New Hampshire. Their marriage produced two children: Georgianna (May 18, 1843) and Francis (February 26, 1847).[14]

Political career (1839–1861)

Entering politics as a Democrat and supporter of Martin Van Buren, Boutwell was appointed head of the Groton post office by his business partner, who had been appointed postmaster. Boutwell's first entry into elective politics was a successful run for the Groton School Committee as a Temperance Party candidate; he would sit on that committee for many years. The success prompted him to run for the state legislature on the same party's ticket; because the party was a small third party, he lost badly.[15] In 1840, he won the Democratic Party nomination, despite temperance opinions that were "offensive to many", but lost in a Whig landslide.[16] He finally won on the third try, defeating incumbent John Boynton in 1841.[17] He won reelection twice before being defeated in 1844. Although he also lost in 1845, he was returned to the state legislature in the 1846 election, serving from 1847 to 1850.[18] His elective successes, sometimes in the face of major Whig victories statewide, highlighted Boutwell's potential, and brought him into the Democratic Party's leadership circles.[19] He sat on the judiciary and finance committees, where he gained a reputation for thorough research into legislation, and advocated positions favoring free trade, restraint of the money supply, and increased taxes for spending on education and other reforms.[20] He supported the Mexican–American War, which (unlike others) he did not view as a major slavery-related issue.[21]

While in the state House of Representatives, Boutwell ran three times for United States House of Representatives, losing by significant margins to his Whig opponents.[22] In 1848, he was considered for the Democratic nomination for governor, placing third in the nominating convention.[23] In 1849, he was appointed state banking commissioner by Whig Governor George N. Briggs, a position in which he inspected bank charters that were subject to renewal. In this position, he gained a wealth of experience in matters of banking and finance.[24]

Massachusetts Governor

George Sewall Boutwell by Southworth & Hawes, c1851 restored
Boutwell circa 1851.
Daguerreotype by Southworth & Hawes

Throughout the 1840s, the issue of the abolition of slavery grew to become a significant force in Massachusetts politics. Outrage over the extension of slavery into territories acquired in the Mexican–American War increased the popularity of the Free Soil Party, but they and the Democrats were unable to unite to unseat the Whigs who dominated state politics until 1850.[25] In 1849, Boutwell won the Democratic nomination for governor. Because no candidate won a majority, the Whig-controlled legislature decided the election, choosing the incumbent Briggs. The campaign brought Boutwell into close contact with Charles Sumner and Henry Wilson, leaders of the state Free Soil Party. The parties flirted with the idea of a coalition, with the Democrats adopting an antislavery platform.[26]

In 1850, passage of the Compromise of 1850 (in particular, the Fugitive Slave Act) sparked further outrage, and the Democrats and Free Soilers were able to agree to a coalition. On the Democratic side, Boutwell and Nathaniel Prentice Banks agreed with Free Soilers Sumner and Wilson on a division of offices should the coalition win. The key to their success was control of the state legislature, which would decide the election if no gubernatorial candidate won a majority of the popular vote.[27]

Both parties worked to bring out the vote in rural areas sympathetic to their cause. Although Governor Briggs won a plurality of the popular vote (57,000 out of 120,000 votes cast), he did not win a majority, and the legislature was controlled by the coalition. Pursuant to the terms of the deal, Boutwell was elected governor, Banks was made Speaker of the House, and Wilson was elected Senate President. Sumner's election to the U.S. Senate, also part of the bargain, was contested by conservative Democrats, but the coalition eventually prevailed in choosing him.[28] Boutwell was criticized by Free Soilers for taking a hands-off approach to the contentious election of Sumner, neither supporting nor opposing him during the balloting in the state senate. Sumner later accused Boutwell of preventing a more permanent fusion of the two parties.[29]

In the 1851 election, the results were similar, despite efforts by the Whigs to drive wedges between the coalition members, and Boutwell was again elected by the legislature after the Whig candidate won a plurality.[30] That election exposed cracks in the coalition, principally on slavery, so Boutwell decided not stand for reelection in 1852;[31] the Whigs regained control of the legislature, and were able to elect John H. Clifford to the governor's chair.[32]

On May 26, 1851, Boutwell was elected as a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts.[33]

In Boutwell's first term, both houses of the legislature were controlled by the coalition, and a substantial reform agenda was passed. Election by secret ballot was enacted (although the terms did not satisfy all of the secrecy rules of an Australian ballot), as was plurality voting under some conditions.[34] The state legislature's seats were changed from town-based allocations to legislative districts that were not based on town boundaries.[35] Laws governing the issuance of bank charters were streamlined, and the Harvard Board of Overseers was reorganized. Boutwell also engaged in a wholesale reassignment of patronage jobs in the state, which had all been filled with Whigs.[34] In his second term, Whigs controlled the House of Representatives, and were thus able to thwart most of the reform agenda. Boutwell's call to increase taxes for spending on education, prisons, and mental hospitals went unheeded, but the legislature was able to pass a call for a constitutional convention to discuss long-standing demands for changes to the state constitution. A "Maine law" temperance reform bill was also approved, but Boutwell was criticized by the Whigs for vetoing the first version of it and then signing the second, allegedly under pressure from Free Soilers.[36]

Constitutional Convention and Republican Party

Boutwell was elected a delegate to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1853. He opposed the election of judges and the abolition of the Governor's Council, and supported the elimination of any poll tax requirements for voting. He served on the committee responsible for drafting the proposals that were submitted to the voters for approval, and was disappointed when all of those proposals were rejected in the statewide referendum that followed the convention.[37]

After the convention, Boutwell took up the study of law in the office of Joel Giles, a patent lawyer from Groton. He was retained by Middlesex County to oppose the formation of a new county out of parts of western Middlesex and northern Worcester Counties. He helped found the Groton Public Library, and continued to be active on the Groton School Committee. In 1855, he was appointed secretary of the state Board of Education, a post he would hold for five years.[39] Boutwell's law studies concluded when he was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1862.[40]

In the aftermath of the coalition breakup in 1852 and the failure of the 1853 convention, Massachusetts political parties broke down into factional interests. In August 1855, four major factions were holding meetings in a Boston hotel, attempting to find common ground for the upcoming state election. Boutwell convinced the groups to attend a grand meeting, at which he argued that they should form a "union against slavery". Out of this and related activity the state's Republican Party was born.[41] Despite his role in its early formation, Boutwell remained somewhat apart from the organization because of his job at the Board of Education. He did however continue to speak out against slavery, noting that the nation was embarking on a "period of intense trial", and that "people will make war" over slavery.[42] In 1860 he chaired the Republican state convention, and openly supported Republican candidates for office.[43]

Early Civil War years

Boutwell attended the Peace Conference of 1861 in Washington, D.C. which attempted to prevent the impending Civil War, and served as a liaison between the federal government and Massachusetts Governor John Albion Andrew in April 1861.[44] In the peace conference, he angrily rejected Southern proposals favoring the extension of slavery and its enforcement in northern states, arguing that "the Union is not worth preserving" if such measures are needed to do so.[45]

In June and July 1862, Boutwell served on a military commission in the Department of War, investigating irregularities in the quartermaster's department of General John C. Frémont, who commanded the Union Army's Department of the West. Assistant Quartermaster Reuben Hatch, whose brother was a political supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, had been defrauding the department, and the commission was established on Lincoln's order to forestall a court martial.[46] Boutwell spent two months in the army camp at Cairo, Illinois, under conditions he described as "disagreeable to an extent that cannot be realized easily" because of flooding and unsanitary conditions.[47] The commission cleared Hatch.[48]

In July 1862, while he was still in Cairo, Boutwell was appointed the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue by President Lincoln. He spent his eight months in that post organizing the new Internal Revenue Bureau.[49] He was described by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase as having the "highest obtainable ability and integrity", and oversaw the growth of the bureau to some 4,000 employees; it was the largest single office department in the government.[50]

Boutwell decided in 1862 to run for the United States Congress. The campaign was dominated by the issue of emancipation, which Boutwell strongly advocated. He won a comfortable (55%-40%) victory over Charles R. Train, a conservative former Republican. He resigned as internal revenue commissioner early in 1863.[51]

U.S. Congressman

Johnson Impeachment Committee
The Johnson Impeachment Committee, c. 1868 (photo by Mathew Brady

Boutwell came to the House of Representatives already celebrated for his financial expertise, and quickly gained a national reputation as a Radical Republican.[49] A reporter noted that with his first day of service on a committee, he became recognized as one of the most promising freshmen. "A practical matter-of-fact man," the journalist wrote. "A dark skinned man, dark-eyed, dark-haired, thin in the flank, vigilant, self-contained, quiet; giving you the impression that he would wake up quick and in strength. A speech from him is premeditated logic of inwoven facts and figures, delivered in a magnetic current which flows to the nerves of every man in his audience, however great he may be, and which penetrates through and through. It is impossible to escape impression from Boutwell's debate. As an adversary he would be fatal to a bad cause, formidable to a good one -- as an ally he is a tower of strength."[52]

African-American civil rights

In July 1862, during a period when Northern antipathy toward the prospect of northward migration of freed slaves was at its height,[53] Boutwell gave a speech on the capitol grounds in which he advocated freedom for African-American slaves because it would keep them out of the North. He even urged Lincoln to dedicate the states of South Carolina and Florida for American blacks: "I have heard that in the city of Brooklyn...there was a riot between the free white laborers and colored men...What is the solution to this difficulty?...Freedom to the blacks. Then will they go from the North to the free territories of the South, to which by nature they belong. [Lincoln] should have made South Carolina and Florida free...I would praise God...if to-night I could hear, by the President's proclamation, that South Carolina and Florida were free and dedicated to the black population of the country. The competition with the white laborers of the North would cease."[54]

On July 4, 1865, after the Civil War ended, Boutwell gave a speech that advocated African American suffrage, echoing Thomas Jefferson's principal view from the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal."[55] He envisioned the postwar United States as a nation of equality where both whites and blacks could have the vote side by side, and believed that African American suffrage would secure the nation as well as protect African Americans.[56]

Boutwell served on the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, which framed the Fourteenth Amendment that gave African American freedmen citizenship and established the inviolability of the United States Public Debt. He advocated the Fifteenth Amendment that gave full suffrage rights to male African Americans.[49] "Mr. Boutwell is the last survivor of the Puritans of a bygone age," the French reporter Georges Clemenceau informed his readers, "a man after the heart of John Bunyan, too much of a fanatic to command the attention of the Senate, but too honest and sincere for his opinions to be ignored by his party."[57]

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Boutwell opposed the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson from the first weeks of his administration. Arguing that any remaking of the former Confederate governments must begin with steps to open the electorate to blacks as well as whites, he warned that black rights and loyal Unionists' safety could be protected in no other way. In time, he turned into one of the most militant advocates of Johnson's impeachment,[49] and by far the most respected of them. Unlike his colleagues, a hostile observer wrote, he brought to the cause "the advantage of a cultivated mind, an extensive reading and a scholarly acquaintance with all of history that could be mustered into such a service."[58] In December 1867, he made the case for impeaching the president without charging him with having committed actual crimes — contending, in effect, that impeachment was a political, and not just a judicial process.[59] (He did not expect impeachment to pass and did not foresee the Senate convicting Johnson; what he hoped for, instead, was a statement on the House's part that the president had committed high crimes and misdemeanors, in effect a resolution of censure).[60] The House did not agree, but two months later, in February 1868, Johnson's removal of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton (in contravention of a law drafted by Stanton and Boutwell requiring Senate confirmation of such acts) united Republicans behind a resolution of impeachment. Boutwell chaired the committee that drafted the articles of impeachment,[49] and presented them to the House for debate.[61] He was chosen as one of the managers of the impeachment proceedings that followed.[62]

The bulk of the trial work was handled by fellow Massachusetts Congressman Benjamin F. Butler, although all seven managers were involved in developing the case against Johnson.[63] Boutwell was given the honor of giving the first closing speech (all seven managers, and five defense lawyers, spoke). His speech was not particularly notable for its rhetoric, but defense lawyer William Evarts seized on Boutwell's strained analogy of casting Johnson into deep space to provoke significant laughter and applause.[64] The impeachment failed by a single vote.[65]

U.S. Secretary of Treasury

Ulysses S. Grant seated by Brady (cropped)
President Grant 1869

Boutwell was given serious consideration for a place in the cabinet of President-elect Ulysses S. Grant, and is reported to have declined the Interior Department. Within a week of the inauguration in 1869, Grant's first choice for the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander T. Stewart, was found ineligible, and the President had to look for a replacement. Republicans on Capitol Hill, feeling that the cabinet as a whole was weak in members combining Washington experience with solid party credentials, joined to urge him to accept Boutwell, and, tendered the Treasury portfolio, Boutwell accepted.[66] (His selection caused some embarrassment to Grant's Attorney General, Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, who was himself from Massachusetts: by custom, no state was allowed more than one Cabinet seat, and Hoar offered to retire. Grant refused the offer, but a year later, without warning or explanation, sent a messenger demanding his resignation).[67][68] The business community hailed Boutwell's selection. The news of his appointment created an immediate jump in government bonds on the money markets. "Nor is this to be wondered at," the Commercial and Financial Chronicle commented, "for Mr. Boutwell is well known as an earnest advocate of conservative financial reform. That he is an able administrative officer he gave conspicuous proofs when in 1862 he was entrusted with the organization of the new Internal Revenue Bureau."[69] Boutwell, at that time popular for his two impeachment attempts of President Johnson, was easily confirmed by the Republican-controlled Senate. Secretary Boutwell often acted independently of President Grant and took on a haughty attitude toward other Cabinet members.[70] Secretary of State Hamilton Fish noted that Boutwell was frequently evasive, noncommittal, and gave "no reasons, and rarely indicates or explains anything of his policy."[71]

BOUTWELL, George S-Treasury (BEP engraved portrait)
Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Boutwell as Secretary of the Treasury.

Reforms (1869)

After the chaos of the Civil War, the Treasury Department was disorganized and needed reform. The controversy between President Johnson over Reconstruction and the impeachment trial in the Senate in 1868, forestalled any reforms in the Treasury Department. As Treasury Secretary, Boutwell's primary achievements were reorganizing and reforming the Treasury Department, improving bookkeeping by customs houses, incorporating the United States Mint into the Treasury and reducing the national debt.

Gold panic (1869)

Following in line with the Republican Party national platform of 1868, Secretary Boutwell advocated reduction of national debt and the return of the nation's economy to one based on gold. Boutwell believed that the stabilization of the currency and the reduction of the national debt was more important than risking a depression by withdrawing greenbacks from the economy. On his own, without approval or knowledge of either President Grant or other Cabinet members, Boutwell began to release gold from the Treasury and sell government bonds, in order to reduce the supply of greenbacks (paper currency) in the economy. The result of this policy was that gold prices declined and the national debt was reduced. However, it also created a deflationary economy, in which farmers had trouble obtaining needed cash to pay for their farming activity.[72]

During the summer of 1869, two gold speculators, Jay Gould and James Fisk plotted to corner the gold market, by buying it, and by influencing President Grant to stop Boutwell's gold releases. Gould and Fisk initially told Grant that a higher gold price would help farmers sell more goods overseas, but Grant was not convinced.[73] However, when harvests were reported to be good, Grant changed his mind, telling Boutwell to stop releasing gold at the beginning of September 1869.[74] Gould successfully maneuvered an informant, Daniel Butterfield, into a post as assistant to Boutwell, and began buying gold in earnest, sending the price up.[75] Grant was alerted to the attempt to corner the market by a courier-delivered letter from his brother-in-law Abel Corbin, who was in the gold ring, urging that the government refrain from selling gold.[76] Grant met with Boutwell on Thursday, September 22, and they decided the government should step in.[77] On September 23, 1869, the Gold Panic reached its climax: Secretary Boutwell ordered the release of $4 million of Treasury gold, but not before Jay Gould (alerted via First Lady Julia Grant and Corbin) had managed to sell off some of his holdings. The price rapidly dropped from $160 to $135, creating panic among gold speculators.[78] Brokerage houses were bankrupted and personal fortunes were lost, and the stock market was skittish for a year afterward.[79] An investigation by Congress headed by Representative James A. Garfield exonerated both Grant and Boutwell in 1870. Boutwell's assistant, Daniel Butterfield, was fired by President Grant for releasing inside information to Gould concerning the Treasury Department's releases of gold.

National debt (1870)

Boutwell opposed a rapid lowering of taxes and favored using surplus revenues to make a large reduction of the national debt. At his recommendation, Congress in 1870 passed an act providing for the funding of the national debt and authorizing the selling of certain bonds, but did not authorize an increase of the debt. In order to implement the restrictive law, Boutwell set up a banking syndicate to buy newly issued bonds at 4% and 5% in order to pay back Civil War bonds initially sold at 6%; that would alleviate the national debt.[80] In order to implement the banking syndicate, Boutwell had to temporarily raise the national debt more than half of one per cent, for which he was accused of technically violating the law. The House Committee of Ways and Means afterward absolved him of this charge.[2]

Boutwell had sought finance some of the debt reduction through the placement of loans in Europe.[81] This idea was complicated by Civil War claims against the United Kingdom (the so-called Alabama Claims emanating from British support for the CSS Alabama and other Confederate privateers), and then by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War shortly after the financing bill was passed.[82] The latter prevented placement of offers in mainland European financial centers, and the unresolved Alabama issues prevented their placement in London.[83] Political pressure on both sides of the Atlantic resulted in the 1871 Treaty of Washington, after which Boutwell floated a loan in London.[84] The first loan offer unravelled, however, because Boutwell offered it to too many banks, but a second, reorganized attempt led by financier Jay Cooke succeeded in raising over $100 million. It was the first time an American bank successfully engaged in this type of international transaction.[85]

Ku Klux Klan bill (1871)

Mississippi ku klux
Mississippi Ku Klux Klan in costume arrested in 1871

Secretary Boutwell did not forget the plight of African Americans in the South who were subject to violence perpetrated by white Southerners, particularly the Ku Klux Klan. African Americans and loyal white Republicans were under attack in several Reconstructed states by the Klan. Congress responded, under the leadership of Benjamin Butler in the House of Representatives, and passed what was known as the Ku Klux Klan Act in 1871. Grant had signed two previous "force bills" to protect African Americans and having found that violence in the South continued to be rampant he decided to sign the third force bill that gave the President the power to suspend habeas corpus. Grant was initially reluctant to sign the bill, fearing he would acquire a reputation as a military dictator in the South.[86] However, Secretary Boutwell, while traveling with President Grant to Capitol Hill, encouraged Grant to sign the bill, pointing out the many violent atrocities taking place in the South.[86] Grant promoted passage of the bill, and then signed it into law.[86] He afterwards used the law to suspend habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties, and ordered the arrest and prosecution of Klan members.[87]

U.S. Senator

In 1873, when Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson was elected to the vice presidency, Boutwell announced his intention to resign as Treasury Secretary, and made himself a candidate for the Senate vacancy. With support from Benjamin Butler and federal appointees working for Butler's machine, Boutwell defeated the candidate from the western end of the state, moderate Congressman Henry Laurens Dawes.[88] A major campaign issues between Boutwell and Dawes was the Credit Mobilier scandal, in which both Boutwell and Dawes were accused of receiving undervalued stock from Congressman and financier Oakes Ames.[89][90] Both men had received shares, but Dawes returned his along with most of the realized profits. The support of Boutwell by Butler was also disliked by the Massachusetts Republican establishment, which had come to despise Butler's tactics and politics.

Butler, who was hoping to run for governor in the fall of 1873, assumed that he could count on Boutwell's support. However, the senator refused to involve himself in the governor's race, and Butler was beaten for the Republican nomination after a bitter campaign. The following winter, the president nominated Butler's ally William Simmons for the Collectorship of the Port of Boston, the most powerful federal patronage position in Massachusetts, Boutwell at first promised to fight it and then caved in under pressure from the Grant administration, permitting confirmation.[91] This deal guaranteed that Massachusetts Republicans most opposed to Butler and what they called "Butlerism" would keep Boutwell from being re-elected in 1877.

In the Senate, Boutwell served as chairman of the Committee on the Revision of the Laws in the 44th Congress. He took a strong stand for "honest money," a currency not re-flated with paper money, and voted against the so-called Inflation Bill of 1874. He also remained a strong supporter of federal protection for black voters in the South, backing the 1875 Civil Rights Law, which banned discrimination by common carriers and in public accommodations. He also favored high tariffs, a position of mixed favor in Massachusetts, which had some dependence on imports but also exported manufactured goods.

Boutwell was appointed in 1876 to head a special Senate committee to investigate the Mississippi elections of 1875. These elections were accompanied by significant orchestrated violence aimed at preventing African Americans from voting, and resulted in the return of Democrats to power there. Boutwell's commission documented the violence and atrocities that took place, but no federal action was taken to prevent a recurrence in the 1876 elections.[92]

Later career

After leaving the Senate, President Rutherford B. Hayes appointed Boutwell in 1877 to prepare an updated edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States. This work entailed updating the law books to reflect changes made since 1873; Boutwell also reflected changes to the laws implied by all of the United States Supreme Court decisions to date. The updated work was published in 1878.[93]

Boutwell during the 1880s and 1890s practiced international and patent law from offices in Boston and Washington, D.C. His business included working for the United States and other national governments as counsel to several bilateral diplomatic commissions. In the first, running from 1880 to 1884, he represented the US in regard to claims involving France which mostly emanated from the Civil War. He next served as counsel for Haiti (1885), and then again for the US on a commission with Chile (1893–94), which addressed claims against both governments most of whose origins were in either the War of the Pacific or the Chilean Civil War of 1891.[94] In 1881, Boutwell turned down the appointment of Secretary of the Treasury from President Chester A. Arthur. He served for a time as a legal representative for the Kingdom of Hawaii, whose acquisition by the US he opposed.[95]

In the late 1890s, Boutwell became increasingly disenchanted with the imperialist foreign policy of President William McKinley, and left the Republican Party after the annexation of the Philippines following the 1898 Spanish–American War.[96] He was a founder and the first president of the American Anti-Imperialist League, an organization opposed to American expansion. He campaigned against McKinley in the 1900, and was a presidential elector for the Democratic ticket of William Jennings Bryan.[97][98] He would promote Philippine independence until his death.[99]


Boutwell died in Groton on February 27, 1905, and is buried at Groton Cemetery.[99][100] He was memorialized in a major celebration at Faneuil Hall, Boston, on April 18, 1905.[99] His house in the center of Groton, built in 1851 while he was governor, was given to the Groton Historical Society by his daughter, Georgianna. It now serves as the society's headquarters and is open in the summer as a museum. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Gov. George S. Boutwell House.[35]


Boutwell published several books on education, taxation and political economy. His works include the following:


  1. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 1
  2. ^ a b c d e Appletons (1900)
  3. ^ Boutwell (1902), pp. 2, 7, 19
  4. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 7
  5. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, pp. 18-19
  6. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 20
  7. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, pp. 31-32
  8. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, pp. 24-32
  9. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 33
  10. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 40
  11. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol 1., p. 47
  12. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 48
  13. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol 1., pp. 50-54
  14. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. xxiii
  15. ^ Brown, p. 15
  16. ^ Brown, p. 16
  17. ^ Brown, p. 17
  18. ^ Brown, pp. 19–23
  19. ^ Brown, pp. 21–22
  20. ^ Brown, pp. 22–23, 25
  21. ^ Brown, p. 24
  22. ^ Brown, pp. 22–25
  23. ^ Brown, p. 25
  24. ^ Brown, p. 26
  25. ^ Hart, pp. 4:336–340, 473
  26. ^ Brown, pp. 27–28
  27. ^ Hart, pp. 4:473–476
  28. ^ Hart, pp. 4:476–478
  29. ^ Brown, pp. 36–37
  30. ^ Hart, p. 4:481
  31. ^ Brown, pp. 39–40
  32. ^ Holt, p. 762
  33. ^ Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of (1893). Annual Record of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts.
  34. ^ a b Brown, p. 38
  35. ^ a b "NRHP nomination for Gov. George S. Boutwell House". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2013-09-17.
  36. ^ Brown, pp. 40–42
  37. ^ Brown, pp. 47–48
  38. ^ Brown, p. 53
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 49–50
  40. ^ Cicarelli, p. 31
  41. ^ Brown, p. 50
  42. ^ Brown, p. 51
  43. ^ Brown, pp. 52–53
  44. ^ Pearson, p. 1:202
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 58–59
  46. ^ Potter, pp. 32–37
  47. ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 293
  48. ^ Potter, p. 37
  49. ^ a b c d e Cicarelli, p. 32
  50. ^ Brown, pp. 61–62
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 62–63
  52. ^ New York Tribune,July 8, 1864.
  53. ^ Voegele, pp. 768-769
  54. ^ Boutwell (1867), pp. 176-177
  55. ^ Boutwell (1867), p. 372
  56. ^ Boutwell (1867), pp. 372-402
  57. ^ Clemenceau, p. 178
  58. ^ "Mack," Cincinnati Commercial, December 11, 1867.
  59. ^ "D. W. B.," New York Independent, December 12, 1867.
  60. ^ Cincinnati Gazette, December 6, 1867.
  61. ^ Stewart, pp. 75, 109–111, 135–158
  62. ^ Stewart, p. 159
  63. ^ Stewart, pp. 181–218
  64. ^ Stewart, pp. 230–235
  65. ^ Stewart, pp. 273–278
  66. ^ Ackerman, pp. 88-92
  67. ^ Storey & Emerson, pp. 165-171
  68. ^ McFeely, p. 365
  69. ^ New York Commercial and Financial Chronicle, March 13, 1869.
  70. ^ Ackerman, p. 90
  71. ^ Brown, p. 91
  72. ^ Ackerman, pp. 90-91
  73. ^ Craughwell, pp. 58-59
  74. ^ Craughwell, p. 61
  75. ^ Craughwell, pp. 61-63
  76. ^ Craughwell, pp. 61-62
  77. ^ Craughwell, p. 63
  78. ^ Craughwell, pp. 63-65
  79. ^ Craughwell, pp. 67-68
  80. ^ Strouse, p. 148
  81. ^ Sexton, p. 201
  82. ^ Sexton, pp. 202, 206–209
  83. ^ Sexton, p. 211
  84. ^ Sexton, pp. 212–217
  85. ^ Sexton, pp. 217–220
  86. ^ a b c Cicarelli, p. 33
  87. ^ Williams, p. 46
  88. ^ Brown, p. 96
  89. ^ Rhodes, p. 9
  90. ^ Josephson, pp. 92-93
  91. ^ Rhodes, p. 24
  92. ^ Jenkins and Stauffer, pp. 276–278
  93. ^ Wang, pp. 207–208
  94. ^ Brown, p. 109
  95. ^ Brown, pp. 107, 109
  96. ^ Brown, pp. 115–116
  97. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boutwell, George Sewall" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  98. ^ Brown, p. 117
  99. ^ a b c Brown, p. 119
  100. ^ Commemorative Exercises, p. 2
  101. ^ Kingsley, William L. (1863). "Pamphlets Received". The New Englander. Vol. XXII no. 4. A. H. Maltby. p. 851.


  • Ackerman, Kenneth (2011) [1988]. The gold ring : Jim Fisk, Jay Gould, and Black Friday, 1869. Falls Church, VA: Viral History Press. ISBN 9781619450059. OCLC 858981508.
  • Boutwell, George S (1867). Speeches and Papers relating to the Rebellion and the Overthrow of Slavery. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 85888253.
  • Boutwell, George S (1902). Reminiscences of Sixty Years in Public Affairs. New York: McLure, Phillips & Co. OCLC 497975. (Volume 1, Volume 2)
  • Brown, Thomas H (1989). George Sewall Boutwell, Human Rights Advocate. Groton, MA: Groton Historical Society. ISBN 9780866100687. OCLC 21376428.
  • Cicarelli, Julianne (1996). "George S. Boutwell". Biographical Dictionary of the United States Secretaries of the Treasury: 1789–1995. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 539–541. ISBN 9780313280122. OCLC 243857795.
  • Clemenceau, Georges (1969) [1928]. American Reconstruction. New York: Da Capo. OCLC 300281122.
  • Commemorative Exercises in Connection with the Erection of a Memorial Tablet to George Sewall Boutwell in Groton Cemetery May Fifteenth, 1908. Boston: unknown. 1908. OCLC 820622.
  • Craughwell, Thomas (2013). Presidential payola : the true stories of monetary scandals in the Oval Office that robbed tax payers to grease palms, stuff pockets, and pay for undue influence from Teapot Dome to Halliburton. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press.
  • Hart, Albert Bushnell (1927). Commonwealth History of Massachusetts. New York: The States History Company. OCLC 1543273. (five volume history of Massachusetts until the early 20th century)
  • Holt, Michael (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195055443. OCLC 231788473.
  • Jenkins, Sally; Stauffer, John (2010). The State of Jones: The Small Southern County that Seceded from the Confederacy. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 9780767929462. OCLC 637127345.
  • Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons. New York: Harcourt Brace. ISBN 9780547544366. OCLC 556756268.
  • McFeely, William S (1981). Grant: A Biography. New York: W W Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-01372-3.
  • Pearson, Henry (1904). The Life of John Albion Andrew. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 1453615.
  • Potter, Jerry (1992). The Sultana Tragedy: America's Greatest Maritime Disaster. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. ISBN 9780882898612. OCLC 24318094.
  • Rhodes, James Ford (1910). History of the United States: from the compromise of 1850 to the final restoration of home rule at the south in 1877, Volume 7. New York: Macmillan.
  • Sexton, Jay (2005). Debtor Diplomacy: Finance and American Foreign Relations in the Civil War Era, 1837–1873. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 9781429470940. OCLC 138700962.
  • Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84927-5.
  • Stewart, David (2009). Impeached: The Trial of President Andrew Johnson and the Fight for Lincoln's Legacy. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781416547495.
  • Storey, Moorfield; Emerson, Edward W (1911). Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar: A Memoir. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 2040488.
  • Strouse, Jeane (1999). Morgan: American Financier. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780375501661. OCLC 39484870.

Voegele, V. Jacque (November 2003). "A Rejected Alternative: Union Policy and the Relocation of Southern "Contrabands" at the Dawn of Emancipation". Journal of Southern History (Volume 69, No. 4): 765–790. JSTOR 30040096.

Further reading

  • Domer, Thomas (December 1976). "The Role of George S. Boutwell in the Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson". New England Quarterly (49): 596–617. JSTOR 364736.
  • "George Sewall Boutwell". Dictionary of American Biography. New York, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1936.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Caleb Cushing
Democratic nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
1849, 1850, 1851
Succeeded by
Henry W. Bishop
Political offices
Preceded by
George N. Briggs
Governor of Massachusetts
Succeeded by
John H. Clifford
Preceded by
Hugh McCulloch
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Succeeded by
William Richardson
Government offices
New office Commissioner of Internal Revenue
Succeeded by
Joseph J. Lewis
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Daniel W. Gooch
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 7th congressional district

Succeeded by
George M. Brooks
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Henry Wilson
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts
Served alongside: Charles Sumner, William B. Washburn, Henry L. Dawes
Succeeded by
George Hoar
American Anti-Imperialist League

Not to be confused with World Anti-Imperialist League of Comintern

The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. The anti-imperialists opposed expansion, believing that imperialism violated the fundamental principle that just republican government must derive from "consent of the governed." The League argued that such activity would necessitate the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and non-intervention—ideals expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence, George Washington's Farewell Address and Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The Anti-Imperialist League was ultimately defeated in the battle of public opinion by a new wave of politicians who successfully advocated the virtues of American territorial expansion in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War and in the first years of the 20th century.

American Association for the Promotion of Social Science

The American Association for the Promotion of Social Science (est.1865) was founded in Boston, Massachusetts, by several high-profile academics. Officers in the first years of the society included William B. Rogers, Thomas Hill, George S. Boutwell, Francis Lieber, Erastus O. Haven, Mary Eliot Parkman, David A. Wells, Emory Washburn, Caroline Healey Dall, Samuel Eliot, F. B. Sanborn, Joseph White, George Walker, Theodore W. Dwight, and James J. Higginson.In 1865 the group intended "to aid the development of social science, and to guide the public mind to the best practical means of promoting the amendment of laws, the advancement of education, the prevention and repression of crime, the reformation of criminals, and the progress of public morality, the adoption of sanitary regulations, and the diffusion of sound principles on questions of economy, trade, and finance. It will give attention to pauperism, and the topics related thereto ; including the responsibility of the well-endowed and successful, the wise and educated, the honest and respectable, for the failures of others. It will aim to bring together the various societies and individuals now interested in these objects, for the purpose of obtaining by discussion the real elements of truth; by which doubts are removed, conflicting opinions harmonized, and a common ground afforded for treating wisely the great social problems of the day."The society divided itself into departments of inquiry (education; health; jurisprudence; economy, trade and finance) and laid out research questions to guide collection of the most pertinent "data required." The questions proposed for research reflected key issues of the time in American society: national debt and a national currency; taxation and revenue; labor and capital; hasty and excessive legislation; crime and punishment; the province of law in regard to education, public health, and social morals; education of neglected and vicious children; relative value of classical and scientific instruction in schools and colleges; fine arts in education and industry; half-time system of instruction; quarantine considered in its relation to cholera; the tenement house; inspection of food and drugs; pork as an article of food; sewerage of great cities; and management of hospitals and insane asylums."Meetings took place in Boston at the State House (Oct. 1865) and the Lowell Institute (Dec. 1865); and in New York at the YMCA on 5th Ave. (Nov. 1867). In 1866 the group joined with the "Boston Social Science Association" to form a joint committee called the "American Social Science Association" (ASSA); the committee met in Boston's city hall to discuss school reform and other matters. "The first annual meeting of the ASSA ... was ... held [in] 1868."

Anti-Moiety Acts

President Ulysses S. Grant signed a series of laws during his first and second terms that limited the number of special tax agents and prevented or reduced the collection of delinquent taxes under a commissions or moiety system. The public outcry over the Sanborn incident caused the Grant administration to abolish the practice of appointing special treasury agents to collect commissions or moieties on delinquent taxes.

Black Friday (1869)

The Black Friday, September 24, 1869, gold panic was caused by the efforts of two investors, Jay Gould and his partner James Fisk, also called the Gold Ring, to corner the gold market on the New York Gold Exchange. The scandal took place during the Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant, whose policy was to sell Treasury gold at weekly intervals to pay off the national debt, stabilize the dollar, and boost the economy. The country had gone through tremendous upheaval during the Civil War and was not yet fully restored. This period, known as the Gilded Age, was a time of great industrial growth which invited much investment and speculation.

Abel Corbin, a small time speculator, married Virginia Grant, the younger sister of President Grant. After the marriage, Gould and Fisk approached Corbin, taking advantage of his brother-in-law relationship with the president, and persuaded Corbin to introduce them to Grant. Gould and Fisk hoped that befriending the President would get them privy information about up and coming government gold sales—information with which they manipulated the market. It worked, resulting in a scandal that undermined the credibility of Grant's presidency and the national economy. Gould and Fisk used their personal appearances with Grant to gain clout on Wall Street in addition to using their insider information.

During the first week of September, Grant's Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell received a letter from Grant telling him gold sales would be harmful to Western farmers, a notion planted by Gould and Fisk. Boutwell suspended Treasury gold sales. At the same time, Gould and Fisk began buying gold at Gould's New York Gold Room, raising the price of gold. After learning about the nature of their scheme, Grant ordered the release of $4 million in gold on Friday September 24. Grant's move drove down the price of gold, crushing the Gold Ring's corner on the market. A panic on Wall Street ensued and the country went through a few months of economic turmoil. Thanks to Grant's efforts, as well as of his administration, a national depression was averted. Gould and Fisk hired the best defense available. Favored by Tweed Ring judges, the conspiratorial partners escaped prosecution. An 1870 government investigation, headed by James A. Garfield, exonerated Grant of any illicit involvement in the conspiracy.


Boutwell may refer to:

Boutwell Creek, a stream in Minnesota

USCGC Boutwell (WHEC-719), a U.S. Coast Guard vessel

George S. Boutwell, American statesman

John W. Boutwell, recipient of the Medal of Honor for valor

Lo Boutwell, American football player

Tommy Boutwell, American football player

Charles Pinckney James

Charles Pinckney James (May 11, 1818 – August 9, 1899) was a United States federal judge.

Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, James graduated from Harvard College in 1838. He was in private practice in Cincinnati, Ohio from 1840 to 1850, and was a Professor of law, Cincinnati College, Cincinnati, Ohio from 1850 to 1856. He was judge of the Superior Court of Cincinnati from 1850 till 1851. He was in private practice in Washington, DC from 1864 to 1879, also working as a professor of law at Georgetown University from 1870 to 1874.

James substantially contributed to the Revised Statutes of the United States during the 1870s. He was appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1866 and re-appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1870 as one of three commissioners tasked to revise and consolidate existing federal statutes. The first edition of the Revised Statutes was adopted by Congress in 1874. In 1877, commissioner George S. Boutwell prepared the second edition of the Revised Statutes with the assistance of James. James appears to have been the only person to have worked on both the first and second editions of the Revised Statutes.

On July 24, 1879, James received a recess appointment from President Rutherford B. Hayes to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Columbia vacated by David C. Humphreys. Formally nominated on December 1, 1879, James was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 10, 1879, and received his commission the same day. He retired from the bench on December 1, 1892. He died in Leesburg, Virginia, in 1899 at the age of 81.

Ebenezer R. Hoar

Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar (February 21, 1816 – January 31, 1895) was an American politician, lawyer, and justice from Massachusetts. He was appointed U.S. Attorney General in 1869 by President Ulysses S. Grant; he became the first U.S. Attorney General to head the newly created Department of Justice in July 1870. As Attorney General Hoar worked with President Ulysses S. Grant and Secretary of State Hamilton Fish over contentious issues as settling the Alabama Claims with England and in keeping the United States from recognizing Cuban belligerency during the Ten Years' War. Hoar assisted Grant in appointing two Supreme Court justices that helped overturn a decision outlawing paper money as legal tender. Hoar himself, nominated by President Grant, was rejected by the Senate to fill a Supreme Court vacancy, in part due to senators' dismay over Hoar's resistance to distribution of federal patronage jobs without regard to the job applicant's capabilities.

Hoar's position on Grant's Cabinet was tenuous, since two Cabinet members, Secretary of the Treasury, George S. Boutwell and Hoar, were from Massachusetts, during an era when regionally balanced cabinets were an expected norm by members of the U.S. Senate. In June 1870, Hoar was asked to resign by President Grant; Hoar's unexpected resignation became controversial when his resignation letter to Grant was printed by news journals. Hoar departed from office in November 1870, upon the confirmation of Amos T. Akerman from Georgia.

Hoar came from a prominent Puritan family that had settled in Massachusetts in 1640. An exceptionally bright student from his youth, Hoar attended Harvard College starting in 1831 and graduated in 1835. After teaching and traveling in the West, Hoar returned to Concord and studied law, passing the bar in 1839. In 1846, Hoar was elected as a Whig to the Massachusetts State Senate. From 1849 to 1855, Hoar served on the Massachusetts court of common pleas. In 1859, Hoar was appointed to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, serving until his appointment as U.S. Attorney General in 1869. In 1871, Hoar was appointed by Grant to the United States joint high commission, that negotiated the Treaty of Washington, in May, between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, which created an arbitration tribunal to settle the Alabama Claims and boundary disputes.

Hoar was a member of the Harvard College Board of Overseers from 1868 to 1882. In 1872, Hoar was elected as a Republican to the 43rd Congress, serving from 1873 to 1875. After his term as Congressman ended Hoar returned to his law practice in Concord and Boston, Massachusetts, working until his death in 1895.

George Frisbie Hoar

George Frisbie Hoar (August 29, 1826 – September 30, 1904) was a prominent American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1877 to 1904. He was a member of an extended family that was politically prominent in 18th and 19th century New England.

George M. Brooks

George Merrick Brooks (July 26, 1824 – September 22, 1893) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.

Born in Concord, Massachusetts, Brooks attended an academy in Concord and a boarding school at Waltham.

He graduated from Harvard University in 1844.

He studied law.

He was admitted to the bar in 1847 and commenced practice in Concord.

He served as member of the State house of representatives in 1858.

He served in the State senate in 1859.

Brooks was elected as a Republican to the Forty-first Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of George S. Boutwell.

He was reelected to the Forty-second Congress and served from November 2, 1869, to May 13, 1872, when he resigned, having been appointed to a judicial position.

He served as judge of probate for Middlesex County and served until his death in Concord, Massachusetts, September 22, 1893.

He was interred in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery.

George N. Briggs

George Nixon Briggs (April 12, 1796 – September 12, 1861) was an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts. A Whig, Briggs served for twelve years in the United States House of Representatives, and served seven one-year terms as the 19th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1844 to 1851.

Raised in rural Upstate New York, Briggs studied law in western Massachusetts, where his civic involvement and successful legal practice preceded statewide political activity. He was elected to Congress in 1830, where he supported the conservative Whig agenda, serving on the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads. He was also a regular advocate of temperance, abstaining from all alcohol consumption.

He was nominated by the Whigs in 1843 to run against Democratic Governor Marcus Morton as part of a Whig bid for more rural votes, and easily won election until 1849. Although he sought to avoid the contentious issue of slavery, he protested South Carolina policy allowing the imprisonment of free African Americans. He supported capital punishment, notably refusing to commute the death sentence of John White Webster for the murder of George Parkman. Briggs died of an accidental gunshot wound at his home in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

Gov. George S. Boutwell House

The Gov. George S. Boutwell House is a historic house at 172 Main Street in Groton, Massachusetts that was home to Governor George S. Boutwell. It was built in 1851 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. It is the current headquarters of the Groton Historical Society.

Hugh McCulloch

Hugh McCulloch (December 7, 1808 – May 24, 1895) was an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary under three presidents. He was opposed to the National Banking Act of 1864, and attempted to bring the United States back to the gold standard throughout his career.

Massachusetts Republican Party

The Massachusetts Republican Party (MassGOP) is the Massachusetts branch of the United States Republican Party.

In accordance with Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 52, The party is governed by a State Committee which consists of one man and one woman from each of the Commonwealth's 40 State Senate Districts of the Commonwealth elected at the quadrennial election of Electors for President of the U.S. The State Committee elects party officers including a Chair.

Political party strength in Massachusetts

The following table indicates the party of elected officials in Massachusetts:


Lieutenant Governor

Secretary of the Commonwealth

Attorney General

Treasurer and Receiver-General

AuditorThe table also indicates the historical party composition in the:

Massachusetts Senate

Massachusetts House of Representatives

State delegation to the United States Senate

State delegation to the United States House of RepresentativesFor years in which a United States presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes, and whether they Y won the election or N lost the election.

Each time an official is elected or re-elected, a new box for that official is included to indicate their repeated political party strength.

The parties are as follows: American (A) (More commonly known as the Know Nothing Party), Anti-Administration (AA), American Labor (AL) Conservative (C), Constitutional Union (CU), Democratic (D), Democratic-Republican (DR), Federalist (F), Independence (I), Jacksonian Democratic (JD), no party (N), National Republican (NR), National Union (NU), People's Party (P), Pro-Administration (PA), Republican (R), Whig (W), Working Families (WF), and a tie or coalition within a group of elected officials.

Revised Statutes of the United States

The Revised Statutes of the United States (in citations, Rev. Stat.) was the first official codification of the Acts of Congress. It was the precursor to the United States Code.

Samuel S. Cox

Samuel Sullivan "Sunset" Cox (September 30, 1824, Zanesville, Ohio – September 10, 1889, New York City) was an American Congressman and diplomat. He represented both Ohio and New York in the United States House of Representatives, and also served as United States Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.

USCGC Boutwell

USCGC Boutwell (WHEC-719) was a United States Coast Guard high endurance cutter based out of San Diego, California. Named for George S. Boutwell, United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Ulysses S. Grant. Boutwell engaged in many CG missions, including Search and Rescue, Law Enforcement, Maritime Security, and National Defense.

The Boutwell was formally decommissioned in March 16, 2016 at Naval Base San Diego, California. She was then sold to the Philippines as Excess Defense Article (EDA) and rechristened the BRP Andrés Bonifacio (FF-17), becoming the third Hamilton-class cutter to be transferred to the Philippine Navy.

Ulysses S. Grant presidential administration reforms

During Ulysses S. Grant's two terms as President of the United States (1869–1877) there were several executive branch investigations, prosecutions, and reforms carried-out by President Grant, Congress, and several members of his Cabinet, in the wake of several revelation of fraudulent activities within the administration. Grant's cabinet fluctuated between talented individuals or reformers and those involved with political patronage or party corruption. Some notable reforming cabinet members were persons who had outstanding abilities and made many positive contributions to the administration. These reformers resisted the Republican Party's demands for patronage to select efficient civil servants.

It was with the encouragement of these reformers that Grant established the first Civil Service Commission, and ended the moiety system. Many in his cabinet including his Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and his Secretary of Interior Jacob D. Cox implemented Civil Service reform in their respected departments. Historian H.W. Brands has noted that the Grant Administration thwarted the 1869 Gold Ring in addition to the successful prosecution the Whiskey Ring in 1876. The Grant administration took place during Reconstruction and a boom and bust economy following the Civil War that fueled financial corruption in Government offices. Several of Grant's cabinet members supported and implemented Civil Service reform in their respected federal departments. President Grant signed a bill into law that allowed the Postal Department to prosecute pornography through the mail, a law that is still in effect today. Grant appointed several leading reformers including Hamilton Fish, Benjamin Bristow, and Edwards Pierrepont. During his first administration Grant prosecuted and shut down the Ku Klux Klan under the Enforcement Acts he signed into law in 1870 and 1871. Grant, a trained military leader, was often at odds with Cabinet reformers who he believed were insubordinate to his administration. On several occasions Grant dismissed cabinet reformers without notice or explanation.

William Adams Richardson

William Adams Richardson (November 2, 1821 – October 19, 1896) was the 29th U.S. Secretary of Treasury and federal jurist. Richardson, appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant served from 1873 to 1874. During Richardson's tenure the Panic of 1873 swept the nation and caused a depression that lasted five years. Richardson responded by controversially releasing $26,000,000 in paper money reserves in an inflationist measure to help alleviate the effects of the general panic. There was debate whether Richardson had the authority to do so, however, Congress had not passed a law to forbid such an action. Richardson secured the $15,000,000 award from the Alabama Claims through the retirement of United States bonds held in Europe. This was to ensure that no gold had to be transferred overseas by ship.

Richardson's tenure was marred by the Sanborn Incident, which involved favoritism and profiteering in the collection of unpaid taxes. Pressure mounted for Richardson to be removed; he tendered his resignation, which President Grant accepted. As a face-saving gesture, Grant then appointed Richardson as a Judge on the United States Court of Claims; Richardson remained on the bench for the rest of his life.

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