George Reid

Sir George Houston Reid GCB, GCMG, PC, KC (25 February 1845 – 12 September 1918) was an Australian politician who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia from 1904 to 1905, having previously been Premier of New South Wales from 1894 to 1899. He led the Free Trade Party[a] from 1891 to 1908.[1]

Reid was born in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland. He and his family immigrated to Australia when he was young. They initially settled in Melbourne, but moved to Sydney when Reid was 13, at which point he left school and began working as a clerk. He later joined the New South Wales civil service, and rose through the ranks to become secretary of the Attorney-General's Department. Reid was also something of a public intellectual, publishing several works in defence of liberalism and free trade. He began studying law in 1876 and was admitted to the bar in 1879. In 1880, he resigned from the civil service to run for parliament, winning election to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly.

From 1883 to 1884, Reid served as Minister for Public Instruction in the government of Alexander Stuart. He joined the Free Trade Party of Henry Parkes in 1887, but refused to serve in Parkes' governments due to personal enmity. When Parkes resigned as party leader in 1891, Reid was elected in his place. He became premier after the 1894 election and remained in office for just over five years. Despite never winning majority government, Reid was able to pass a number of domestic reforms concerning the civil service and public finances. He was an advocate of federation and played a part in drafting the new constitution, where he became known as a strong defender of his colony's interests. In 1901, he was elected to the new federal parliament representing the Division of East Sydney.

Reid retained the leadership of the Free Trade Party after federation, and consequently became Australia's first Leader of the Opposition. For the first few years, the Protectionist Party governed with the support of the Labour Party. Alfred Deakin's Protectionist minority government collapsed in April 1904, and he was briefly succeeded by Labour's Chris Watson, who proved unable to govern and resigned after four months. As a result, Reid became prime minister in August 1904, heading yet another minority government. He included four Protectionists in his cabinet, but was unable to achieve much before his government was brought down in July 1905. One notable exception was the passage of the landmark Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration ACT, which dealt with industrial relations.

At the 1906 election, Reid secured the most votes in the House of Representatives and the equal-most seats, but was well short of a majority and could not form government. He resigned as party leader in 1908, after opposing the formation of the Commonwealth Liberal Party (a merger with the Protectionists). Reid accepted an appointment as Australia's first High Commissioner to the United Kingdom in 1910, and remained in the position until 1916. He subsequently won election to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, serving until his sudden death two years later.


Sir George Reid

George Reid cph.3c31684
4th Prime Minister of Australia
In office
18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905
MonarchEdward VII
Governor-GeneralLord Northcote
Preceded byChris Watson
Succeeded byAlfred Deakin
Leader of the Opposition
In office
19 May 1901 – 17 August 1904
Prime MinisterEdmund Barton
Alfred Deakin
Chris Watson
Preceded byNew position
Succeeded byChris Watson
In office
7 July 1905 – 16 November 1908
Prime MinisterAlfred Deakin
Andrew Fisher
Preceded byChris Watson
Succeeded byJoseph Cook
12th Premier of New South Wales
In office
3 August 1894 – 13 September 1899
MonarchVictoria
GovernorSir Robert Duff
Lord Hampden
Preceded byGeorge Dibbs
Succeeded byWilliam Lyne
Leader of the Free Trade Party[a]
In office
18 November 1891 – 16 November 1908
Preceded byHenry Parkes
Succeeded byJoseph Cook
High Commissioner to the United Kingdom
In office
1 January 1910 – 1 January 1916
Preceded byNew position
Succeeded byAndrew Fisher
Member of the Australian Parliament
for East Sydney
In office
29 March 1901 – 18 August 1903
Preceded byDivision created
In office
4 September 1903 – 24 December 1909
Succeeded byJohn West
Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for St George's, Hanover Square
In office
11 January 1916 – 12 September 1918
Preceded bySír Alexander Henderson
Succeeded bySir Newton Moore
Member of the New South Wales Parliament
for East Sydney
In office
14 December 1880 – 3 August 1884
Preceded byJohn Davies
Succeeded bySydney Burdekin
In office
2 March 1887 – 3 August 1894
Preceded byGeorge Griffiths
Succeeded byDistrict Abolished
Member of the New South Wales Parliament
for Sydney-King
In office
3 August 1894 – 30 March 1901
Preceded byConstituency Created
Succeeded byErnest Broughton
Personal details
Born25 February 1845
Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland
Died12 September 1918 (aged 73)
London, England
Resting placePutney Vale Cemetery
51°26′26″N 0°14′21″W / 51.440426°N 0.239237°W
Political partyNone (before 1887)
Free Trade[a] (1887–1909)
Liberal (1909–1910)
Unionist (after 1913)
Spouse(s)
Florence Brumby
(m. 1891; wid. 1918)
Children3
Parents
EducationScotch College
ProfessionCivil servant, barrister
Sir George Reid portrait, 1890s
Reid in the 1890s

Early life

Reid was born on 25 February 1845 in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland. He was the fifth of seven children born to Marion (née Crybbace) and John Reid; he had four older brothers and two younger sisters.[2] He was named after George Houstoun, a former Conservative MP for the Renfrewshire constituency who had died a few years earlier.[3] Reid's father, the son of a farmer, was born in Tarbolton, Ayrshire. At the time of George's birth he was a minister in the Church of Scotland, which he had joined in 1839 after previously ministering in various secessionist Presbyterian churches; he remained loyal to the established church in the Disruption of 1843.[4] In 1834, he had married the daughter of another minister, Edward Crybbace; she was about nine years his junior.[2]

In April 1845, Reid and his family moved to Liverpool, England, where his father had been appointed minister of an expatriate Presbyterian congregation. His two younger sisters were born there. The family struggled financially, and his father made the decision to emigrate to Australia. Reid arrived in Melbourne in May 1852,[2] and his father subsequently led congregations in Essendon and North Melbourne. He moved the family to Sydney in 1858.[5] Reid received his only formal schooling at the Melbourne Academy, now known as Scotch College. He received a classical education, and in later life recalled that he had "no appetite for that wide range of metaphysical propositions which juveniles were expected to comprehend"; he found Greek a "lazy horror".[6] He left school aged about 13, when the family settled in Sydney, and began working as a junior clerk in a merchant's counting house.[7] At the age of 15 he joined the debating society at the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts, and according to his autobiography, "a more crude novice than he had never begun the practise of public speaking".[8] In Sydney, Reid's father became a colleague of John Dunmore Lang at the Scots Church, and then from 1862 until his death in 1867 was the minister of the Mariners' Church on George Street. His mother, who died in 1885, was involved in the ragged schools movement.[5] In later life Reid praised his parents for his good upbringing.[7]

Public service career

In 1864, Reid joined the New South Wales Civil Service as an assistant accountant in the Colonial Treasury, with an annual salary of £200. He was promoted to clerk of correspondence and contracts in 1868, and then chief clerk of correspondence in 1874 on a salary of £400.[7] In 1876 he began to study law seriously, which would provide the independent income necessary to pursue a parliamentary career (given that parliamentary service was unpaid at the time). He became head of the Attorney-General's Department in 1878.[1] In 1879, Reid qualified as a barrister.[6] He made a name for himself by publishing pamphlets on topical issues. In 1875, he published his Five Essays on Free Trade, which brought him an honorary membership of the Cobden Club, and in 1878 the government published his New South Wales, the Mother Colony of the Australians, for distribution in Europe.[8]

Political career

Reid's career was aided by his quick wit and entertaining oratory; he was described as being "perhaps the best platform speaker in the Empire",[9] both amusing and informing his audiences "who flocked to his election meetings as to popular entertainment".[10] In one particular incident his quick wit and affinity for humour were demonstrated when a heckler pointed to his ample paunch and exclaimed "What are you going to call it, George?" to which Reid replied: "If it's a boy, I'll call it after myself. If it's a girl I'll call it Victoria. But if, as I strongly suspect, it's nothing but piss and wind, I'll name it after you."[11] His humour, however, was not universally appreciated. Alfred Deakin detested Reid, describing him as "inordinately vain and resolutely selfish"[11] and their cold relationship would affect both their later careers.

Reid was elected top of the poll to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as a member for the four-member electoral district of East Sydney in 1880.[12] He was not very active at first, as he was building up his legal practice, although he was concerned to reform the Robertson Land Acts, which had not prevented 96 land holders from controlling eight million acres (32,000 km²) between them. Henry Parkes and John Robertson attempted to make minor amendments to the land acts but were defeated and at the subsequent election Parkes' party lost many seats.

The new premier, Alexander Stuart, offered Reid the position of Colonial Treasurer in January 1883, but he thought it wiser to accept the junior office of Minister for Public Instruction. He served 14 months in this office and succeeded in passing a much improved Education Act, which included the establishment of the first government high schools in the leading towns, technical schools (which became a model for the other colonies)[6] and the provision of evening lectures at the university.[8]

In February 1884, Reid lost his seat in parliament owing to a technicality; the necessary notice had not appeared in the Government Gazette declaring that the Minister for Public Instruction was a position that a parliamentarian could hold without being excluded from parliament for holding an "office of profit". At the by-election Reid was defeated by a small majority as a result of the government's financial hardships due to the loss of revenue from the suspension of land sales. In 1885 he was re-elected in East Sydney and took a great part in the free trade or protection issue. He supported Sir Henry Parkes on the free trade side but, when Parkes came into power in 1887, declined a seat in his ministry. Parkes offered him a portfolio two years later and Reid again refused. He did not like Parkes personally and felt he would be unable to work with him. When payment of members of parliament was passed, Reid, who had always opposed it, paid the amount of his salary into the treasury.[8] Reid had become Sydney's leading barrister by impressing juries by his cross-examinations and was made a Queen's Counsel in 1898.[6]

Premier

Dame Flora Reid circa 1910
Dame Flora Reid circa 1910

In September 1891, the Parkes ministry was defeated, the Dibbs government succeeded it, and Parkes retired from the leadership of the Free Trade Party. Reid was elected leader of the opposition in his place. In 1891, he married Florence (Flora) Ann Brumby, who was 23 years old to his 46. He managed to form his party into a coherent group although it "ran the whole gamut from conservative Sydney merchants through middle-class intellectuals to reformers who wished to replace indirect by direct taxation for social reasons."[6]

At the 1894 election Reid made the establishment of a real free trade tariff with a system of direct taxation the main item of his policy, and had a great victory. Edmund Barton and other well-known protectionists lost their seats, Labor was reduced from 30 to 18, and Reid formed his first cabinet. One of his earliest measures was a new lands bill which provided for the division of pastoral leases into two-halves, one of which was to be open to the free selector, while the pastoral lessee got some security of tenure for the other half. Classification of crown lands according to their value was provided for, and the free selector, or his transferee, had to reside on the property.[8]

At an early stage of the session, Parkes raised the question of federation again, and Reid invited the premiers of the other colonies to meet in conference on 29 January 1895. As a consequence of this conference an improved bill was drafted which ensured that both the people and the parliaments of the various colonies would be consulted. Meanwhile, Reid had great trouble in passing his land and income tax bills. When he did get them through the Assembly the Council threw them out. Reid obtained a dissolution, was victorious at the polls, and heavily defeated Parkes for the new single-member electoral district of Sydney-King. He eventually succeeded in passing his acts, which were moderate, but was strenuously opposed by the Council, and it was only the fear that the chamber might be swamped with new appointments that eventually wore down the opposition. Reid was also successful in bringing in reforms in the keeping of public accounts and in the civil service generally. Other acts dealt with the control of inland waters, and much needed legislation relating to public health, factories, and mining, was also passed.[8] In five years he achieved more than any of his predecessors.[6]

On four occasions between December 1895 and May 1899 Reid was temporarily appointed to the vacant position of Solicitor General to allow him to deputise for the Attorney General, Jack Want, in his absence.[13][14] Reid took on the position of Attorney-General in addition to being Premier in the last months of his government.

Federation

Reid supported the federation of the Australian colonies, but since the campaign was led by his Protectionist opponent Edmund Barton he did not take a leading role. He was dissatisfied by the draft constitution, especially the power of a Senate, elected on the basis of States rather than population, to reject money bills.

Following the Adelaide session in 1897 of the National Australasian Convention, Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain sent the Colonial Office's extensive and sometimes critical comments on the current draft of the federal constitution to Reid (then in London for Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee), for his "private & independent" consideration. At the Sydney and Melbourne sessions of the Convention in 1897 and 1898, Reid moved amendments based on those comments, covertly obtaining several concessions to British wishes. He denied a suggestion that he had been "talking with ‘Joe’". Reid did copy Chamberlain's comments to a select few other delegates, but they never revealed this. They included Edmund Barton, chair of the Drafting Committee, which accommodated some of Chamberlain's more technical points.[15]

In the referendum campaign following the Convention, on 28 March 1898 Reid made his famous "Yes-No" speech at the Sydney town hall. He told his audience that he intended to deal with the bill "with the deliberate impartiality of a judge addressing a jury". After speaking for an hour and three-quarters the audience was still uncertain about his verdict. He concluded by saying that while he felt he could not become a deserter to the cause he would not recommend any course to the electors:

Now, I say to you, having pointed out my mind, and having shown you the dark places as well as the light places of this constitution, I hope every man in this country, without coercion from me, without any interference from me, will judge for himself.[16]

He consistently kept this attitude until the poll was taken on 3 June 1898. This earned him the nickname "Yes-No Reid". The referendum in New South Wales resulted in a small majority in favour, but the yes votes fell about 8000 short of the required 80,000.[8] Subsequently, Reid was able to secure greater concessions for New South Wales.

The yes-no Federationist
"The Yes-No Federationist", The Bulletin 30 July 1898.

At the general election held soon after, Barton accepted Reid's challenge to contest the East Sydney seat. Reid defeated him, but his party came back with a reduced majority. Reid fought for federation at the second referendum and it was carried in New South Wales by a majority of nearly 25,000, with 107,420 votes being cast in favour of it. "A bizarre combination of the Labor Party, protectionists, Federation enthusiasts and die-hard anti-Federation free traders" censured Reid for paying the expenses of J. C. Neild who had been commissioned to report on old-age pensions, prior to parliamentary approval. Governor Beauchamp refused Reid a dissolution and he resigned.[6] By this time Reid had grown extremely overweight and sported a walrus moustache and a monocle, but his buffoonish image concealed a shrewd political brain.

Federal politics

George Reid, 1916 (John Longstaff)
Parliament House portrait of Reid by John Longstaff, 1916
Reid NLA 03
George Reid with wife Florence and their children (left to right) Douglas, Thelma and Clive, in London, 1915

Reid was elected to the first federal Parliament as the Member for East Sydney at the 1901 election. The Free Trade Party won 28 out of 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 17 out of 36 seats in the Senate. Labour no longer trusted Reid and gave their support to the Edmund Barton Protectionist Party government, so Reid became the first Leader of the Opposition, a position well-suited to his robust debating style and rollicking sense of humour. In the long tariff debate Reid was at a disadvantage as parliament was sitting in Melbourne and he could not entirely neglect his practice as a barrister in Sydney, as his parliamentary income was less than a tenth of his income from his legal practice. With the rise of the Labour Party, the Free Trade Party had lost much of the middle ground to Barton and his followers, and it was increasingly dependent on conservatives, including militant Protestants.[6][8]

On 18 August 1903, Reid resigned (the first member of the House of Representatives to do so) and challenged the government to oppose his re-election on the issue of its refusal to accept a system of equal electoral districts.[6] He contested the by-election for East Sydney on 4 September, and won it back.[17] He was the only person in Australian federal parliamentary history to win back his seat at a by-election triggered by his own resignation, until John Alexander in 2017.

Alfred Deakin took over from Barton as Prime Minister and leader of the Protectionists. At the 1903 election, the Free Trade Party won 24 seats, with the Labour vote increasing mainly at the expense of the Protectionists. In August 1904, when the Watson government resigned, Reid became Prime Minister. He was the first former state premier to become Prime Minister (the only other to date being Joseph Lyons). Reid did not have a majority in either House, and he knew it would be only a matter of time before the Protectionists patched up their differences with Labour, so he enjoyed himself in office while he could. In July 1905 the other two parties duly voted him out, and he left office with good grace.

Reid adopted a strategy of trying to reorient the party system along Labour vs non-Labour lines – prior to the 1906 election, he renamed his Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party. Reid envisaged a spectrum running from socialist to anti-socialist, with the Protectionist Party in the middle. This attempt struck a chord with politicians who were steeped in the Westminster tradition and regarded a two-party system as very much the norm.[18] Zachary Gorman has argued that this attempt to impose clear 'lines of cleavage' in Federal politics was inspired by Reid's friend Joseph Carruthers who had achieved a political realignment in New South Wales that destroyed the Progressive middle party and created a Liberal-Labor divide.[19] For Reid anti-socialism was a natural product of his long-standing belief in Gladstonian classical liberalism.[20]

Reid referred to Labour publicly using a damaging visual negative image of Labour as a hungry socialist tiger that would devour all.[21] The anti-socialist campaign led to the Protectionist vote and seat count dropping significantly at the 1906 election, while both Reid's party and Labour won 26 seats each. The Deakin government continued with Labour support for the time being, despite only holding 16 seats after losing 10, although with another 5 independent Protectionists. Reid's anti-socialist campaign had nevertheless laid the groundwork for the desired realignment, and liberalism would come to sit on the centre-right of Australian politics.[22]

In 1907–08, Reid strenuously resisted Deakin's commitment to increase tariff rates. When Deakin proposed the Commonwealth Liberal Party, a "Fusion" of the two non-Labour parties, Reid resigned as party leader on 16 November 1908. The following day, Joseph Cook was made leader until the parties merged.[23]

On 24 December 1909 Reid resigned from Parliament (he was the first Member to have resigned twice), however his seat was left vacant until the 1910 election. His seat of East Sydney was won by Labour's John West, in an election which saw Labour win 42 of 75 seats, against the CLP on 31 seats. Labour also won a majority in the Senate.

Later life and legacy

Sir Geo. Reid LOC 25482767766
Reid c. 1915
George Reid grave Putney Vale 2015
Reid's grave at Putney Vale Cemetery in London, in 2015

In 1910, Reid was appointed as Australia's first High Commissioner in London.[6]

Reid was extremely popular in Britain, and in 1916, when his term as High Commissioner ended, he was elected unopposed to the House of Commons for the seat of St George, Hanover Square as a Unionist candidate, where he acted as a spokesman for the self-governing Dominions in supporting the war effort. He died suddenly in London on 12 September 1918,[24][25] aged 73, of cerebral thrombosis, survived by his wife and their two sons and daughter.[6] She had become Dame Flora Reid GBE in 1917. He is buried in Putney Vale Cemetery.

Reid's posthumous reputation suffered from the general acceptance of protectionist policies by other parties, as well as from his buffoonish public image. In 1989 W. G. McMinn published George Reid, a serious biography designed to rescue Reid from his reputation as a clownish reactionary and attempt to show his Free Trade policies as having been vindicated by history.[26]

Honours

George Reid bust
Bust of George Reid by sculptor Wallace Anderson located in the Prime Ministers Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

In 1897 Reid was made an Honorary Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) by Oxford University. Reid was also appointed a member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council (1904), a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (1911) and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (1916).[6]

In 1969 he was honoured on a postage stamp bearing his portrait issued by Australia Post.[27]

Works

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c known as the "Anti-Socialist Party" after 1906.

References

  1. ^ a b "George Reid". Prime Ministers. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
  2. ^ a b c McMinn, W. G. (1989). George Reid. Melbourne University Press. p. 3.
  3. ^ Prentis, Malcolm D. (June 1993). "Scottish Seceder in the Australian Colonies: The Eccentric Pilgrimage of John Reid". The Journal of Religious History. 17 (3): 343.
  4. ^ Prentis (1993), pp. 340–342
  5. ^ a b McMinn (1989), p. 4.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McMinn, W. G. (2006), "Reid, Sir George Houstoun (1845–1918)", Australian Dictionary of Biography (Online ed.), Australian National University, retrieved 9 April 2009
  7. ^ a b c McMinn (1989), p. 5.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Serle, Percival. "Reid, Sir George Houstoun (1845–1918)". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Project Gutenberg Australia. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
  9. ^ McGinn, W.G (1989). George Reid. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. ISBN 0-522-84373-5.
  10. ^ Abjorensen, Norman. George Reid, The Democrat as Equivocator: Piss and Wind, or Principles in Search of a Constituency?.
  11. ^ a b Grattan, Michelle (2000). Australian Prime Ministers. New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-86436-756-3.
  12. ^ "Sir George Houston Reid (1845–1918)". Members of Parliament. Parliament of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
  13. ^ Appleby, G (2016). Role of the Solicitor-General. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 9781509903962.
  14. ^ Mason, K, The Office of Solicitor General for New South Wales (PDF) (1988 Autumn) Bar News: Journal of the NSW Bar Association 22.
  15. ^ Wiliams, John M. (2005). The Australian Constitution: a Documentary History. Carlton, Vic: Melbourne U.P. pp. 711–761. ISBN 0 522 85042 1.
  16. ^ Wiliams, John M. (2005). The Australian Constitution: a Documentary History. Carlton, Vic: Melbourne U.P. p. 1142.
  17. ^ "House of Representatives by-elections 1901–2008" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. p. 18. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  18. ^ Fusion: The Party System We Had To Have? – by Charles Richardson CIS 25 January 2009
  19. ^ Gorman, Zachary (2018). Sir Joseph Carruthers: Founder of the New South Wales Liberal Party. Connor Court. pp. 271–282. ISBN 9781925501766.
  20. ^ Gorman, Zachary (2015). 'George Reid's anti-socialist campaign in the history of Australian liberalism' in Melleuish Liberalism and Conservatism. Connor Court. pp. 17–38. ISBN 9781925138597.
  21. ^ Julian Fitzgerald On Message: Political Communications of Australian Prime Ministers 1901–2014 Clareville Press 2014, p 64
  22. ^ Gorman, Zachary (2015). 'George Reid's anti-socialist campaign in the history of Australian liberalism' in Melleuish Liberalism and Conservatism. Connor Court. pp. 17–38. ISBN 9781925138597.
  23. ^ Leader of the Opposition: Parliamentary Education Office
  24. ^ "Sir George Reid's Death". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. 17 September 1918. p. 8. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  25. ^ "Fast facts: George Reid". Australia's Prime Ministers. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  26. ^ McMinn, W. G. (1989). George Reid. Carlton, Vic: Melbourne U.P. ISBN 0522843735.
  27. ^ Stamp

Further reading

  • Grattan, Michelle, ed. (2000). Australian Prime Ministers. Frenchs Forest: New Holland. ISBN 9781864366716.
  • Hughes, Colin A. (1976). Mr Prime Minister. Australian Prime Ministers 1901–1972. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195504712.
  • McMinn, W. G. (1989). George Reid. Carlton, Vic: Melbourne U.P. ISBN 0522843735.

External links

Parliament of New South Wales
Preceded by
John Davies
Member for East Sydney
1880–1884
Served alongside: Renwick, Barton, Dangar, McElhone, Copeland, Parkes, Griffiths
Succeeded by
Sydney Burdekin
Preceded by
George Griffiths
Member for East Sydney
1885–1894
Served alongside: Burdekin, Barton, McMillan, Copeland, Bradley, Street, Parkes,
Succeeded by
District abolished
New district Member for Sydney-King
1894–1901
Succeeded by
Ernest Broughton
Political offices
Preceded by
Francis Suttor
Minister for Public Instruction
1883–1884
Succeeded by
William Trickett
Preceded by
George Dibbs
Premier of New South Wales
1894–1899
Succeeded by
William Lyne
Preceded by
John Henry Want
Attorney General of New South Wales
1899
Succeeded by
Bernhard Wise
Parliament of Australia
New division Member for East Sydney
1901–1910
Succeeded by
John West
Political offices
New title Leader of the Opposition of Australia
1901–1904
Succeeded by
Alfred Deakin
Preceded by
Chris Watson
Prime Minister of Australia
1904–1905
Leader of the Opposition of Australia
1905–1908
Succeeded by
Joseph Cook
Party political offices
New political party Leader of the Free Trade Party
1901–1906
Renamed the Anti-Socialist Party
Leader of the Anti-Socialist Party
1906–1908
Succeeded by
Joseph Cook
Diplomatic posts
New title Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom
1910–1916
Succeeded by
Andrew Fisher
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir Alexander Henderson
Member for St George, Hanover Square
19161918
Succeeded by
Sir Newton Moore
1895 New South Wales colonial election

The 1895 New South Wales colonial election was held on 24 July 1895 for all of the 125 seats in the 17th New South Wales Legislative Assembly and it was conducted in single-member constituencies with a first past the post voting system. Section 23 (1) of the Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Act of 1893 conferred a right to vote on 'every male person, being a natural born [British] subject, who shall have resided or had his principal

place of abode in New South Wales for a continuous period of one year'. males. The 16th parliament of New South Wales was dissolved on 5 July 1895 by the Governor, Lord Hampden, on the advice of the Premier, George Reid.

1898 New South Wales colonial election

The 1898 New South Wales colonial election was held on 27 July 1898 for all of the 125 seats in the 18th New South Wales Legislative Assembly and it was conducted in single-member constituencies with a first past the post voting system. Section 23 (1) of the Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Act of 1893 conferred a right to vote on 'every male person, being a natural born [British] subject, who shall have resided or had his principal

place of abode in New South Wales for a continuous period of one year'. The 18th parliament of New South Wales was dissolved on 8 July 1898 by the Governor, Lord Hampden, on the advice of the Premier, George Reid.

The Protectionist Party, the main Opposition, contested this election under the name "National Federal Party", reflecting the party's focus on Federation as an issue at the election.

1905 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1905 in Australia.

1906 Australian federal election

Federal elections were held in Australia on 12 December 1906. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Protectionist Party minority government led by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin retained government, despite winning the fewest House of Representatives votes and seats of the three parties. Parliamentary support was provided by the Labour Party led by Chris Watson, while the Anti-Socialist Party (renamed from the Free Trade Party), led by George Reid, remained in opposition.

Watson resigned as Labour leader in October 1907 and was replaced by Andrew Fisher. The Protectionist minority government fell in November 1908 to Labour, a few days before Reid resigned as Anti-Socialist leader, who was replaced by Joseph Cook. The Labour minority government fell in June 1909 to the newly formed Commonwealth Liberal Party led by Deakin. The party was formed on a shared anti-Labour platform as a merger between Deakin, leader of the Protectionists, and Cook, leader of the Anti-Socialists, in order to counter Labour's growing popularity. The merger didn't sit well with several of the more progressive Protectionists, who defected to Labour or sat as independents.

The merger would allow the Deakin Commonwealth Liberals to construct a mid-term parliamentary majority, however less than a year later at the 1910 election, Labour won both majority government and a Senate majority, representing a number of firsts: it was Australia's first elected federal majority government, Australia's first elected Senate majority, the world's first Labour Party majority government at a national level, and after the 1904 Watson minority government the world's second Labour Party government at a national level. The 113 acts passed in the second Fisher government (1910–13) exceeded even the output of the second Deakin government over a similar period. At the time, it represented the culmination of Labour's involvement in politics. It was a period of reform unmatched in the Commonwealth until the 1940s under John Curtin and Ben Chifley.

1916 St George's, Hanover Square by-election

The St George, Hanover Square by-election of 1916 was held on 11 January 1916. The by-election was held due to the elevation of the incumbent Conservative MP, Sir Alexander Henderson. It was won by the Unionist candidate Sir George Reid, the former Prime Minister of Australia, who acted as a spokesman for the self-governing Dominions in supporting the war effort. He was unopposed. There was a history of unopposed by-elections in the constituency and the War-time electoral pact meant that the other major parties would not endorse candidates in that election.

Sir George Reid was to die in 1918 triggering another unopposed by-election.

1918 St George's, Hanover Square by-election

The St George's, Hanover Square by-election of 1918 was held on 4 October 1918. The by-election was held due to the death of the incumbent Conservative MP, Sir George Reid. It was won by the Conservative candidate Sir Newton Moore, who was elected unopposed.

AlunaGeorge

AlunaGeorge are an English electronic music duo from London, consisting of singer-songwriter Aluna Francis and producer George Reid.

Division of East Sydney

The Division of East Sydney was an

Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. The division was created in 1900 and was one of the original 75 divisions contested at the first federal election. It was abolished in 1969. It was named for the suburb of East Sydney. It was located in the inner eastern suburbs of Sydney, including Darlinghurst, Paddington, Redfern, Surry Hills and Waverley. After 1910 East Sydney was usually a safe seat for the Australian Labor Party. In the 1930s it was a stronghold of Lang Labor. Its most prominent members were Sir George Reid, who was Prime Minister of Australia in 1904-05, and Eddie Ward, a long-serving Labor member and Cabinet minister.

Division of Reid

The Division of Reid is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division is named after the Right Honourable Sir George Reid, a former Premier of New South Wales and the fourth Prime Minister of Australia. The division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 13 September 1922, and was first contested at the 1922 federal election.

The division is located in the inner-western suburbs of Sydney, and includes the suburbs of Abbotsford, Breakfast Point, Cabarita, Canada Bay, Chiswick, Concord, Concord West, Five Dock, Flemington, Homebush, Homebush West, Liberty Grove, Mortlake, Newington, North Strathfield, Rhodes, Rodd Point, Russell Lea, Strathfield, Sydney Olympic Park, Wareemba, and Wentworth Point; and includes parts of Ashfield, Auburn, Burwood, Croydon, Drummoyne, Homebush Bay, Lidcombe, Silverwater, and Spectacle Island.

The current Member for Reid, since the 2013 federal election, is Craig Laundy, a member of the Liberal Party of Australia.

Electoral results for the district of Box Hill

This is a list of electoral results for the Electoral district of Box Hill in Victorian state elections.

Free Trade Party

The Free Trade Party which was officially known as the Australian Free Trade and Liberal Association, also referred to as the Revenue Tariff Party in some states, was an Australian political party, formally organised in 1887 in New South Wales, in time for the 1887 colony election, which the party won. It advocated the abolition of protectionism, especially protective tariffs and other restrictions on trade, arguing that this would create greater prosperity for all. However, many members also advocated use of minimal tariffs for government revenue purposes only. Its most prominent leader was George Reid, who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia (1904-5) . In New South Wales it was succeeded by the Liberal and Reform Association in 1902, and federally by the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906. In 1909, the Anti-Socialist Party merged with the Protectionist Party to form the Commonwealth Liberal Party.

George Reid (Scottish artist)

Sir George Reid (31 October 1841 – 9 February 1913) was a Scottish artist.

George Reid (Scottish politician)

Sir George Reid (born 4 June 1939) is a Scottish politician. From February 1974 to May 1979 he served as a Scottish National Party Member of Parliament for Clackmannan and East Stirlingshire. He was elected in 1999 as a Member of the newly established Scottish Parliament as a regional MSP for Mid Scotland and Fife. From 2003 to 2007 he served as member for the Ochil constituency and was appointed as the Scottish Parliament's second Presiding Officer.

In May 2008, Reid was appointed as the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland for the duration of the General Assembly's sitting that year. In 2009, he was appointed as Her Majesty's Lord Lieutenant of Clackmannanshire.

George Reid (Victorian politician)

Sir George Oswald Reid (22 July 1903 – 18 February 1993) was an Australian politician.

He was born in Hawthorn to railway officer George Watson Reid and Lillias Margaret Easton. He attended Camberwell Grammar School and studied law at Melbourne University and in 1926 was admitted as a barrister and solicitor, practising at the bar until 1927 and as a solicitor thereafter. In 1947 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as the Liberal member for Box Hill. He was party whip from 1950 to 1952, when he was defeated. Returned in 1955, he became cabinet secretary and minister without portfolio. In 1956 he became Minister of Labour and Industry, moving to Fuel and Power in 1965, and to Immigration (until 1970) and Attorney-General in 1967. He was leader of the Assembly from 1971 to 1972. Reid retired in 1973, having taken silk in 1971 and been knighted in 1972. He died in 1993.

George Thomson, Lord Thomson

George Reid Thomson, Lord Thomson, (1893 – 15 April 1962) was a Scottish Labour Party politician and judge.

Educated at the South African College, Cape Town, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, he was a captain in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders in World War I.

He was admitted as an advocate in 1922, and appointed a King's Counsel in 1936. He was an Advocate Depute from 1940 to 1945.

He sat as Member of Parliament (MP) for Edinburgh East from October 1945 until October 1947 and served as Lord Advocate from October 1945.

He was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1945.

In October 1947 he was raised to the bench as Lord Justice Clerk, replacing Lord Moncrieff. He took the judicial title Lord Thomson. He held this office until his death in 1962.

Ochil (Scottish Parliament constituency)

Ochil was a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). It elected one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the plurality (first past the post) method of election. Also, it was one of nine constituencies in the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region, which elected seven additional members, in addition to the nine constituency MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation for the region as a whole.

The former Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament George Reid represented the constituency from 2003 to 2007.

For the Scottish Parliament election, 2011, Ochil was abolished, with the majority of the seat forming the newly created Clackmannanshire and Dunblane seat.

Reid Ministry

The Reid Ministry (Free Trade) was the 4th ministry of the Government of Australia. It was led by the country's 4th Prime Minister, George Reid. The Reid Ministry succeeded the Watson Ministry, which dissolved on 17 August 1904 after the Protectionist Party withdrew their support and Chris Watson was forced to resign. Due to having to rely on the Protectionists to retain office, half of the ministry was forced to accommodate conservative Protectionists - leading to the government to sometimes be referred to as the Reid-McLean Ministry. The ministry was replaced by the Second Deakin Ministry on 5 July 1905 after the Protectionists withdrew their support and returned to office with the support of the Labour Party.

Reid ministry (New South Wales)

The Reid ministry was the 28th ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, and was led by the 12th Premier, the Right Honourable George Reid, PC, QC, LL.D, MLA.

Reid was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly in 1880, serving until 1884. Reid was re-elected to the Assembly in 1891 and assumed leadership of the Free Trade Party following the retirement of Henry Parkes. The ministry covers the period from 3 August 1894 until 13 September 1899 when Reid resigned in order to focus on ensuring adequate provisions were made for New South Wales in the federation of the Australian colonies into a Commonwealth.

Second Deakin Ministry

The Second Deakin Ministry (Protectionist) was the 5th ministry of the Government of Australia. It was led by the country's 2nd Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin. The First Deakin Ministry succeeded the Reid Ministry, which dissolved on 5 July 1905 following the resignation of George Reid after the Protectionists withdrew their support and gained support from the Labour Party. The ministry was replaced by the Third Deakin Ministry on 24 January 1907 following the 1906 federal election.

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