George Lincoln Rockwell

George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was an American politician, founder of the American Nazi Party.

During a successful career as a naval pilot, he was inspired by Senator Joseph McCarthy's stance against communism and became a keen apologist for Adolf Hitler and Nazism. On account of his political views, he was discharged from the US Navy amid much publicity, and founded the American Nazi Party in 1959. At one of their rallies, he claimed that 90% of Jews were traitors. He denied the Holocaust, and believed that Martin Luther King was a tool for Jewish communists wanting to rule the white community. As a racial separatist, he agreed with black nationalist groups led by Elijah Muhammad and others. In later years, Rockwell became increasingly aligned with other Nazi and Neo - Nazi groups in and out of America, and strived to follow in the footsteps of Adolf Hitler, advocate for the Nazi party, widespread Anti-Semitism, and Aryan superiority.

Rockwell was murdered by a former member of his own group in Arlington, Virginia in 1967. After his death, he became a source of inspiration for White nationalist politician David Duke.

George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell
Rockwell during his military service.
Commander of the American Nazi Party
In office
March 1959 – August 25, 1967
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byMatt Koehl
Leader of the World Union of National Socialists
In office
1962 – August 25, 1967
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byMatt Koehl
Personal details
BornMarch 9, 1918
Bloomington, Illinois, U.S.
DiedAugust 25, 1967 (aged 49)
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Cause of deathMurder
Political partyAmerican Nazi
Spouse(s)Judy Aultman (1943–1953)
Thóra Hallgrímsdóttir (1953–1961)
OccupationSailor, commercial artist, magazine publisher, politician, activist
Awards
Military service
AllegianceUnited States United States
Branch/serviceSeal of the United States Department of the Navy.svg United States Navy
Years of service1941–1960
RankUS-O5 insignia.svg Commander
Battles/warsWorld War II
Korean War

Early life

Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the first of three children of George Lovejoy "Doc" Rockwell and Claire (Schade) Rockwell. His father was born in Providence, Rhode Island, and was of English and Scottish ancestry. His mother was the daughter of Augustus Schade, a German immigrant, and Corrine Boudreau, who was of Acadian French ancestry. Both parents were vaudeville comedians and actors; and his father's acquaintances included Fred Allen and the Jewish entertainers Benny Goodman, Walter Winchell, Jack Benny, and Groucho Marx.[1][2] His parents divorced when Rockwell was six years old, and he divided his youth between his mother in Atlantic City, New Jersey and his father in Boothbay Harbor, Maine.[1]

Rockwell attended Atlantic City High School in Atlantic City, and applied to Harvard University when he was 17 years old. However, he was denied admission. One year later, his father enrolled him at Hebron Academy in Hebron, Maine.[3] He became an avid reader of Western philosophy and socially significant novels, leading him to re-examine the topic of religion. He had initially seen himself as a devout Protestant, but after reading the Bible numerous times, he perceived religion as a necessary pillar to civilization rather than literally true.

In August 1938, Rockwell enrolled at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island as a philosophy major.[1] In his sociology courses, he rejected equality, the idea that people were made by their environment, and the idea that all human beings had the same potential in life. He debated with fellow students over topics such as social themes in popular novels.

In his sophomore year, Rockwell dropped out of Brown University and accepted a commission in the United States Navy.[1]

Military service and marriages

Rockwell appreciated the order and discipline of the Navy, and attended flight schools in Massachusetts and Florida in 1940. He had a successful naval career, both on active duty and in the Naval Reserve. A veteran of World War II, he was a naval aviator and served a follow-up tour during the Korean War. He transferred to the naval reserve.

On April 24, 1943, Rockwell married Judith Aultman, whom he had met while attending Brown University. Aultman was a student at Pembroke College, which was the female section of the university. The couple had three daughters: Bonnie, Nancy, and Phoebe Jean. At the time, Rockwell was studying at the Navy's aerial photography school in South Florida. When he completed his training, he served in the Atlantic and Pacific theatres of World War II. He served aboard the USS Omaha, USS Pastores, USS Wasp and USS Mobile, primarily in support, photo reconnaissance, transport and training functions.[4] Though he never actually flew in combat, he was considered a good pilot and an efficient officer.[4]

In 1950, Rockwell was recalled to duty as a lieutenant commander at the beginning of the Korean War. He moved to San Diego, California with his wife and three children, where he trained Navy and United States Marine Corps pilots.[1]

In 1952, Rockwell was ordered to report to Norfolk, Virginia, where he was notified by a superior officer that he would be transferred to Iceland.[1] Because families were not permitted to be with American service personnel stationed there, his wife and children stayed with her mother in Barrington, Rhode Island. Due to the separation, his wife filed for divorce the following year. Several months after his return to Iceland, Rockwell attended a diplomatic party in the capital city of Reykjavík. He met Thóra Hallgrímsdóttir there, and they were married on October 3, 1953 in the Icelandic National Cathedral by Thóra's uncle, the bishop of Iceland. They spent their honeymoon in Berchtesgaden, Germany, where Hitler once owned the Berghof mountain retreat in the Bavarian Alps. Together they had three children: Hallgrímur, Margrét, and Bentína. In 1957, Hallgrímsdóttir's father went to the U.S. to bring his daughter home to Iceland because he had learned that Rockwell was "one of the most active racists in the United States."[5] She subsequently divorced Rockwell and remarried in 1963.[6]

In his 19 years of service, Rockwell had obtained the rank of commander, and he was commanding officer of several aviation reserve units. In 1960, as a result of his political activities, the United States Navy discharged Rockwell one year short of retirement because he was regarded as "not deployable" due to his political views. The proceedings to dismiss him were an extremely public affair, and Rockwell widely advertised the results, saying he "had basically been thrown out of the Navy", though he was still given an honorable discharge.[7]

Civilian career

After the war ended, Rockwell worked as a sign painter out of a small shop on land owned by his father in Boothbay Harbor.[4] In 1946, he entered the commercial art program at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York.[1] He and his wife Judith moved to New York City so he could study at Pratt. He did well at Pratt, winning the $1,000 first prize for an advertisement he did for the American Cancer Society.[1][8] However, he left Pratt before finishing his final year, and moved to Maine to found his own advertising agency.[4]

Rockwell saw a business opportunity in publishing a magazine for United States servicemen's wives. In September 1955, he launched the U.S. Lady. After presenting the idea to the generals and admirals who headed public relations departments of the military services, Rockwell began publishing in Washington, D.C. The new enterprise also incorporated Rockwell's political causes: his opposition to both racial integration and communism. He financed the operation through stock sales and subscriptions. With a staff of 30 workers, Rockwell only could promise to pay his employees before the launch of the first issue. The publication continued to have financial problems, and he sold the magazine. However, he still aspired to pursue a career in publishing.

Nazism

Becoming a Nazi

It was during his time in San Diego that Rockwell became a supporter of Adolf Hitler and Nazism.[10]:10 He was influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy's stance against communism. Rockwell supported General Douglas MacArthur's candidacy for president of the United States. He adopted the corncob pipe, following MacArthur's example.

He then read Hitler's manifesto Mein Kampf and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Privately, he adopted their beliefs. He published an Animal Farm-type parody, the long-form poem The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens. This was Rockwell's interpretation of Jewish power in the United States in the 20th century. In 1952, Rockwell began working with anti-semitic and anti-Communist groups.

That year, he attended the American Nationalist Conference, which was organized by Conde McGinley's Christian Educational Association.

After his move to Washington, D.C. in 1955, he gradually became radicalized until, in the words of his biographer, he was "on the farthest fringe of the right wing."[10]:24–25 In July 1958, Rockwell demonstrated in front of the White House in an anti-war protest against President Dwight D. Eisenhower's decision to send peace-keeping troops to the Middle East. One day he received a large package from a supporter; it contained an 18-foot-long Swastika flag. He placed the flag on the wall of his home and made a shrine with Hitler's photo in the center and three lighted candles in front. In his autobiography, Rockwell claimed to have had a spiritual experience and swore allegiance to his leader. Rockwell and a few supporters had uniforms. They armed themselves with rifles and revolvers, and paraded about his home in Arlington, Virginia. The window to his home was left open, so that others could see the huge Swastika flag. Drew Pearson wrote a news column about Rockwell, giving him his first taste of publicity. In the presidential election of 1964, Rockwell ran as a write-in candidate, receiving 212 votes.[11] He ran unsuccessfully in the Virginia gubernatorial election of 1965 as an independent, this time polling 5,730 votes, or 1.02 percent of the total, finishing last among the four candidates.[12]

American Nazi Party

In March 1959, Rockwell founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), a name selected to denote opposition to state ownership of property. In December, the organization was renamed the American Nazi Party, and its headquarters was relocated to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, Virginia.

In order to attract media attention, Rockwell held a rally on April 3, 1960 on the National Mall of Washington, D.C., where he addressed the crowd with a two-hour speech. The second rally was to be held at Union Square in New York City. Mayor Robert Wagner refused to grant him a permit to speak, and he appealed that decision to the New York Supreme Court. Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors gathered to oppose his appeal and, during a court recess, when Rockwell emerged in the courthouse rotunda, he was surrounded by a crowd of television reporters. One of the reporters, Reese Schonfeld, asked Rockwell how he would treat Jews if he came to power in the United States. Rockwell replied by stating that he would treat Jews just as he treated all other American citizens. If they were loyal Americans, everything would be fine; if they were traitors, they would be executed. When Schonfeld asked Rockwell what percentage of Jews he perceived were traitors, Rockwell replied, "90 percent."[13] The Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors rioted and began beating Rockwell and the reporter with their umbrellas, and Rockwell was escorted from the courthouse rotunda with a police convoy. Rockwell, with the aid of the ACLU, eventually won his permit, but it was long after the date of the planned event.[14]

The third rally was set for July 4, 1960, again held on the National Mall. Rockwell and his men were confronted by a mob and a riot ensued. The police arrested Rockwell and eight party members. Rockwell demanded a trial, and instead, he was committed to a psychiatric hospital for 30 days. In less than two weeks, he was released and found mentally competent to stand trial. He published a pamphlet inspired by this experience titled How to Get Out or Stay Out of the Insane Asylum.

In the summer of 1966, Rockwell led a counter-demonstration against Martin Luther King's attempt to bring an end to de facto segregation in the white Chicago suburb of Cicero, Illinois. He believed that King was a tool for Jewish Communists who wanted to integrate America.[15] Rockwell believed that integration was a Jewish plot to rule the white community.[16]

Rockwell led the American Nazi Party in assisting the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations during the Civil Rights Movement, in attempts to counter the Freedom Riders and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. But he soon came to believe that the Klan was stuck in the past and ineffective in helping him wage a modern racial struggle. After hearing the slogan "Black Power" during a debate in 1966 with Black Panther Stokely Carmichael, Rockwell altered the phrase and started a call for "White Power".[17] White Power later became the name of the party's newspaper and the title of a book authored by Rockwell. The party produced and distributed a number of pamphlets and books, including writings by Rockwell, the periodical Stormtrooper Magazine (originally National Socialist Bulletin), and a propaganda comic book, Here Comes Whiteman!, where the title superhero character battles enemies modeled after racist stereotypes.

Rockwell was a Holocaust denier. In an April 1966 interview for Playboy conducted by journalist Alex Haley, Rockwell stated, "I don't believe for one minute that any 6,000,000 Jews were exterminated by Hitler. It never happened."[1] When asked in a 1965 interview with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation if the Holocaust were true, Rockwell replied by claiming he had "incontrovertible documentary proof that that's not true."[18]

In the same 1965 interview with the CBC, Rockwell acknowledged that members in his party were homosexuals, but have been "rescued" by him since joining the organization. Rockwell stated that he views homosexuality as a crime against humanity and that active gay individuals should be gassed along with other traitors.

The two-story farm house Rockwell established as his "Stormtrooper Barracks" was located at 6150 Wilson Boulevard in the Dominion Hills district of Arlington, Virginia. It was there that the interview with Alex Haley occurred. Situated on the tallest hill in Arlington County, the house has been razed, and the property has been incorporated into the Upton Hill Regional Park. A small pavilion with picnic tables marks the house's former location. The site of the party headquarters, 928 North Randolph Street in the Ballston area of Arlington, is now a hotel and office building. After Rockwell's death, his successor, Matt Koehl, relocated the headquarters to 2507 North Franklin Road in the Clarendon area.[19] It became the last physical address of the party before Koehl moved it to New Berlin, Wisconsin in the mid-1980s. The small building, often misidentified today as Rockwell's former headquarters, is now a coffee shop called The Java Shack.[20][21]

Hatenanny Records and the Hate Bus

In the 1960s, Rockwell attempted to draw attention to his cause by starting a small record label, named Hatenanny Records. The name was based on the word "hootenanny", a term given to folk music performances. The label released two 45 RPM singles of music with openly racist lyrics, and were sold mostly through mail order and at party rallies. When the Freedom Riders drove their campaign to desegregate bus stations in the Deep South, Rockwell secured a Volkswagen van and decorated it with White supremacist slogans, dubbing it the "Hate Bus" and personally driving it to speaking engagements and party rallies.[2][22][23][24] According to an FBI report on the American Nazi Party, the van was repossessed after a loan default.[25]

Black nationalism and Christian Identity

George Lincoln Rockwell got along well with many Black nationalist groups and their leaders such as Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X as they shared the goal of racial separation.[26] Rockwell told his followers that Elijah Muhammad "has gathered millions of the dirty, immoral, drunken, filthy-mouthed, lazy and repulsive people sneeringly called 'niggers' and inspired them to the point where they are clean, sober, honest, hard working, dignified, dedicated and admirable human beings in spite of their color ... Muhammad knows that mixing is a Jewish fraud and leads only to aggravation of the problems that it is supposed to solve ... I have talked to the Muslim leaders and am certain that a workable plan for separation of the races could be effected to the satisfaction of all concerned—except the communist-Jew agitators." He also said of Elijah Muhammad "I am fully in concert with their program, and I have the highest respect for Elijah Muhammad." He referred to Elijah Muhammad as "The Black People's Hitler" and donated $20 to the Nation of Islam on an event on 25 June 1961.[27]

Inspired by black Muslims' use of religion to mobilize people, Rockwell sought collaboration with Christian Identity groups. In June 1964, he formed an alliance with Identity minister Wesley A. Swift and began to promote his ideas within the Identity movement.

Murder

On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was shot and killed while leaving a laundromat in Arlington, Virginia.[28][29][30] John Patler, a recently expelled member of Rockwell's group,[30][31] was convicted of the murder in December 1967, and sentenced to 20 years in prison. He served an initial eight years in prison, and later a further six years following a parole violation. Hearing of his son's death, Rockwell's 78-year-old father said: "I am not surprised at all. I've expected it for quite some time."[3][28][32][33]

Matt Koehl, the second in command at NSWPP, moved to establish control over Rockwell's body and the assets of the NSWPP, which at the time had some 300 active members and 3,000 financial supporters. Rockwell's parents wanted a private burial in Maine, but declined to fight with the Nazis over the question. On August 27, an NSWPP spokesman reported that federal officials had approved a military burial at Culpeper National Cemetery, Rockwell being an honorably discharged veteran.[34] The cemetery specified that no Nazi insignia could be displayed, and when the 50 mourners violated these conditions, the entrance to the cemetery was blocked in a five-hour standoff, during which the hearse (which had been stopped on railroad tracks near the cemetery) was nearly struck by an approaching train. The next day, Rockwell's body was cremated.[35]

Legacy

Called the "American Hitler" by the BBC,[28] Rockwell was a source of inspiration for White nationalist politician David Duke. As a student in high school, when Duke learned of Rockwell's murder, he reportedly said "The greatest American who ever lived has been shot down and killed."[36] In the mid-1960s, Rockwell had a strategy to develop his Nazi political philosophy within the Christian Identity religious movement. The Christian Identity group Aryan Nations started to use various Nazi flags in its services, and its security personnel started wearing uniforms similar to those worn by Rockwell's stormtroopers. Two of Rockwell's associates, Matt Koehl and William Luther Pierce, formed their own organizations. Koehl, who was Rockwell's successor, renamed the NSWPP the New Order in 1983 and relocated it to Wisconsin shortly thereafter. Pierce founded the National Alliance.

George Lincoln Rockwell is mentioned in the lyrics to the Bob Dylan song "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues". In the lyrics to the song, the narrator parodies Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson as being Communists, and claims that the only "true American" is George Lincoln Rockwell. Quoting the lyrics: "I know for a fact that he hates Commies, 'cause he picketed the movie Exodus."[37]

For their 1972 album Not Insane or Anything You Want To, the comedy troupe Firesign Theatre created a fictional presidential candidate, George Papoon, running on the equally fictional ticket, the Natural Surrealist Light Peoples Party, the name taken as an apparent parody of Rockwell's own group, the National Socialist White Peoples Party.[38]

In the television miniseries Roots: The Next Generations, Marlon Brando portrayed Rockwell and won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his performance. On the post-World War II alternative history TV show The Man in the High Castle, Nazi-ruled New York City's main airport is named Lincoln Rockwell Airport, and David Furr portrayed Rockwell himself as the Reichsmarshall of North America in the show's third season.

Works

  • This Time the World (1961)
  • White Power (1966)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rockwell, George Lincoln (April 1966). "Interview with George Lincoln Rockwell". Playboy (Interview). Interviewed by Alex Haley. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008.
  2. ^ a b Powell, Lawrence N. (1997), "When Hate Came to Town: New Orleans' Jews and George Lincoln Rockwell", American Jewish History, 85 (4), pp. 393–419, archived from the original on March 15, 2005
  3. ^ a b Beem, Engar Allen (August 2008). "Rogues, Rascals, & Villains". Down East: the Magazine of Maine: 117–118. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d Simonelli, Frederick James (1999). American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. University of Illinois Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-252-02285-8.
  5. ^ George Lincoln Rockwell, This Time the World (Parliament House 1961; Reprinted by White Power Publications, 1979; and later Liberty Bell Publications, 2004, ISBN 1-59364-014-5), https://archive.org/details/ThisTimeTheWorld_37; Roger Boyes, Meltdown Iceland: Lessons on the World Financial Crisis from a Small Bankrupt Island (New York: Bloomsbury, 2009), pp. 63–64; Ingi Freyr Vilhjálmsson, Hamskiptin: Þegar allt varð falt á Íslandi (Reykjavík: Veröld, 2014), p. 55.
  6. ^ This Time The World, the autobiography of George Lincoln Rockwell; Roger Boyes, Meltdown Iceland: Lessons on the World Financial Crisis from a Small Bankrupt Island (New York: Bloomsbury, 2009), pp. 63–64.
  7. ^ "Separation and Discharge Proceedings of Commander George Lincoln Rockwell", Bureau of Naval Personnel, February 1, 1960.
  8. ^ Rockwell, George Lincoln, This Time The World, p. 32
  9. ^ Simonelli, Frederick James (1999). American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. University of Illinois Press. p. 53 ISBN 0-252-02285-8.
  10. ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (July 31, 2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity (Reissue ed.). New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814731550.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - US President National Vote Race - Nov 03, 1964". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  12. ^ University of Virginia Library Archived July 8, 2012, at Archive.today
  13. ^ Schonfeld, Reese. Ted and Me Against the World. p. 26.
  14. ^ Matter of Rockwell v. Morris, 10 721 (NY 2d June 9, 1961).
  15. ^ Rockwell, George Lincoln. "Chapter 4". White Power.
  16. ^ Rockwell, George Lincoln (1966). "1966 Playboy interview". Playboy (Interview). Interviewed by Alex Haley. reprinted online at archive.org. p. 9.
  17. ^ George Lincoln Rockwell vs Stokely Carmichael at archive.org
  18. ^ "George Lincoln Rockwell". YouTube.com. 1965.
  19. ^ Barrett, H. Michael. "Pierce, Koehl and the National Socialist White People's Party Internal Split of 1970". heretical.com. The Heretical Press. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  20. ^ Weingarten, Gene (February 10, 2008). "It's Just Nazi Same Place". Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  21. ^ Cooper, Rebecca A. (March 8, 2011). "Java Shack glimpses its past as Nazi headquarters". TDB.com. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  22. ^ "Riding the Hate Bus, 1961". Messynessychic.com. March 25, 2014.
  23. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (January 15, 2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Books.google.com. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  24. ^ Boyd, Herb. We Shall Overcome with 2 Audio CDs: The History of the Civil Rights Movement. Books.google.com. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  25. ^ American Nazi Party Monograph, Federal Bureau of Investigation, June 1965, p. 50
  26. ^ "George Lincoln Rockwell Meets Elijah Muhammad". www.anthonyflood.com. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  27. ^ "When Malcolm X Met the Nazis". April 16, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  28. ^ a b c "1967: 'American Hitler' shot dead". BBC. August 25, 1967. Retrieved August 22, 2007.
  29. ^ Clark, Charles S. (December 30, 2010). "Death of an Arlington Nazi". Northern Virginia Magazine.
  30. ^ a b Graham, Fred P. (August 26, 1967). "Rockwell, U.S. Nazi, Slain; Ex-Aide Is Held as Sniper". The New York Times. pp. 1, 14.
  31. ^ "Rockwell Aide Charge in Slaying". The News and Courier. Charleston, South Carolina. August 26, 1967.
  32. ^ "Patler convicted, faces 20 years". Free Lance-Star. December 16, 1967. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
  33. ^ "Killer of American Nazi Chief Paroled". St Joseph News-Press. August 23, 1975. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
  34. ^ "Rockwell Burial Causes A Dispute". The New York Times. August 27, 1967. p. 28.
  35. ^ "George Lincoln Rockwell". Find A Grave (unreliable source?). Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  36. ^ Langer, Elinor (2004), A Hundred Little Hitlers, New York: Picador, p. 131
  37. ^ "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues". Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  38. ^ "FiresignTheatre.com – Join the Papoon Bandwagon!". Retrieved October 8, 2016.

Bibliography

  • Schmaltz, William H. (2001). Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. Brasseys, Inc. ISBN 1-57488-262-7.
  • Griffin, Robert S. (2001). The Fame of a Dead Man's Deeds. 1st Books Library. pp. 87–115. ISBN 0-7596-0933-0.
  • Mason, James. "Appendix III contains Mason's "George Lincoln Rockwell: A Sketch of His Life and Career"; introduced by Ryan Schuster". Siege: The Collected Writings of James Mason. Black Sun Publications. ISBN 0-9724408-0-1.

External links

Party political offices
New office 0Commander of the American Nazi Party0
1958–1967
Succeeded by
Matt Koehl
0Leader of the World Union of National Socialists0
1962–1967
1965 United States gubernatorial elections

United States gubernatorial elections were held in November 1965, in two states.

1965 Virginia gubernatorial election

In the 1965 Virginia gubernatorial election, incumbent Governor Albertis S. Harrison, Jr., a Democrat, was unable to seek re-election due to term limits. A. Linwood Holton, Jr., an attorney from Roanoke, was nominated by the Republican Party to run against Democratic Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Mills E. Godwin, Jr..

George Lincoln Rockwell, an avowed White Supremacist and founder/leader of the American Nazi Party, ran as an independent candidate.

American Nazi Party

The American Nazi Party (ANP) is a far-right American political party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell with its headquarters in Arlington, Virginia. Rockwell founded the organization as the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), but renamed it the American Nazi Party in 1960. Since the late 1960s, a number of small groups have used the name "American Nazi Party" with most being independent from each other and disbanding before the 21st century. The party is based largely upon the ideals and policies of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in Germany during the Nazi era, and embraced its uniforms and iconography. Shortly after Rockwell's assassination in 1967, the organization appointed Rockwell's second in command, Deputy Commander Matt Koehl as the new leader. The American Nazi Party, now under Koehl's command, was subject to ideological disagreements between members in the 1970s and 1980s. "In 1982, Martin Kerr, a leader at the Franklin Road headquarters, announced that the organization was changing its name to the New Order and moving to the Midwest," effective January 1, 1983. Due to recruitment issues along with financial and legal trouble, Koehl was forced to relocate the group's headquarters from the DC area, eventually finding his way to scattered locations in Wisconsin and Michigan. After Koehl's death in 2014, long-time member and officer of the New Order, Martin Kerr assumed leadership and maintains the New Order website and organization.

A former member of the original American Nazi Party, Rocky Suhayda, founded his own organization using the American Nazi Party name and has been active since at least 2008. Suhayda claims Rockwell as its founder despite no direct legal or financial link between it and Rockwell's legacy organization. The one connection between the original American Nazi Party and Rocky Suhayda's group besides ideology is that they sell reprints of Rockwell's 1960s-era magazine The Stormtrooper on their website. Suhayda's American Nazi Party condemns the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States, the National Socialist Movement. Suhayda's party does not consider the NSM to be a national socialist group and Suhayda says the NSM founder, Clifford Herrington, husband of the founder of Joy of Satan, is a devil-worshiper.

Dan Burros

Daniel Burros (March 5, 1937 – October 31, 1965) was a Jewish American who was a former member of the American Nazi Party. Later, after a falling-out with founder George Lincoln Rockwell, Burros became a Kleagle, or recruiter, for the New York State branch of the United Klans of America, one of the most violent Klan groups of the time.Burros committed suicide on October 31, 1965, hours after his Jewish heritage was made public. He shot himself in the chest and then the head. At the time, he was reportedly listening to music composed by Richard Wagner.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was a religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975. He was a mentor to Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan and Muhammad Ali, as well as his own son, Warith Deen Mohammed.

Girl Power (video)

Girl Power is a queer feminist video made in 1992 by Sadie Benning with a Fisher-Price PixelVision camera. The video, which runs for 15 minutes, is considered at once a reflection on Benning's unhappy childhood and a celebration of her sexuality and the Riot grrrl subculture. The video was featured in "Pixel This Vision", a project organized by The Balagan Experimental Film & Video Series to "put together a program of the best of PixelVision"The video is composed of home video footage featuring Benning as a young child, shots of notable pop culture figures (Blondie, Matt Dillon), scenes of theft captured by security cameras, cropped text from riot grrrl zines, grainy clips of explosive war sites, segments from famous films and television, "a homophobic diatribe delivered by American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell", and alarming alerts such as "violent youth fierce and furious!" and "get ready for the shock of your life". Benning supplements this collage of taped footage with a compilation of audio: Bikini Kill songs, the Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight", dialogue from television commercials, and her own voice over and first-person narrative.While Benning's videos have often been called "coming-out" narratives and are mostly screened at gay and lesbian festivals, Girl Power has been recognized for its formulation of the adolescent girl as a "gendered sign of cultural reorientation". The emergence of the female child as a subject of feminist discourse, as demonstrated in Benning's work, is considered a major outgrowth of 1990s cultural phenomena, and appears in everything from scholar Shulamith Firestone's The Dialectic of Sex to the music of pop icons, the Spice Girls.

James Mason (neo-Nazi)

James Nolan Mason (born July 25, 1952) is an American neo-Nazi.

John Patler

John Patler (born January 6, 1938) is an American former neo-Nazi who was convicted of killing American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell on August 25, 1967.

Margrét Þóra Hallgrímsson

Margrét Þóra (Thora) Hallgrímsson (born 28 January 1930) is the wife of the businessman Björgólfur Guðmundsson and like him was a prominent figure in the cultural and business life of Iceland from around 2002–2008. She is also the former wife of American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell.

Matthias Koehl

Matthias Koehl Jr. (January 22, 1935 – October 9/10, 2014) was an American Marine, a neo-Nazi politician and writer. He succeeded George Lincoln Rockwell as the longest serving leader of the American Nazi Party from 1967 to 2014.

Like the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano, Koehl was influenced by the occultism of the Greek-French writer Savitri Devi. He was also a close friend of the Dutch World War II Nazi collaborator Florentine Rost van Tonningen.

National Socialist Party of America

The National Socialist Party of America was a Chicago-based organization founded in 1970 by Frank Collin shortly after he left the National Socialist White People's Party. The NSWPP had been the American Nazi Party until shortly after the assassination of leader George Lincoln Rockwell in 1967. Collin, a follower of Rockwell, developed differences with his successor Matt Koehl.

The party's headquarters were in Chicago's Marquette Park, and its main activity in the early 1970s was organizing loud demonstrations against blacks moving into previously all-white neighborhoods. The marches and community reaction led the city of Chicago to ban all demonstrations in Marquette Park unless they paid an insurance fee of $250,000. While challenging the city's actions in the courts, the party decided to redirect its attention to Chicago's suburbs, which had no such restrictions.

National Youth Alliance

The National Youth Alliance (NYA) was an American right-wing political organization founded on November 15, 1968, at the Army and Navy Club by Willis Carto, head of the right-wing Liberty Lobby.[1] The aim of the group was to recruit students to counter liberal and Marxist groups on college campuses like Students for a Democratic Society. The NYA emerged from an earlier group connected to Willis Carto known as the Youth for Wallace, which had supported segregationist Governor George Wallace's bid for president as American Independent Party candidate in 1968.

Willis Carto was known to be a devotee of the writings of Francis Parker Yockey, a neo-Nazi writer during the post-World War II era who revered Adolf Hitler. Yockey's best known book, Imperium, was adopted by Carto as his own guiding ideology and used as the philosophical basis of the National Youth Alliance.

One of the members of the National Youth Alliance was William Luther Pierce, previously a prominent figure in the National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP), the successor organisation to the American Nazi Party (ANP) that fell apart after the August 1967 assassination of its leader George Lincoln Rockwell. Pierce joined the National Youth Alliance in 1970 after leaving the NSWPP.

By 1971, a rift had developed between Carto and Pierce. Accusations by Carto emerged alleging that Pierce had stolen the mailing list of his Liberty Lobby organization and used it to send letters attacking Carto's group. The group split into factions, with Pierce and his supporters forming the National Alliance.

Rockwell (surname)

Rockwell is an English surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Dick Rockwell, American comic strip and comic book artist, nephew of Norman Rockwell

Francis W. Rockwell, United States Congressman from Massachusetts

Francis W. Rockwell (admiral), United States Navy Admiral, served in World War I and World War II

George Lincoln Rockwell, 1960s American Neo-Nazi leader

George Lovejoy Rockwell, American vaudeville performer and radio personality

Julius Rockwell, United States politician from Massachusetts

Lew Rockwell, libertarian and founder and president of the Ludwig von Mises Institute

Norman Rockwell, American painter and illustrator

Porter Rockwell, a colorful figure of the Wild West period of American History

Sam Rockwell, American actor

Stanley Pickett Rockwell (1886-1940), American metallurgist and co-inventor of Rockwell hardeness tester

Thomas Rockwell, American author and son of Norman Rockwell

Willard Rockwell, a businessman who helped shape and name what became Rockwell International

William W. Rockwell (born 1824), New York politician

Rocky Suhayda

Rocky Joe Suhayda (born 1952) is an American activist, who currently serves as Chairman of the American Nazi Party. He has held the office since at least 2000. He and his Party are based in Michigan.Suhayda graduated from Bentley High School in Livonia, Michigan, in 1969. He worked in the shipping and receiving department of the Garden City Osteopathic Hospital. Suhayda has run unsuccessfully for public office on several occasions, including for the Livonia School District and the Livonia City Council.Suhayda was a member of the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists and the National Association for the Advancement of White People, and subsequently founded his own organization under the name of the American Nazi Party. Suhayda's organization claims a connection to the American Nazi Party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell in 1959, but it is officially a separate entity. He was a member of the National White People's Party in 1976, but resigned some point before 1979. As of 1979, he was the Chairman of a 12-member group called The National Front. Suhayda has stated that he represents a Livonia chapter of the Ku Klux Klan.Shortly after the September 11 attacks, Suhayda stated that "if we were one-tenth as serious as the bin Laden terrorists, we just might start getting somewhere." In 2016, Suhayda stated on his radio show that a Donald Trump presidency could give American Nazis the chance to build a 'pro-white' political caucus similar to the Congressional Black Caucus. He publicly supported the appointment of Steve Bannon to the position of chief strategist in Donald Trump's White House.

Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues

"Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues", also known as "Talkin' John Birch Society Blues" and "Talkin' John Birch Blues", is a protest song and talking blues song written by singer-songwriter Bob Dylan in 1962. It is a satirical song, in which a paranoid narrator is convinced that communists, or "Reds" as he calls them, are infiltrating the country. He joins the John Birch Society, an anti-communist group, and begins searching for Reds everywhere. The narrator decries Betsy Ross as a communist and four U.S. Presidents as Russian spies, while lauding Adolf Hitler and George Lincoln Rockwell. After exhausting the possibilities of new places to find communists, he begins to investigate himself.

Dylan was given the opportunity to perform on The Ed Sullivan Show and wanted to sing "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues" on the program. CBS worried that including the song on the show could result in a defamation suit from members of the John Birch Society. When Dylan refused to perform a song on the show, he walked off its set; the incident garnered publicity. The controversy surrounding the song caused Columbia Records to remove "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues" from subsequent copies of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (1963), though it was released on later Dylan albums. The song has been praised for its humor and deemed politically relevant decades after its release by both progressive and conservative publications.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

U.S. Lady

U.S. Lady was a magazine aimed at the military wives of men in the U.S. military. It was launched in 1955 by George Lincoln Rockwell as a money-making venture after his discharge from the U.S. Navy Reserve. U.S. Lady vigorously promoted the role of military wives as the unofficial ambassadors in host nations. Due to conflicts with his business partners and financial backers, Rockwell sold the magazine the following year, having published only four issues. U.S. Lady magazine was purchased in 1956 by Avandee and John Adams, two civilian journalists.

In 1958, Rockwell founded the American Nazi Party. Subsequent to that, Avandee and John Adams said they knew nothing of the original publisher's extremist views, and they assured readers that Rockwell was not involved with the magazine in any way after its sale. Rockwell's political views had never been espoused in the magazine during his tenure with U.S. Lady.

William John Beattie

William John Beattie (known as John Beattie) is a Canadian white supremacist who was the founder and former leader of the Canadian Nazi Party. The establishment of the Canadian Nazi Party, re-named the National Socialist Party in 1967, marked a re-emergence of organized neo-Nazi activity in Canada that had been dormant since the days of Adrian Arcand.

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