George Pataki

George Elmer Pataki (/pəˈtɑːki/; born June 24, 1945) is an American lawyer and Republican politician who served as the 53rd Governor of New York (1995–2006). An attorney by profession, Pataki was elected mayor of his hometown of Peekskill, New York and went on to be elected to the State Assembly and the State Senate. In 1994, Pataki ran for Governor of New York against three-term incumbent Mario Cuomo, defeating him by a margin of more than three points as part of the Republican Revolution of 1994. Pataki would himself be elected to three consecutive terms, and was the third Republican Governor of New York elected since 1923 (the other two were Govs. Thomas E. Dewey and Nelson Rockefeller). As of 2018, Pataki is the most recent Republican to serve as Governor of New York and the most recent Republican to hold statewide office in New York.

In early 2015, Pataki began exploring a candidacy for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 2016;[2] he announced his candidacy on May 28, 2015.[3] On December 29, 2015, Pataki ended his campaign before the Republican presidential primaries had begun.[4]

George Pataki
Governor Pataki 2015
53rd Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1995 – December 31, 2006
LieutenantBetsy McCaughey
Mary Donohue
Preceded byMario Cuomo
Succeeded byEliot Spitzer
Member of the New York Senate
from the 37th district
In office
January 1, 1993 – December 31, 1994
Preceded byMary B. Goodhue
Succeeded byVincent Leibell
Member of the New York State Assembly
from the 91st district
In office
January 1, 1985 – December 31, 1992
Preceded byWilliam J. Ryan
Succeeded byVincent Leibell
Mayor of Peekskill
In office
January 1, 1981 – December 31, 1984
Preceded byFred Bianco
Succeeded byRichard E. Jackson
Personal details
Born
George Elmer Pataki

June 24, 1945 (age 73)
Peekskill, New York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Libby Rowland (m. 1973)
Children4, including Allison Pataki
ResidenceGarrison, New York[1]
Alma materYale University (B.A.)
Columbia Law School (J.D.)
Signature
George Pataki's signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Early life

Pataki was born in Peekskill, New York. Pataki's paternal grandfather[5] was Pataki János (in the USA John Pataki, 1883–1971) of Aranyos-Apáti, Austria-Hungary [5]. The family name's (Pataki) Hungarian pronunciation is ['pɒtɒki] and means creek (little river). János came to the United States in 1908, worked in a hat factory and had married Erzsébet (later Elizabeth; 1887–1975), also Hungarian-born, around 1904. Their son, Pataki's father, was Louis P. Pataki (1912–1996), a mailman and volunteer fire chief, who ran the Pataki Farm.[6] Pataki's maternal grandfather was Matteo Laganà (born in Calabria, Italy in 1889), who married Agnes Lynch of County Louth, Ireland around 1914. Their daughter, Margaret Lagana (1915-2017), is Pataki's mother. Pataki has an older brother, Louis. George Pataki speaks some Hungarian[5] today, as well as Spanish, French, and German.[7]

After graduating from Peekskill High School, Pataki entered Yale University with George W. Bush in 1964 on an academic scholarship, and graduated in three years, in 1967. While there Pataki served as Chairman of the Conservative Party of the Yale Political Union,[8] where he participated in debates.[9] He received his J.D. from Columbia Law School in 1970.[10]

Early political career

While practicing law at Plunkett and Jaffe, P.C. in Peekskill, Pataki became friends with Michael C. Finnegan, who would go on to be the architect of Pataki's ascendancy to power.[11] Finnegan would go on to manage Pataki's campaigns for Mayor, State Assembly, State Senate, and the governorship.[12] Finnegan was then appointed chief counsel to the governor in 1995, and played the key role in developing and negotiating nearly all of Pataki's early legislative success.[13]

Mayor of Peekskill

Pataki first won elected office in November 1981. He was elected Mayor of the City of Peekskill, which is located in the Northwestern part of Westchester County. Pataki defeated the Democratic incumbent Fred Bianco Jr., winning 70% of the vote. In November 1983, he was re-elected Mayor, winning 74% of the vote.

New York State Assembly

In November 1984, George Pataki was elected to the New York State Assembly (91st D.), by defeating the one-term Democratic incumbent William J. Ryan, winning 53% of the vote. In November 1986, Pataki defeated Ryan in a rematch, capturing 63% of the vote. Pataki won a third term in November 1988, winning 74% of the vote against Democratic candidate Mark Zinna. Pataki won a fourth and final term in November 1990, winning over 90% of the vote, as he only faced a minor party candidate. He was an assemblyman in the 186th, 187th, 188th and 189th New York State Legislatures.

New York State Senate

From 1983 to 1992, the 91st Assembly district included parts of Westchester, Orange, Rockland, and Putnam Counties. However, in 1992, Assembly Democrats substantially redrew the district boundaries, placing the newly renamed 90th Assembly district entirely within Westchester County. Instead of running in the newly redrawn district, Pataki decided to challenge seven-term incumbent Republican State Senator Mary B. Goodhue in the Republican primary by criticizing her for taking her grandchildren to Disney World and missing a vote in Albany. Pataki won the primary by a 52% to 48% margin. However, Goodhue was still going to appear on the November ballot on a minor party line. In November 1992, George Pataki won election to the New York State Senate in a 4-way race. Pataki served in the Senate of the 190th New York State Legislature, and ran for governor at the next election.

Gubernatorial campaigns

1994 campaign

Pataki was a first term state senator from Westchester County when he launched his bid for the Republican nomination for governor in 1994. He said he launched the campaign because of his frustration in the Senate regarding how Albany worked and on tax issues. He was little known statewide and his campaign received a boost when he was endorsed by U.S. Sen. Al D'Amato. He received the party's endorsement at the spring state convention and easily defeated former State Republican Chairman Richard Rosenbaum in the September primary. Pataki was considered an underdog from the start since he was running against three term Gov. Mario Cuomo and because Pataki had little name recognition statewide. D'Amato reportedly backed Pataki because of a poll that showed a pro-choice, fiscal conservative from the New York City suburbs could win statewide for governor. The poll also showed a female running mate for lieutenant governor would help the ticket, thus leading to the selection of academic Betsy McCaughey as Pataki's running mate.

The polls had Governor Cuomo up by as much as ten points going into the final two weeks, but they then narrowed at the end. He made an issue of Cuomo seeking a fourth term as governor and pledged to serve only two terms in office. Cuomo was helped late in the race by the endorsement of New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In the end, Pataki narrowly defeated Cuomo in the general election. Many, including George Pataki himself, believe Howard Stern's endorsement of Pataki was a major reason for his win. As a result, Stern was present at the podium with Pataki during his inauguration.

Pataki made up for a softer performance in New York City by running up a decisive margin outside of it, especially among upstaters disenchanted with Cuomo. Pataki won all but one county outside the Five Boroughs.[14] Pataki was the first governor elected since Nelson Rockefeller to not come from one of the five boroughs of New York City.

1998 campaign

Pataki was considered the frontrunner from the start of the 1998 campaign for governor. He was unopposed for the Republican nomination and paired with a new running mate, Judge Mary Donohue. The Democrats faced a primary battle between New York City Council Speaker Peter Vallone, Lt. Gov. Betsy McCaughey Ross, and former Transportation Commissioner James LaRocca. Vallone captured the Democratic nomination, with Thomas Golisano running as the Independence nominee and McCaughey Ross as the Liberal Party nominee. Pataki was easily reelected to a second term in office.

2002 campaign

Pataki was considered a strong contender for a third term. He ran again on a ticket with Lt. Gov. Mary Donohue and the Democrats faced a primary battle between State Comptroller Carl McCall and former HUD Secretary Andrew Cuomo. Pataki emphasized his previous work and the need to have continuity following Sept. 11.

Pataki sought the nomination of the Independence Party of New York in his bid for a third term as well. He faced Thomas Golisano, the party's founder in his bid for the nomination. Pataki ran an active primary campaign and lost to Golisano. Donohue did win the primary for lieutenant governor and was both the running mate of Pataki and Golisano in the general election.

Pataki faced McCall and Golisano in the general election, during which he continued to emphasize his past work for the state. He easily defeated the two.

A Pataki-Cuomo rematch nearly occurred in the 2002 election. Mario's son Andrew Cuomo announced plans to run. However, he stumbled on April 17 (and ultimately withdrew before the primary at the urging of his mentor Bill Clinton) when Cuomo was quoted in the media as saying, regarding Pataki's performance post-9/11:

Pataki stood behind the leader. He held the leader's coat. He was a great assistant to the leader. But he was not a leader. Cream rises to the top, and Rudy Giuliani rose to the top.[15]

After becoming governor of New York, he received an honorary degree from New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) at the 2002 NYIT Commencement.[16]

Governorship and political positions

The Pataki Executive Chamber
OfficeNameTerm
GovernorGeorge Pataki1995–2007
Lieutenant GovernorBetsy McCaughey1995–1999
Mary Donohue1999–2007
Secretary to the GovernorBradford J. Race Jr.1995–2002
John P. Cahill2002–2007
General CounselMichael C. Finnegan1995–1997
James McGuire1997–2003
Richard Platkin2003–2007
Communications DirectorZenia Mucha1995–2000
Michael McKeon2000–2003
David Catalfamo2003–2007
Office of the Attorney GeneralDennis Vacco1995–1999
Eliot Spitzer1999–2007
Office of the Inspector GeneralRoslynn R. Mauskopf1995–2002
Jill Konviser-Levine2002–2005
Dineen Riviezzo2005–2007
Office of the ComptrollerH. Carl McCall1995–2003
Alan Hevesi2003–2007
Department of Agriculture and MarketsDonald R. Davidsen1995–1999
Nathan L. Rudgers1995–2005
Patrick Brennan2005–2007
Department of BankingNeil Levin1995–1997
Elizabeth McCaul1997–2003
Diana Taylor2003–2007
Department of Civil ServiceGeorge C. Sinnott1995–2004
Daniel E. Wall2004–2007
Department of Corrections and Community SupervisionGlenn S. Goord1995–2007
Department of Environmental ConservationMichael D. Zagata1995–1997
John P. Cahill1997–2001
Erin Crotty2001–2005
Denise Sheehan2005–2007
Education Department Richard P. Mills1995–2007
Department of HealthBarbara DeBuono1995–1998
Antonia Novello1998–2007
Insurance DepartmentEdward Muhl1995–1997
Neil Levin1997–2001
Gregory V. Serio2001–2005
Howard Mills III2005–2007
Department of LaborJohn E. Sweeney1995–1997
James J. McGowan1997–2000
Linda Angelo2001–2007
Department of Motor VehiclesRichard E. Jackson1995–2000
Raymond P. Martinez2000–2006
Nancy Naples2006–2007
Department of Military & Naval AffairsMichael Hall1995–1997
John H. Fenimore V1997–2001
Thomas P. Maguire2001–2006
Joseph J. Taluto2006–2007
Department of Public ServiceJohn F. O'Mara1995–1998
Maureen Helmer1998–2002
William Flynn2002–2006
Patricia Acompora2006–2008
Secretary of StateAlexander Treadwell1995–2001
Randy Daniels2001–2006
Christopher Jacobs2006–2007
Department of Taxation and FinanceMichael H. Urbach1995–1999
Arthur J. Roth1999–2003
Andrew Eristoff2003–2006
Department of TransportationJohn B. Daly1995–1997
Joseph H. Boardman1997–2005
Thomas J. Madison Jr.2005–2007

Fiscal policy

Taxes, spending, budget power, and economic growth

Pataki has been a long-time advocate of tax cuts during his administration and his time in the state legislature. He signed and sponsored several tax cuts during his first term in office and in addition made spending cuts to the budgets he proposed. He also pushed for the privatization of state entities.

In 2003 Pataki made a controversial budget proposal in which he proposed several tax cuts, despite the state's rising deficits due to drying up tax revenue from the once boom to now bust dotcom sector, and resulting tech layoffs. He also made cuts in education and health care funding, which some alleged would close emergency rooms and turn non-profit hospitals into for-profits. Pataki argued that new taxes would drive businesses out-of-state, reduce jobs and further compound the state deficit.

During the first years of Pataki's administration, he began to institute major spending cuts, which he has advocated for most of his career. Among the cost cutting initiatives was a push to privatize the World Trade Center from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. For more than 20 years, the governor's New York City office had been in the World Trade Center. The privatization effort took effect a few weeks before the September 11 attack when Larry Silverstein assumed a 99-year lease for $3.2 billion.

Despite Pataki campaigning against the New York State practice of not adopting an ontime budget by the start of the April 1 state fiscal year for over a decade, Pataki's first 10 years in office did not see the adoption of an ontime budget.

Pataki's term had been marked with annual debates with the State Legislature over the powers allocated to the Executive and Legislative Branches on the adoption of the state budget. Pataki argued that the state constitution and court rulings gave him the power to submit a budget that allocated revenue and set policy. Pataki said the Legislature could then only change the numbers but could not change any policy decisions made in the budget document. Pataki and the Legislature ended up in court and the courts ruled in Pataki's favor, giving him more budgetary power. In 2005, the Legislature placed a constitutional amendment on the ballot to allocate more budget power to them. Pataki led a successful public information campaign to defeat this provision and to retain his budget authority. In 2006, Pataki vetoed a large part of the budget adopted by the Legislature because of these rulings.

There was growing voter dissatisfaction with how the state government conducted its business. Two decades of late budgets and decision making by three men in a room on key issues led to voter anger and the defeat of several legislative incumbents. Pataki started to hold open sessions with legislative leaders on budget issues, and including minority leaders of the Senate and Assembly in these discussions. In addition, he again encouraged the adoption of an ontime budget, and in 2005 and 2006 the state budget was adopted on time.

Under the Pataki Administration, New York's credit rating was increased three times by Moody's Investors Service, a fact that he highlighted often before his critics.[17] During his three terms in office, he introduced and approved more tax cuts than any of his predecessors. Following through on a campaign promise, Pataki led a push to cut both the individual and the corporate tax rates in New York. New York's infamously high income tax rate dropped by 20% on average, but an economic downturn following the attacks of September 11 and increasing state spending caused Sheldon Silver and Joseph Bruno to coordinate an effort to roll back a number of these cuts in 2003 over Pataki's veto power.[18]

The STAR and STAR-Plus programs were also introduced during his governorship. The STAR program introduced tax relief for New York's homeowners and landowners on their school taxes. The STAR-Plus program was later introduced when relief was diminished by increasing school taxes, increasing spending and State Aid.[19] In his third term Pataki challenged the Speaker of the Assembly, resulting in two Court of Appeals decisions sustaining the powers of the governor to formulate a statewide budget.[20] These decisions have been used by Governor Paterson and Governor Cuomo to rein in legislative budget initiatives beginning in 2010. The Cato Institute gave Pataki a C for his fiscal policy during the three terms in office,[21] saying that he wasn't the fiscal conservative that he originally claimed to be and that he had become a "big spender".[22]

Pataki created a series of Empire Zones statewide, which served to spur economic growth in cities by providing tax incentives for businesses. In addition, he used the state's banking laws to create banking development zones to entice banks to settle in upstate cities. Pataki considered casino gaming an economic development program for upstate New York, and he sponsored the creation of an Indian casino in Niagara Falls and in Buffalo to spur economic development. He also promoted tourism practices for the upstate economy and created centers for excellence in the sciences in several upstate cities to spur economic growth.

Pataki's tenure had been marked with the long-standing Campaign for Fiscal Equity suit regarding the state's funding of public education. The CFE sued in order to get more state money for the New York City public schools and to guarantee a sound education for all students. Pataki fought the lawsuit, saying that the state should not pay for the increased funding and that the state constitution only guaranteed a sound education until 8th grade. Pataki filed several appeals for the decisions and the final decision will be made after he leaves office.

As Governor of New York, Pataki received grades of A in 1996,[23][24] B in 1998,[25][26] B in 2000,[27][28] B in 2002,[29][30] B in 2004,[31][32] and D in 2006[33][34] from the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank, in their biennial Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors.

Casinos and upstate development

Yuko Nii and George Pataki
Pataki and philanthropist Yuko Nii

Pataki has been a long advocate of Native American casinos in upstate New York. He has proposed the creation of several casinos throughout Upstate with the revenue being shared by the state, tribe and municipal government. In the 1990s he was able to secure the creation of Turning Stone Resort & Casino on an Indian reservation outside Syracuse. His plans to create new casinos were blocked by Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver until after the Sept. 11 attacks, when Silver was persuaded that more money could come into the state government. Pataki soon signed an agreement to create new casinos in the Catskills, Niagara Falls, and in Buffalo. The Seneca Niagara Casino opened in Niagara Falls in January 2003.

As a part of the creation of the Seneca Niagara Casino in Niagara Falls, an agreement was reached to give a percentage of the slot machine revenue to the City of Niagara Falls each year to spend on local tourism projects and projects relating to hosting the casino. Money was allocated for 2003, but disputes have come up since then. Part of the dispute is a claim by Niagara County to receive a share of the money for county government projects and another part had to do with restructuring the local commission charged with allocating the money. Pataki has called for the money to be given to a state entity he created to spur economic development in Niagara Falls, thus leaving the money under his control, a decision that is opposed by local leaders.

Social policy

Abortion

Pataki describes himself as pro-choice.[9]

Gay rights

He heavily lobbied in favor of the Sexual Orientation Non-Discrimination Act, a gay rights bill[9] that had languished in the state Senate for many years due to the opposition of Senate Leader Joseph Bruno. In late 2002, Bruno finally gave in; the bill passed the Senate and was signed into law by Pataki. Bruno also admitted in the spring of 2009 (while out-of-power and facing trial on corruption charges) that he personally favored same-sex marriage but never brought it the floor of the State Senate because the majority of his conference was against it, stating "This is America, and we have inalienable rights ... Life is short, and we should all be afforded the same opportunities and rights to enjoy it."[35]

He opposed same-sex marriage as governor.[36]

Crime

Polls showed that the majority of New Yorkers wanted the state's death penalty laws restored. A bill to restore the death penalty passed the Legislature several years in a row, only to be vetoed by Mario Cuomo. Pataki made the issue a top priority of his and when the bill reached his desk he signed it into law in 1995. The state's Court of Appeals later ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in the form in which it was written (in the case of People v. LaValle), and the State Legislature has not passed a bill to restore it in a new form. During Pataki's 12 years as governor, not a single person was executed in New York State.

Being tough on crime was a major plank of Pataki's campaign for governor. In 2011, the administration touted statistics that illustrated that crime had steadily reduced during the 11 years Pataki had served as governor, bringing New York from the 6th most dangerous state in the nation to the 7th safest.[37] During his time in office, he signed into law over 100 new bills to change New York's criminal statutes. In 1995, Governor Pataki was able to uphold a campaign promise by reinstating capital punishment in New York with the Sentencing Reform Act.[38] The reinstatement of the death penalty was later suspended by the New York Court of Appeals (the state's highest court) in a 4–3 decision. In 2000, Pataki helped lead the legislature in passing some of the then-strictest gun control laws in the country.[39] Numerous aspects of the bill had been put forward by members of the Democratic-controlled Assembly but had never made it through the Republican held Senate. With numerous mass shootings in recent public memory, he urged a number of Republican Senators to support the bill, eventually passing it in a bipartisan effort. His administration also launched programs such as SAF-T (Statewide Anti-Fugitive Teams) and the 100 Most Wanted.[40] The initiatives were aimed at disseminating descriptions of criminals who were evading law enforcement officials to promote the ability of average citizens to help aid in their capture. Versions of Megan's Law and Kendra's Law were integrated into New York's laws under the governor as well as a number of reforms to the Rockefeller Drug Laws.[41][42] The changes to the Rockefeller laws were largely focused on inmates' ability to appeal for an early release from sentences that were passed on them under mandatory minimum sentencing statutes.[43]

Health care

Under the Pataki Administration a number of new health care programs were created focusing on expanding care to the state's poorest citizens. In 1999, Governor Pataki signed into law comprehensive health care legislation that provided health insurance coverage, under Family Health Plus, to lower income adults who do not have health insurance through their employers. Child Health plus greatly expanded coverage for poorer families with children under 19 who did not qualify for Medicaid.[44] By 2001, 530,000 children had been enrolled in the program.[45] Family Health Plus would expand insurance coverage even further, offering free insurance to families and single adults who had too much income to be covered by Medicaid but could not afford insurance.[45] Pataki also increased the affordability and availability of medication for seniors under New York's EPIC program by lowering fees and expanding eligibility.[46] New York's 2003 ban on smoking in public places was passed and signed into law under the Pataki administration in the hopes that it would promote better health in New York and reduce health care cost overtime.[47] Accessing his twelve years in office, The New York Times ran an editorial praising his work on health care.[48]

Environment

US Navy 020907-N-3399W-001 SECNAV announces naming of USS New York (LPD 21)
George Pataki at the USS New York, September 7, 2002 (back row, left)

Pataki has long been regarded as an environmentalist and he has made the environment and open space preservation a top priority of his administration. Pataki has conserved more land statewide and has pushed bond issues in referendums that provided more money to preserve land and clean up the state's rivers and lakes. He has been a long-standing advocate for cleaning up the Hudson River and in pushing stricter environmental regulations and penalties.

In 2005, Bloomberg Businessweek placed George Pataki among the 20 individuals it commended for their personal efforts to combat global warming, citing his Greenhouse Gas Task Force and efforts to increase New York's usage of renewable energies.[49] In 1996, Pataki oversaw the creation and passage of the Clean Water/Clean Air Environmental Bond Act. The act put forth $1.75 billion for over 2,200 environmentally minded projects throughout the state.[50] Projects were focused on improving drinking water quality, closing landfills, investing in recycling programs, cleaning up New York's polluted waterways, funding cleanup of Brownfields and clean-air projects.[51] During his tenure, Pataki added over 1 million acres to the entirety of the protected open spaces of New York.[52] He also worked to protect the drinking water of millions of New Yorkers through the Catskill Watershed Agreement.[53] Through the agreement, the numerous small communities that surround the 19 reservoirs that provide drinking water for New York City received $1 billion in aid to assuage environmental issues and promote local development in return for accepting higher standards of environmental regulations to better protect the reservoirs. On Pataki's final day in office, The New York Times ran an editorial evaluating his twelve years as governor and praised his work on the environment.[48]

Education

Pataki vetoed increases to spending at the State University of New York and City University of New York. In addition, he vetoed increases to funding for the state's tuition assistance program and equal opportunity program. His higher education policies have included calling for laws to limit the amount of time a student can receive state tuition assistance while in a public university, which he said would increase the rate of graduation in four years. He also appointed more SUNY and CUNY trustees who are against open enrollment and remedial education policies and who have pushed for a stricter core curriculum program in the public universities. Pataki was criticized for appointing his close friend and former budget director, Robert L. King, as the Chancellor of the State University of New York.

As a part of the CFE lawsuit, education advocates tried to seek state support and funding for mandatory pre-kindergarten classes in the state's public schools. Pataki blocked this measure, which had support from legislative leaders and was a pet issue of former Lt. Gov. Betsy McCaughey Ross.

Pataki heeded mounting desire to allow New York to join numerous other states in the growing movement for charter schools.[54] In 1998, Pataki prevailed upon the Legislature to pass a charter school law by threatening to veto a legislative pay raise if the bill was not passed.[55] Over the course of his terms in office, Pataki would expand the availability of charter schools in New York City and raise the state's cap on charter schools to 250.[56]

In coordination with Mayor Giuliani, Pataki pushed to begin disassembling the reputation of City University of New York system as a group of remedial schools.[57] Starting in 1999, CUNY colleges would be required to drop their remedial courses over a 3-year period and restrict students who could not pass entry exams in an effort to deliver a higher quality college education through the city colleges. Pataki also put forth legislation that would lend mayors in New York's five largest cities greater control over their education systems.[58] Through negotiations this authority was only awarded to the mayor of New York City as an attempt to overcome a system of school boards that many considered to be hampering efforts at reform.[59]

Political reform

Looking over his tenure, The New York Times ran an editorial that criticized Pataki for the lack of tangible political reform and the consolidation of power under his watch.[48] Prior to Pataki's departure, New York Post political writer Fred Dicker wrote a scathing critique of Pataki's tenure, accusing the Governor of broken promises, inattentiveness to his duties, and a focus on maintaining power. It was entitled "Good Riddance".[60]

September 11 terrorist attacks and aftermath

Pataki & Libeskind Battery Park 2571
Pataki at the Freedom Tower foundation, speaking to family members of 9/11 victims

Pataki's New York City office had moved out of the World Trade Center in the months before the September 11, 2001, attacks to new offices on Third Avenue and Fifth Street.

Pataki and Giuliani appointed the LMDC to distribute nearly $10 billion in federal grants and to oversee the construction of a memorial, which was completed in 2011. Giuliani had to step down because of term limits and Pataki took the lead on the building process, though the Port Authority is a state-run agency and thus Giuliani had very little control in the rebuilding effort anyway.

The Port Authority owns the WTC site and Larry Silverstein is the site lease holder. Governor Pataki effectively controlled development at the WTC site by the power to appoint half the Port Authority commissioners and half the LMDC board members. In late 2002, the LMDC picked a plan dubbed Project THINK to replace the 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of lost space and build a memorial. Pataki intervened to support a plan by Daniel Libeskind entitled Memory Foundations. When offered a choice between the Libeskind or THINK plans, the official LMDC poll showed that the public preferred "Neither".

Although eventually most of Libeskind's plan was to be ignored, it established two concepts that will define the Pataki legacy at Ground Zero – the placement (and name) of the 1,776-foot (541 m) high Freedom Tower and the concept that the memorial be below street level. A symbolic cornerstone for the Freedom Tower with Pataki's name was laid on July 4, 2004, and after numerous design changes, construction commenced in May, 2006.

Lieutenant governors

Betsy McCaughey Ross

Pataki's 1994 running mate for lieutenant governor was Betsy McCaughey, an academic best known for her critique of the Clinton health care plan. McCaughey was selected because of her work on the Clinton health care plan. It is reported that Pataki choose McCaughey over sofa bed heiress Bernadette Castro for the spot. Castro was nominated for the U.S. Senate in 1994.

McCaughey faced problems with Pataki and Pataki's staff from the start. It is reported that Pataki did not like McCaughey's relationship with the press or her public discussion of policy differences the two had. McCaughey also lost support from Pataki when she said that D'Amato had made suggestive comments to her.

In April 1997, Pataki announced that he was dropping Lt. Gov. McCaughey Ross from his 1998 reelection ticket. McCaughey Ross said she would seek elected office in 1998 either as lieutenant governor, governor or to the U. S. Senate. In September of that year, she became a Democrat and unsuccessfully sought the governorship in that party's primary. She was on the 1998 general election ballot as the nominee of the Liberal Party for governor.

Mary Donohue

After dropping McCaughey Ross from his 1998 ticket, Pataki considered several replacement running mates. In the spring of 1998 he announced his choice of State Supreme Court Justice Mary Donohue for lieutenant governor. It is reported that Pataki also considered State Parks Commissioner Bernadette Castro, Erie County Comptroller Nancy Naples and State Sen. Mary Lou Rath for the lieutenant governorship as well. Naples would later join Pataki's Cabinet as State Motor Vehicles Commissioner.

In office, Lieutenant Governor Donohue was relegated to projects outside the governor's inner circle. She worked on school violence prevention, local government, small business, and homeland security issues. Many of her duties consisted of delivering speeches to groups around the state or filling in for Pataki at ceremonial events. Donohue kept a generally low profile around the state.

In 2002, it was reported that Pataki considering dropping Lt. Gov. Donohue from his ticket and asking her to run for state attorney general instead. It is reported that he considered Secretary of State Randy Daniels and Erie County Executive Joel Giambra for lieutenant governor. Pataki decided to keep Lt. Gov. Donohue on as his 2002 running mate.

Donohue did not run to succeed Pataki in 2006. In December 2006, Pataki appointed Donohue to be a Judge of the New York Court of Claims.

Personal events

2000 presidential election

George Bush and George Pataki
Pataki with President George W. Bush and Lloyd Stamy

In July 2000, Pataki's name surfaced on the short list to be the running mate for Republican presidential nominee George W. Bush, along with the names of Governor John Engler of Michigan, Governor Tom Ridge of Pennsylvania, former Senator John Danforth of Missouri, and former U.S. Labor Secretary Elizabeth Dole of North Carolina. Bush eventually selected the man who was in charge of scouting vice presidential candidates, former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney. Pataki had strongly campaigned for Bush including an unsuccessful effort to keep John McCain off the New York primary ballot (which Bush ultimately won).

2004 Republican primary

Pataki and New York GOP Chairman Sandy Treadwell faced controversy after naming moderate Assemblyman Howard Mills the party's nominee for the U.S. Senate against Senator Chuck Schumer over conservative Michael Benjamin, who held significant advantages in both fund raising and organization.[61] Benjamin publicly accused Treadwell and Pataki of trying to muscle him out of the Senate race and undermine the democratic process.[61] Mills went on to lose the election in the largest landslide for a Senate seat in the history of New York.[62]

2004 presidential election

Pataki was instrumental in bringing the 2004 Republican National Convention to Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. New York City, which normally votes overwhelmingly Democratic (the Democratic Presidential candidates carried 78 percent of the city vote in both 2000 and 2004[63]), had never hosted a Republican Convention. He introduced President George W. Bush. A year prior, Pataki had boasted Bush would carry the state in the 2004 elections; Bush lost New York 58–40 to John Kerry. Pataki notably orated, referencing the recently deceased Ronald Reagan, "This fall, we're going to win one for the Gipper. But our opponents, they're going to lose one with the Flipper."[64]

2006 hospitalization

Pataki suffered a burst appendix and had an emergency appendectomy on February 16, 2006, at Hudson Valley Hospital Center. Six days later, he developed a post-surgical complication (bowel obstruction caused by adhesions)[65] and was transferred to New York-Presbyterian/Columbia Medical Center for a second operation. From there, he was discharged on March 6. Doctors advised rest at home since his conditions could last up to a month. On the week of March 20–24, 2006, he appeared at a public press conference looking fit and thinner to comment on the progress of the annual budget and the recent Campaign for Fiscal Equity ruling from the New York state court. During Pataki's two surgeries, when he was under anesthesia, power officially transferred to Lt. Gov. Mary Donohue, making her the state's acting governor.

Post-governorship

After leaving the governorship, Pataki joined the law firm Chadbourne & Parke in New York[66] joining their renewable energy practice. He continued to flirt with a possible bid for President. After ruling out a presidential campaign, Pataki retained his political action committee, which he could legally use to further his own views and other political interests. In addition, Pataki has formed an environmental consulting firm with his former chief of staff John Cahill, the Pataki-Cahill Group[67] and work with the Council on Foreign Relations on climate change issues. In the climate change issue, he is working with former Iowa Gov. Tom Vilsack. He also serves as the Vice-Chairman of the board of directors for the American Security Council Foundation.

Pataki holds an amateur radio license.[68]

United Nations

In September 2007, President George W. Bush appointed Pataki as a United States delegate to the 2007 United Nations General Assembly session. In this capacity, Pataki attended various meetings of the UN General Assembly and GA committees on behalf of the United States, during the annual GA session. When he was appointed to the post, to which he was confirmed by the United States Senate, Pataki announced he was planning on focusing on climate change and terrorism issues while at the UN. The UN post lasted for the length of the annual GA session.

Governor George E. Pataki Leadership and Learning Center

The Governor George E. Pataki Leadership and Learning Center, located in Peekskill, New York, is designed to educate schoolchildren on government using Governor Pataki's public service as an example.[69] Charles A. Gargano, Pataki's former economic development chief, led the effort to create the center.[70] On August 14, 2008, the New York Times announced that the center's sponsors had "filed paperwork with the State Department of Education and are trying to raise $500,000 for a start-up fund so they can open the center in the fall."[69] The center held Governor Pataki's official portrait, which was moved to Albany at the end of 2009.[71] The center has three directors: David Catalfamo, the governor's former communications chief; Kimberly Cappelleri, Libby Pataki's former chief of staff; and, Amy Holden, former executive assistant to the governor.[72]

Declined 2010 U.S. Senate bid

On February 19, 2009, the Associated Press reported that Pataki had been approached by Sen. John Cornyn, head of the Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee, about a possible 2010 run for the U.S. Senate seat to which Kirsten Gillibrand had been appointed.[73] On November 4, 2009, George Stephanopoulos, host of ABC News This Week, claimed "Pataki has told at least one major GOP donor in private that he is not interested in becoming a senator at the age of 64 and would rather run for president in 2012".[74] On November 5, the Queens Village Times reported:

At the state level, there is increasing speculation that former Republican Gov. George Pataki will be challenging U.S. Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand (D-N.Y.), who was appointed to fill out the term of now-U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Several weeks ago Pataki ... gave the impression of being a man beginning a serious political comeback. If that contest takes place, we will have a former three-term governor running for a U.S. Senate seat. ... Pataki will be running as the Republican and Conservative candidate in addition to possibly obtaining the nomination of the Independence Party.[75]

On April 13, 2010, Pataki confirmed that he would not run against Gillibrand.[76]

2012 presidential speculation

In November 2009, Pataki traveled to Iowa, sparking speculation.[77] Ending months of speculation, Pataki announced on August 26, 2011, that he would not run for the Republican presidential nomination.[78]

Revere America

Pataki announced in April 2010 that he was creating a nonprofit organization, Revere America, that would advocate repeal of the recently enacted United States Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which he said was a "horrific" and costly bungle.[79] As of 2014, the organization is defunct.

2016 presidential campaign

George Pataki by Gage Skidmore
Pataki speaking before the Iowa Republican Party in Des Moines, Iowa in May 2015.

On May 28, 2015, Pataki formally announced his campaign for the Republican nomination for President of the United States.[80] After having considered, but deciding against a run in both 2008 and 2012, the 2016 election was Pataki's first federal-level campaign.

Pataki's run failed to gain traction. He failed to make the main stage in the candidate debates, being relegated to the undercard debates or being excluded altogether. His national poll numbers stayed in the one percent range. As of December 17, 2015 Pataki had missed the filing deadlines for Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Virginia.[81][82][83][84][85][86] On December 29, Pataki ended his campaign,[87] and endorsed Florida Senator Marco Rubio. After Rubio's withdrawal he endorsed Ohio Governor John Kasich before the New York primary.

After video of Donald Trump making lewd comments about women emerged on October 7, 2016, Pataki said that the Republican nominee's candidacy was, "a poisonous mix of bigotry & ignorance." Pataki also said that he needed to step down.[88]

Foreign honors

See also

References

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  2. ^ Chris Cassidy. "Undecided George Pataki leads parade of govs into N.H." bostonherald.com. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  3. ^ "Former N.Y. Gov. George Pataki Announces 2016 White House Bid". NBC News. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
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  5. ^ a b c James Dao (1995-09-25). "In Hungary, Pataki Gets Treatment Of a Star". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  6. ^ Pataki, George (1998). PATAKI : AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Viking.
  7. ^ Joel Siegel. "The Pataki Puzzle". New York Magazine.
  8. ^ "N. Y. Gov. George Pataki to deliver Class Day address". Yale Daily News. 2002-05-26. Retrieved 2006-04-21.
  9. ^ a b c Burns, Alexander (May 28, 2015). "George Pataki Announces Run for the Republican Presidential Nomination". New York Times. New York. Retrieved May 28, 2015. A former Yale debater with an easy public demeanor, he supports abortion rights and pushed as governor for anti-discrimination rules protecting gays. He invokes Theodore Roosevelt, the Republican environmentalist and crusader against corporate power, as a political hero.
  10. ^ "George Pataki Biography". Archived from the original on 2006-04-15. Retrieved 2006-04-21.
  11. ^ Revkin, Andrew. "Pataki's Chief Deal Maker Departs". New York Times. October 2, 1997.
  12. ^ "Michael C. Finnegan, Business Leader, Irish Recipient 1997 Archived November 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". Ellis Island Medal of Honor. Retrieved on February 29, 2008.
  13. ^ Hernandez, Raymond. "Pataki's Counsel to Resign For Post at J. P. Morgan". New York Times. August 15, 1997.
  14. ^ "Deve Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  15. ^ "Rod Dreher on Andrew Cuomo on National Review Online". Nationalreview.com. 2002-09-04. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  16. ^ http://www.nyit.edu/box/multimedia/gov_george_pataki_addresses_nyit_graduates_in_2002
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  18. ^ Baker, Al; McGinty, Jo Craven. "Budget Growth Clouds Pataki Legacy of Tax Cuts". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
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  27. ^ Moore, Stephen; Slivinski, Stephen (February 12, 2001). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2000" (PDF). Policy Analysis No. 391. Cato Institute. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  28. ^ Moore, Stephen; Slivinski, Stephen (February 12, 2001). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2000". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
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  30. ^ Moore, Stephen; Slivinski, Stephen (September 20, 2002). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2002". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  31. ^ Moore, Stephen; Slivinski, Stephen (March 1, 2005). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2004" (PDF). Policy Analysis No. 537. Cato Institute. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  32. ^ Moore, Stephen; Slivinski, Stephen (March 1, 2005). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2004". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  33. ^ Slivinski, Stephen (October 24, 2006). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2006" (PDF). Policy Analysis No. 581. Cato Institute. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  34. ^ Slivinski, Stephen (October 24, 2006). "Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2006". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  35. ^ http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2009/06/14/2009-06-14_samesex_surprise_joe_bruno_former_ny_senate_leader_now_supports_gay_marriage.html Same-sex surprise: Joe Bruno, former NY Senate leader, now supports gay marriage
  36. ^ Ward, Jon (May 8, 2012). "George Pataki Calls On Obama To Take A Clear Stance On Gay Marriage". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  37. ^ "Crime Drops for Eleventh Straight Year Under Governor Pataki". Project Vote Smart. Press Release. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  38. ^ Glaberson, William (June 25, 2004). "4–3 Ruling Effectively Halts Death Penalty in New York". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  39. ^ "Pataki Signs Nation's Strictest Gun Controls". 2000-08-10.
  40. ^ News Report (August 21, 2005). "Pataki and John Walsh Launch New York State's 100 Most Wanted Fugitives Campaign". Government Technology. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  41. ^ Dao, James. "Pataki Signs Sex-Crime Bill Modeled on 'Megan's Law'". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  42. ^ "Advocates Give Praise for Passing of Kendra's Law". treatmentadvocacycenter.org. Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  43. ^ O'Donnell, Michelle (August 31, 2005). "Pataki Signs Bill Softening Drug Laws". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  44. ^ "Commissioner Novello Leads Child Health Plus Enrollment Day". NYS Department of Health. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
  45. ^ a b Steinhauer, Jennifer (May 31, 2001). "Pataki Winning Wider Health Care, a Step at a Time". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  46. ^ "Commissioner Novello Urges Seniors in Queens to Enroll in State's EPIC Program". NYS Department of Health. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
  47. ^ Cox, Matthew. "Pataki Signs New York Workplace Smoking Ban Into Law". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  48. ^ a b c "The George Pataki Era". The New York Times. 2006-12-31. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  49. ^ "Individual Achievers". Bloomberg Businessweek. December 11, 2005.
  50. ^ Hernandez, Raymond (August 2, 1996). "Pataki Signs Bill for Environmental Bond Act Referendum". New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  51. ^ Metzgar, Sarah (November 6, 1996). "State's Voters Approve Environmental Bond Act". The Times Union. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  52. ^ "Land Deal to Put Pataki Over The Million-Acre Mark in Preservation of Open Space". 2006-12-21.
  53. ^ "On Environment, Pataki Is Seen in All Shades of Green". 1996-01-24.
  54. ^ Hernendez, Raymond (January 13, 1997). "PATAKI PROPOSES TO LET PARENTS CREATE SCHOOLS". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  55. ^ Levy, Clifford (December 18, 1998). "Senate Passes Charter Plan for Schools". New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  56. ^ Medina, Jennifer (February 8, 2006). "Pataki Pla Would Allow City to Create Charter Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  57. ^ Arenson, Karen (May 7, 1998). "Pataki-Giuliani Plan Would Curb CUNY Colleges' Remedial Work". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  58. ^ Levy, Clifford (May 1, 1999). "Pataki Backs Mayoral Control of Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  59. ^ McKinley, James (June 12, 2002). "State Senate Passes Bill Giving Mayor Control of Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  60. ^ "Good Riddance", New York Post
  61. ^ a b "Senate hopeful claims GOP bosses snubbed him". Retrieved February 2, 2017.. Albany Times-Union, February 25, 2004.
  62. ^ Humbert, Marc (May 15, 2004). "Major Parties to Anoint their Senate Combatants". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 27, 2004. Retrieved October 27, 2004.
  63. ^ "Summary of election results". Board of Elections in the City of New York. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  64. ^ "Text: Remarks by Gov. George Pataki at the Republican National Convention". Washington Post. September 2, 2004. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
  65. ^ the New York Daily News, February 22, 2006, page 5 "GOV HAS ANOTHER SURGERY. BLOCKAGE IN INTESTINES– PATAKI IS NOW AT HOSP IN CITY"
  66. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (March 8, 2007). "New York: Albany: Pataki Joins Manhattan Law Firm". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  67. ^ "The Pataki-Cahill Group". The Pataki-Cahill Group. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  68. ^ "Amateur License - WB2AQC - PATAKI, GEORGE". FCC. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  69. ^ a b Berger, Joseph (August 14, 2008). "Well, a Pataki Center Would Play in Peekskill". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  70. ^ Blain, Glenn (2008-07-30). "By George! Collection for Pataki museum". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  71. ^ "Portrait hung in Peekskill on way to Capitol". The Journal News. 2009-01-05. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  72. ^ "Corporation established to create Pataki museum". Buffalo News. 2008-07-24. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  73. ^ New York Post Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ "George's Bottom Line" by George Stephanopoulos, ABC News, November 4, 2009
  75. ^ "Political Action" by William Lewis, Queens Village Times, November 5, 2009
  76. ^ "Pataki Isn't Joining New York Senate Race". The Wall Street Journal. April 14, 2010.
  77. ^ Irene Jay Liu (2009-11-06). "DNC: Pataki's 2012 aspirations the 'best news ... in a while'". Albany Times Union. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  78. ^ Mark Preston (2011-08-26). "Pataki decides against White House run". CNN. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
  79. ^ "Former N.Y. Gov. Pataki Announces Plan to Repeal Health Care Law". Fox News. April 14, 2010.
  80. ^ Ramer, Holly (May 28, 2015). "Former NY GOP governor Pataki in the race for president". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  81. ^ Svitek, Patrick (2015-12-14). "Gilmore, Pataki Miss Filing Deadline for Texas Primary". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  82. ^ "Gilmore, Pataki Miss Deadline to File for Ohio Primary". The National Journal. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  83. ^ "Pataki, Gilmore Fail to Qualify for Utah GOP Caucuses". The National Journal. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  84. ^ Goldmacher, Shane (2015-11-27). "The 2016 ballot wars begin". Politicol. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  85. ^ Dinan, Stephen (2015-11-09). "2016 GOP field largely intact after Alabama, Arkansas filing deadlines". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  86. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20151222131351/http://www.wfmz.com/news/news-election/pataki-not-on-floridas-gop-primary-ballot/36975460. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  87. ^ Kaminski, Joseph (December 30, 2015). "George Pataki Drops From GOP Race".
  88. ^ @GovernorPataki (7 October 2016). "I'm horrified by #TrumpTape news. @realDonaldTrump campaign is a poisonous mix of bigotry & ignorance. Enough! He needs to step down" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 12 December 2016 – via Twitter.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Fred Bianco
Mayor of Peekskill
1981–1984
Succeeded by
Richard E. Jackson
Preceded by
Mario Cuomo
Governor of New York
1995–2006
Succeeded by
Eliot Spitzer
New York Assembly
Preceded by
William J. Ryan
Member of the New York Assembly
from the 91st district

1985–1992
Succeeded by
Vincent Leibell
New York State Senate
Preceded by
Mary B. Goodhue
Member of the New York Senate
from the 37th district

1993–1994
Succeeded by
Vincent Leibell
Party political offices
Preceded by
Pete Rinfret
Republican nominee for Governor of New York
1994, 1998, 2002
Succeeded by
John Faso
1994 New York gubernatorial election

The New York gubernatorial election of 1994 was an election for the state governorship held on November 8, 1994. The election resulted in the upset defeat of Democratic incumbent Governor Mario Cuomo by Republican George Pataki. The win was one of the most notable of the "Republican Revolution" that year.

1998 New York gubernatorial election

The New York gubernatorial election of 1998 was an election for the state governorship held on November 3, 1998. Governor George Pataki, the Republican incumbent, was re-elected with 54% of the vote.

2002 New York gubernatorial election

The New York gubernatorial election of 2002 was held on November 5, 2002. Governor George Pataki, the two-term Republican incumbent, ran for a third term. Governor Pataki was re-elected to a third term, defeating Democrat Carl McCall and Rochester billionaire Tom Golisano (who ran on the Independence Party line). As of 2019, this is the most recent election in which a Republican was elected Governor of New York.

2006 New York gubernatorial election

The New York gubernatorial election of 2006 took place on November 7, 2006 to elect the governor and lieutenant governor of New York, concurrently with elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Eliot Spitzer was elected, succeeding Governor George Pataki, the three-term incumbent, who did not run for a fourth term.

Spitzer was slated to serve between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010, but he announced his resignation on March 12, 2008 (effective March 17, 2008), amid news of his involvement in a prostitution scandal. Spitzer was succeeded on March 17 by Lieutenant Governor David Paterson.

2006 New York state elections

New York held various elections on November 7, 2006. The senatorial and gubernatorial elections were two of the most lopsided elections in New York statewide election history.

Former Attorney General Eliot Spitzer won the 2006 election but announced his resignation on March 11, 2008, from the position of governor due to his involvement in a prostitution ring. He was elected by a large margin in 2006. Both U.S. Senators are Democrats, Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand. The previous governor was a Republican, George Pataki, who defeated incumbent Democrat Mario Cuomo in 1994 and was re-elected twice by wide margins. Republican Senator Alfonse D'Amato served until he was defeated in 1998 and before him long-time Senator Jacob Javits also served as a Republican, although he ran as a Liberal in 1980. Republican Congressmen William E. Miller and Jack Kemp were both from New York and were running mates for Barry Goldwater in 1964 and Bob Dole in 1996 respectively (though Kemp's appearance on the ballot occurred after his service in Congress). Despite the strong Democratic presence in New York City, Republican Rudolph Giuliani served two terms as mayor in the 1990s, and Michael Bloomberg was elected as a Republican twice, the first time being in 2001 and then again in 2005. He became an independent to be narrowly re-elected to his third and final term in 2009. However, in 2013, Democrat Bill de Blasio won back the mayoralty of New York City for his party with over 73% of the vote.

In 2006, Democrats made gains across the state, building on their existing majority. While Democrats had already been a strong force in the New York City area, most of the Democratic gains in 2006 occurred upstate. Democrat Eliot Spitzer won a landslide victory to replace George Pataki as governor, defeating John Faso 69-29%—the second-largest victory for a statewide candidate in New York history. Democrats Hillary Clinton, Andrew Cuomo and Alan Hevesi won the US Senate, Attorney General and State Comptroller races by wide margins respectively. For the first time in over 60 years, all major statewide elected offices are held by Democrats.

Republicans kept control of the State Senate, but lost the seat of Republican Nicholas Spano in Westchester County, and lost a Long Island seat in a 2007 special election, and an upstate seat in 2008. Democrats also gained three seats to build on their supermajority in the State Assembly. Republicans did gain a seat in the Assembly in 2007 in a special election in Upstate New York.

Democrats also won three Republican held congressional seats, all in Upstate New York. Democrat Michael Arcuri won the open seat of retiring Republican Sherwood Boehlert in the 24th Congressional District, which stretches across Central New York from Utica to Oneonta to the Finger Lakes. Democrat Kirsten Gillibrand defeated Republican incumbent John Sweeney in the 20th Congressional District, which includes Saratoga Springs and Glens Falls and takes in most of the upper Hudson Valley. Democrat John Hall defeated Republican incumbent Sue Kelly in the 19th Congressional district in the Lower Hudson Valley outside New York City. Of the nine Republican incumbents up for reelection in 2006, only one, John McHugh in the 23rd district (the far northern region of the state) won reelection with over 60% of the vote. Republicans James Walsh of Syracuse, Tom Reynolds of Clarence and Randy Kuhl of Bath all won re-election by narrow margins.

Aranyosapáti

Aranyosapáti is a village in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. John Pataki the paternal grandfather of former governor of the State of New York, George Pataki, was from Aranyosapáti.

Endorsements in the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries

This is a list of notable political endorsements for declared candidates for the Republican primaries for the 2016 United States presidential election. Endorsements are part of the "invisible primary" process, which occurs not only long before the general election in November 2016, but also largely occurs before even the caucuses and primaries have begun in February 2016.

Early endorsements were correlated with the success candidates achieved in caucuses and primaries, for elections from 1980 through 2004.

(See the UCLA School of Political Parties.)

Historically, there has been a correlation ("76% of the eventual vote percentage") between the percentage of political endorsements from sitting and former elected officials earned by a Republican candidate in the first half of the year prior to a presidential election (for the purposes of this article, January–June, 2015), with the percentage of votes cast for that candidate in Republican primaries during the first half of the election year (i.e., January–June, 2016).

The value of political endorsements varies, depending on whom they are from, when they are given, and other factors. Endorsements from politicians who live in states with early primaries are highly sought after. So are endorsements from governors, federal senators, and federal representatives. Endorsements from people from the candidate's home state are less valuable, unless multiple candidates from that state are running.

The impact of celebrity endorsements of political candidates is less clear, but can increase general election turnout,

or increase fundraising totals and media exposure.

Frank Milano

Frank P. Milano is a Judge of the New York Court of Claims who was Acting Secretary of State of New York.Milano served for several years in the administration of Gov. George Pataki as the First Deputy Secretary of State, and became Acting Secretary of State of New York upon the resignation of Randy Daniels on September 23, 2005. He held this post until the appointment of Christopher Jacobs in April 2006.

Milano served for over four years as the part-time town judge in Bethlehem, New York, a suburb of Albany. He was nominated by Pataki to the Court of Claims in June 2006 and was confirmed by the State Senate to a nine-year term.

Freedom Party of New York (2010)

The Freedom Party of New York is a party founded in 2010 by former Black Panther Party member and outgoing New York City Councilman Charles Barron on a black progressive platform.The name "Freedom Party of New York" can refer to two organizations. The first was formed in 1994 as a conservative party in support of the candidacy of George Pataki. The second, very different party was founded in 2010 by former Black Panther Party member and outgoing New York City Councilman Charles Barron on a black progressive platform.That party finished sixth out of seven candidates in the 2010 gubernatorial election, with Barron receiving 20,775 votes according to preliminary reports. The final vote was 24,572.The party held a founding convention February 13–14, 2011 in New York City, adopting a platform of "structural transformation of the political and economic system that included: An equitable redistribution of wealth, progressive taxation, free education from pre-k to post baccalaureate, jobs, reparations, housing, political prisoners, women’s rights, support for youth and seniors, end to police brutality and deadly force, and clean and renewable energy."

Michael K. Greys was the party's nominee in the 2013 New York City mayoral election. He finished in 11th place out of 15 candidates on the ballot with 690 votes. The party did not field a candidate in the 2014 gubernatorial election.

George Pataki 2016 presidential campaign

The 2016 presidential campaign of George Pataki, the 53rd Governor of New York, was formally launched on May 28, 2015. After having considered a candidacy in previous cycles, his campaign for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 election was his first bid for the presidency.

On December 29, 2015, Pataki told his supporters that his campaign was henceforth suspended.

Libby Pataki

Libby Pataki (born Mary Elizabeth Rowland; November 17, 1950) is the former First Lady of New York and the wife of former New York Governor George Pataki. She served as First Lady during the three terms of her husband's administration. Governor Pataki did not seek re-election to a fourth term in 2006.

Lieutenant Governor of New York

The Lieutenant Governor of New York is a constitutional office in the executive branch of the Government of the State of New York. It is the second highest-ranking official in state government. The lieutenant governor is elected on a ticket with the governor for a four-year term. Official duties dictated to the lieutenant governor under the present New York Constitution are to serve as president of the state senate, serve as acting governor in the absence of the governor from the state or the disability of the governor, or to become governor in the event of the governor's death, resignation or removal from office via impeachment. Additional statutory duties of the lieutenant governor are to serve on the New York Court for the Trial of Impeachments, the State Defense Council, and on the board of trustees of the College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

The office is currently held by Kathy Hochul.

Most lieutenant governors take on other duties as assigned to them by the governor. For example, Mary Donohue took on duties in the areas of small business, school violence, and land-use planning, along with serving as a surrogate speaker for the governor in upstate New York. Donohue's predecessor, Betsy McCaughey Ross, worked on Medicare and education policy, prior to her falling out with Governor George Pataki. Democrat Stan Lundine, who served under Governor Mario Cuomo, was active on technology and housing issues during his two terms in office.

While governor and lieutenant governor are elected by a single joint vote in the general election, they run separately in the primaries. In 1982, Mario Cuomo won the Democratic nomination for governor, but his running mate H. Carl McCall lost the lieutenant governor nomination to Alfred DelBello. DelBello was elected with Cuomo, but resigned in 1985, complaining that Cuomo did not give him anything to do.

McCaughey Ross had been elected on a ticket with Pataki in 1994 but soon broke with him on state policy. He dropped her from his 1998 re-election ticket, and she became a Democrat and ran for governor on the Liberal ticket.

Prior to Paterson succeeding Eliot Spitzer on March 17, 2008, the last lieutenant governor to succeed to the governorship was Malcolm Wilson following the 1973 resignation of Nelson Rockefeller when he became Vice President of the United States. Mario Cuomo was the last lieutenant governor to be elected governor.

List of Associate Judges of the New York Court of Appeals

This is a list of Associate Judges of the New York Court of Appeals, with their tenure on the court.

Nationwide opinion polling for the 2008 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article is a collection of nationwide public opinion polls that were conducted relating to the 2008 Republican presidential candidates, typically using standard statistical methodology. The public is generally sampled by land-line telephone only, and sometimes asked only about their opinion of certain candidates.

Pataki (surname)

Pataki, Pataky means "from (some) (-)Patak":

Allison Pataki (born 1984), American author

Andrew Pataki (born 1927), Bishop Emeritus of Passaic for the Byzantines

Attila Pataky, see Edda művek

William "Bill" Andrew Pataky (born 1930), Canadian basketball player

Elsa Lafuente Pataky (born 1976), Spanish actress

Etelka Barsi-Pataky (born 1941), Hungarian politician

Ferenc Pataki (1917–1988), Hungarian gymnast, Olympic champion

George Pataki (born 1945), Governor of New York (1995–2006)

Ladislav Pataki (1946–2007), Slovak-American coach, sports scientist, masters track & field thrower

Libby Pataki (born Elizabeth Rowland, 1950), wife of George Pataki, First Lady of New York (1995–2006)

Michael Pataki (1938–2010), American actor

Mihály Pataki (1893–1977), Hungarian amateur football player

Zita Pataki (born 1973), Hungarian news reporter

Qualified New York political parties

In New York State, to qualify for automatic ballot access, a party must have received at least 50,000 votes in the previous gubernatorial election. A party must run a gubernatorial candidate (as well as a lieutenant governor candidate, although the state will accept petitions without a lieutenant governor candidate if no other candidate challenges them) to be eligible for automatic ballot access; if 50,000 voters vote for that candidate on their party line, they have qualified the party for the next four general elections. A party that is not qualified may run candidates by completing a petition process. Parties are also allowed to cross-endorse candidates, whose votes are accumulated under electoral fusion, but any parties must cross-endorse both the governor and lieutenant governor candidates for fusion to apply. Parties that are already qualified must issue a Wilson Pakula authorization if they cross-endorse someone not enrolled in that party; there are no restrictions (other than that the candidate must be eligible for office) on who can be nominated on a non-qualified ballot line, as these lines are determined by filing petitions.

For statewide and special elections, automatic ballot access means that no petitions have to be filed to gain access to a ballot line, and party organizations can endorse candidates through their own conventions (this does not apply to legislative candidates, who still must petition onto the ballot regardless of party endorsement, but are only required to collect a third of the signatures required of non-qualified parties). Qualified parties also are the only parties eligible to hold primary elections in the state-run primary elections. In addition to determining whether they automatically qualify for the next four years, this also determines the order on the ballot; qualified parties are ranked in order of gubernatorial votes, with the party having the most votes atop the ballot.

In the 1994 election, the Democratic Party received the most votes, and so qualified to be first on the ballot for the next four years, even though their candidate, incumbent Governor Mario Cuomo, lost. George Pataki beat him because he received more votes combined over all of his party lines.

In the 2002 election, three qualified parties failed to re-qualify: the Liberal Party, Right to Life Party, and the Green Party. The Liberals became dormant, the Right to Life dramatically scaled back its operations, while the Greens continued mostly unaffected before re-qualifying in 2010. The same five parties who qualified in 2002 re-qualified in the 2006 election. After the 2010 elections, these parties with ballot access were joined by a sixth party, the Green Party.

Two additional parties qualified in the 2014 elections: the Women's Equality Party (a front for incumbent Governor Andrew Cuomo) and the Stop Common Core Party (a line created by Republican candidate Rob Astorino), later renamed the Reform Party. Both parties failed to re-qualify in the 2018 elections and were replaced with the Libertarian Party and Serve America Movement party who qualified.

Parties that do not qualify automatically can petition their way onto the ballot. For statewide candidates, this requires 15,000 signatures, and requires 100 signatures in at least half of the congressional districts in the state. The Socialist Workers Party regularly used this approach to appear on the ballot before abandoning its ballot-access efforts in 2010, then stopped running statewide candidates entirely in 2018. These parties also are not eligible to run primaries, and the first person to submit 15,000 signatures automatically gets the party line. (Sam Sloan attempted to use this tactic to take the 2010 and 2014 Libertarian gubernatorial nominations from that party's nominee, this before the Libertarians gained ballot access in 2018, but failed for lack of signatures.)

Sandra Frankel

Sandra L. Frankel is the former Supervisor of the Town of Brighton, Monroe County, New York. A former

Brighton school board member (6 years) and BOCES I Monroe Board of Education (10 years), Vice President of both, Frankel served for 20 years as town supervisor, the elected executive of an urban suburb of 35,000 population.

In 1998, Frankel won the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant Governor of New York in the 1998 statewide Primary Election. She lost the general election on a ticket with then New York City Council Speaker Peter Vallone. Republican Mary Donohue won the lieutenant governorship on a ticket with George Pataki.

In 2002, Frankel sought the lieutenant governorship again, but dropped out to foster party unity and endorsed Dennis Mehiel, who lost the general election on a ticket with State Comptroller Carl McCall.

Frankel was one of many names mentioned as a potential candidate for the New York's 29th congressional district election, 2010. She declined to run, leaving the race to Matthew Zeller.

In 2011, Frankel was the Democratic nominee for Monroe County Executive. She lost the race to incumbent Maggie Brooks, 57%-43%. She was again Democratic nominee for Monroe County Executive in 2015. She lost to County Clerk Cheryl DiNolfo 59%-41%. See http://www.SandyFrankel2015.com.

Statewide opinion polling for the 2008 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article is a collection of statewide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the Republican presidential primaries, 2008, typically using standard statistical methodology.

Statewide opinion polling for the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article contains opinion polling by U.S. state for the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries. The shading for each poll indicates the candidate(s) which are within one margin of error of the poll's leader.

For the significance of the earliest state votes, the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary, see United States presidential primary – Iowa and New Hampshire. For when any given state votes, see Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016 – Schedule of primaries and caucuses.

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