George H. Pendleton

George Hunt Pendleton (July 19, 1825 – November 24, 1889)[1] was an American politician and lawyer. He represented Ohio in both houses of Congress and served as the Democratic nominee for Vice President of the United States in 1864.

After studying at the University of Cincinnati and Heidelberg University, Pendleton practiced law in his home town of Cincinnati, Ohio. He was the son of Congressman Nathanael G. Pendleton and the son-in-law of poet Francis Scott Key. After serving in the Ohio Senate, Pendleton won election to the United States House of Representatives. During the Civil War, he emerged as a leader of the Copperheads, a group of Democrats who favored peace with the Confederacy. After the war, he opposed the Thirteenth Amendment and the Civil Rights Act of 1866.

The 1864 Democratic National Convention nominated a ticket of George B. McClellan, who favored continuing the war, and Pendleton, who opposed it. The ticket was defeated by the Republican ticket of Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, and Pendleton lost his Congressional re-election race that same year. Pendleton was a strong contender for the presidential nomination at the 1868 Democratic National Convention, but was defeated by Horatio Seymour. After Pendleton lost the 1869 Ohio gubernatorial election, he temporarily left politics.

He served as the president of the Kentucky Central Railroad before returning to Congress. Pendleton won election to the U.S. Senate in 1879 and served a single term, becoming Chairman of the Senate Democratic Conference. After the assassination of President James A. Garfield, he wrote and helped pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883. The act required many civil service hires to be based on merit rather than political connections. Passage of the act lost him support in Ohio and he was not nominated for a second term in the Senate. President Grover Cleveland appointed him as the ambassador to the German Empire. He served in that position until 1889, dying later that same year.

George Pendleton
GeorgeHPendleton
United States Ambassador to Germany
In office
June 21, 1885 – April 25, 1889
PresidentGrover Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
Preceded byJohn A. Kasson
Succeeded byWilliam Phelps
Chairman of the Senate Democratic Caucus
In office
March 4, 1881 – March 4, 1885
Preceded byWilliam A. Wallace
Succeeded byJames B. Beck
United States Senator
from Ohio
In office
March 4, 1879 – March 4, 1885
Preceded byStanley Matthews
Succeeded byHenry B. Payne
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 1st district
In office
March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1865
Preceded byTimothy C. Day
Succeeded byBenjamin Eggleston
Member of the Ohio Senate
from the 1st district
In office
January 2, 1854 – January 6, 1856
Served with John Schiff, William Converse
Preceded byEdwin Armstrong
Adam Riddle
John Vattier
Succeeded byStanley Matthews
George Holmes
William Converse
Personal details
Born
George Hunt Pendleton

July 19, 1825
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
DiedNovember 24, 1889 (aged 64)
Brussels, Belgium
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Alice Key
ParentsJane Frances Hunt Pendleton
Nathanael Greene Pendleton
RelativesFrancis Scott Key (father-in-law)
EducationUniversity of Cincinnati
Heidelberg University

Early life

Pendleton was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on July 19, 1825. He was the son of Jane Frances (née Hunt) Pendleton (1802–1839) and U.S. Representative and Nathanael Greene Pendleton (1793–1861).[2]

He attended the local schools and Cincinnati College and the University of Heidelberg in Germany. Pendleton studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1847 and commenced practice in Cincinnati.[3]

Career

Democratic presidential ticket 1864b
Currier and Ives print of the Democratic presidential party ticket, 1864. Lithograph with watercolor.

Pendleton was elected as a member of the Ohio Senate, serving from 1854 to 1856. His father had been a member of the Ohio Senate from 1825 until 1827.[2] In 1854, he ran unsuccessfully for the Thirty-fourth United States Congress. Three years later, he was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fifth Congress and would be re-elected to the three following Congresses (March 4, 1857 – March 3, 1865). During his time in the House of Representatives, he was one of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1862 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against West H. Humphreys, a US judge for several districts of Tennessee. He was a leader of the peace faction of his party, with close ties to the Copperheads. He voted against the Thirteenth Amendment, which outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude.[4]

National Politics

Pendleton ran as an antiwar Democrat in the 1864 presidential elections for Vice President, together with George McClellan. Their opponents were Lincoln (President) and Andrew Johnson (nominee for Vice President). At 39, Pendleton was one of the youngest candidates for national office in US history. McClellan and Pendleton lost, receiving about 45% of the vote. In the same election, Pendleton also lost re-election to the Thirty-ninth Congress.[3]

Out of office

Out of office for the first time in a decade, Pendleton ran for his old House seat in 1866 but lost. In 1868, he sought the Democratic Party's presidential nomination. He led for the first 15 ballots and was nearly the nominee, but his support disappeared and he lost to Horatio Seymour, primarily for his support of the "Ohio idea." The following year, he was the Democratic nominee for Governor of Ohio and again lost, this time to Rutherford B. Hayes.[3]

Pendleton stepped away from politics, and in 1869, he became president of the Kentucky Central Railroad.[5]

Political comeback

In 1879, he made his comeback when he was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate. During his only term, from 1881 to 1885, he served concurrently as the Chairman of the Democratic Conference. Following the 1881 assassination of James A. Garfield, he passed his most notable legislation, known as the Pendleton Act of 1883, requiring civil service exams for government positions. The Act helped put an end to the system of patronage in widespread use at the time, but it cost Pendelton politically, as many members of his own party preferred the spoils system. He was thus not renominated to the Senate.[3]

Later life

GHPendleton
Pendleton in his later years.

Instead, President Grover Cleveland appointed him Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Germany the year that he left office, which he served until April 1889. Five months later, during his return trip to the United States, he died in Brussels, Belgium.[3]

Beliefs

Pendleton had a very Jacksonian commitment to the Democratic Party as the best, perhaps the only, mechanism through which ordinary Americans could shape government policies. Mach (2007) argues that Pendleton's chief contribution was to demonstrate the Whig Party's willingness to use its power in government to achieve Jacksonian ideals.

While his Jacksonian commitment to states' rights and limited government made him a dissenter during the Civil War, what Mach calls Pendleton's Jacksonian "ardor to expand opportunities for ordinary Americans" was the basis for his leadership in civil service reform and his controversial plan to use greenbacks to repay the federal debt. What appeared to be a substantive ideological shift, Mach argues, represented Pendleton's pragmatic willingness to use new means to achieve old ends.

Personal life

In 1846, Pendleton was married to Mary Alicia Key (1824–1886), the daughter of Francis Scott Key, the lawyer, author, and amateur poet who is best known today for writing a poem which later became the lyrics for the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner." Together, George and Alicia were the parents of:

  • Sarah Pendleton (born in Ireland, about 1846)
  • Francis Key Pendleton (1850–1930), who was born in Cincinnati and became prominent in New York society during the Gilded Age.[6][7]
  • Mary Lloyd Pendleton (1852–1929), who was born in Cincinnati.
  • Jane Francis Pendleton (1860–1950), who was born in the District of Columbia, April 22, 1860.[8]
  • George Hunt Pendleton (1863–1868), who died young.

Pendleton died in Brussels, Belgium on November 24, 1889.[1] He is interred in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Memorials

The city of Pendleton, Oregon, is named after him.[9]

The George H. Pendleton House in Cincinnati is a National Historical Landmark and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.[10]

In popular culture

References

  1. ^ a b "DEATH OF A DIPLOMAT | END OF GEORGE H. PENDLETON'S CAREER.THE EX-MINISTER TO GERMANY DYING AT BRUSSELS—HIS LIFE WORK AT HOME AND ABROAD" (PDF). The New York Times. November 26, 1889. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b "PENDLETON, Nathanael Greene - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e "PENDLETON, George Hunt - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Recognizing The Anniversary Of The 13Th Amendment(Extensions of Remarks)". Congressional Record. Government Printing Office. 151 (157): E2496–E2497. December 8, 2005.
  5. ^ Kentucky Central Railroad Company (1877). Charter of the Kentucky Central Railroad Company: To which is Added the General Laws of Kentucky Relating to Railroad Interests, and an Abstract of Decisions of the Court of Appeals Thereon. Also, Charters of the Maysville and Lexington Railroad Companies, North and Southern Divisions. Printed at the Western Methodist Book Concern. p. 7. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  6. ^ McAllister, Ward (16 February 1892). "THE ONLY FOUR HUNDRED | WARD M'ALLISTER GIVES OUT THE OFFICIAL LIST. HERE ARE THE NAMES, DON'T YOU KNOW, ON THE AUTHORITY OF THEIR GREAT LEADER, YOU UNDER- STAND, AND THEREFORE GENUINE, YOU SEE" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  7. ^ Patterson, Jerry E. (2000). The First Four Hundred: Mrs. Astor's New York in the Gilded Age. Random House Incorporated. p. 217. ISBN 9780847822089. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  8. ^ "RootsWeb's WorldConnect Project: Janet Ariciu family Bush". Wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  9. ^ "History of Pendleton". The City of Pendleton. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  10. ^ "National Historic Landmark nomination for George H. Pendleton House". National Park Service. Retrieved 2018-03-20.

Sources

  • Mach, Thomas S. "Gentleman George" Hunt Pendleton: Party Politics and Ideological Identity in Nineteenth-Century America, Kent State University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-87338-913-6, 317 pp.

External links

1864 Democratic National Convention

The 1864 Democratic National Convention was held at The Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois.The Convention nominated Major General George B. McClellan from New Jersey for President, and Representative George H. Pendleton of Ohio for Vice President. McClellan, age 37 at the time of the convention and Pendleton, age 39, are the youngest presidential ticket ever nominated as of 2016.

1864 United States presidential election in Delaware

The 1864 United States presidential election in Delaware took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Delaware voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Delaware was won by the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 51.81% of the popular vote against the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 48.19% of the popular vote.

1864 United States presidential election in Illinois

The 1864 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose sixteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Illinois was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 54.42% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 45.58% of the vote.

1864 United States presidential election in Indiana

The 1864 United States presidential election in Indiana took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Indiana voters chose thirteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Indiana was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 53.60% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 46.40% of the vote.

1864 United States presidential election in Iowa

The 1864 United States presidential election in Iowa took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Iowa voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Iowa was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 64.12% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 35.88% of the vote.

1864 United States presidential election in Kansas

The 1864 United States presidential election in Kansas took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Kansas voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Kansas was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 79.19% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 17.78% of the vote.With 79.19% of the popular vote, Lincoln's victory with in the state would be his strongest victory in the country in terms of percentage in the popular vote, and the strongest performance by any presidential candidate in Kansas history.543 votes were cast for an independent candidate named E. Cheeseborough along with 112 write-in votes were cast. William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas states that Ellsworth Cheeseborough was nominated for Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket on September 8, 1864, but died before the election. It also appears that the write-in votes were cast for another Republican candidate for Presidential Elector Nelson McCracken, who also died before the election.

1864 United States presidential election in Kentucky

The 1864 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Kentucky voters chose eleven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Kentucky was won by the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 69.83 percent of the popular vote against the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 30.17 percent of the popular vote.Despite having been born and raised for the first five years of his life in Kentucky, Lincoln came in a distant second, losing to McClellan by 39 percentage points. Even worse, it was the only state that McClellan won by more than 6 percentage points. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last occasion when Butler County and Monroe County voted for a Democratic presidential candidate.

1864 United States presidential election in Maryland

The 1864 United States presidential election in Maryland took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Maryland voters chose seven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Maryland was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 55.09% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 44.91% of the vote.This was the last time that a Republican would win Maryland until 1896.

1864 United States presidential election in Minnesota

The 1864 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Minnesota voters chose four representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Minnesota was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 59.06% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 40.94% of the vote.

1864 United States presidential election in Missouri

The 1864 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Missouri voters chose eleven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Missouri was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 69.72% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 30.28% of the vote.Despite the fact that slavery and state`s rights were popular in Missouri, the state gave Lincoln his fourth best result for popular vote percentage points after neighboring Kansas, Vermont and Massachusetts. The state was also his tenth highest for total votes.

1864 United States presidential election in Nevada

The 1864 United States presidential election in Nevada took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Nevada voters chose two representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Nevada was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 59.84% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 40.16% of the vote.Due to the abstention of one of Nevada's three electors, this election is tied for the fewest total electoral votes cast by a state or area in a presidential election with the District of Columbia in 2000, which also saw an elector abstain and only two votes go to the winner.

1864 United States presidential election in Oregon

The 1864 United States presidential election in Oregon took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. Oregon voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.Oregon was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 53.90% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 46.10% of the vote.

1864 United States presidential election in West Virginia

The 1864 United States presidential election in West Virginia took place on November 8, 1864, as part of the 1864 United States presidential election. West Virginia voters chose five representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.West Virginia was won by the incumbent President Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois), running with former Senator and Military Governor of Tennessee Andrew Johnson, with 68.24% of the popular vote, against the 4th Commanding General of the United States Army George B. McClellan (D–Pennsylvania), running with Representative George H. Pendleton, with 31.76% of the vote.With 68.24% of the popular vote, West Virginia would prove to be Lincoln's fifth strongest state in terms of popular vote percentage after Kansas, Vermont, Massachusetts and Missouri.

1868 Democratic National Convention

The 1868 Democratic National Convention was held at Tammany Hall in New York City between July 4, and July 9, 1868. The slogan for the 1868 Democratic National Convention was, "This is a White Man's Country, Let White Men Rule". The convention was notable for the return of Democratic Party politicians from the southern states.

Benjamin Eggleston

Benjamin Eggleston (January 3, 1816 – February 9, 1888) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.

George Hunt Pendleton House

The George H. Pendleton House is a historic house at 559 Liberty Hill in the Prospect Hill Historic District of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was built in 1870 in the French Second Empire style. From 1879 until his death in 1889, this was the residence of Senator George Hunt Pendleton (1825-89). As a U.S. Senator (1879-1885), Pendleton spearheaded civil service reform, meeting here in 1882 to draft the Pendleton Act, which created the Civil Service merit system. The building, now in mixed commercial and residential use, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964.

Half-Breeds (politics)

The "Half-Breeds" were a political faction of the United States Republican Party in the late 19th century. The Half-Breeds were a moderate group, and were the opponents of the Stalwarts, the other main faction of the Republican Party. The main issue that divided the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds was political patronage. The Stalwarts were in favor of political machines and spoils system-style patronage, while the Half-Breeds, led by Maine senator James G. Blaine, were in favor of civil service reform and a merit system. The epithet "Half-Breed" was invented in derision by the Stalwarts to denote those whom they perceived as being only half Republican.In the 1880 Republican National Convention, the Stalwart candidate, former president Ulysses S. Grant, was pitted against Half-Breed James G. Blaine for the party nomination. Grant's campaign was led by Stalwart leader Roscoe Conkling of New York, the state with the biggest split between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds. Despite Conkling's attempts at imposing a unit-rule in the Republican National Convention by which a state's votes would be grouped together for only one candidate, a number of Stalwarts went against him by vocalizing their support for the Half-Breed Blaine. The Half-Breeds united to defeat the unit-rule in a vote, and elected Half-Breed George Frisbie Hoar to the position as temporary chairman of the convention.Both sides knew there was no chance of victory for either candidate, and the Half-Breeds chose James Garfield as a compromise candidate. Garfield won the party's nomination on the thirty-sixth ballot, and won the 1880 presidential election. Blaine was chosen as Garfield's Secretary of State, and carried heavy influence over the political appointments Garfield issued for congressional approval. After Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau, a Stalwart, who proclaimed, "I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts and Arthur will be President", the new Stalwart president Chester A. Arthur surprised those in his own faction by promoting civil service reform and issuing government jobs based on a merit system.The Half-Breeds put through Congress the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (authored by Democrat George H. Pendleton), and Arthur signed the bill into law on January 16, 1883. The act put an end to the spoils system, at least symbolically, placing a significant number of federal employees under the merit system and putting the government on the road to true reform. The act also set up the United States Civil Service Commission, banished political tests, denied jobs to alcoholics and created competitive measures for some federal positions.The Half-Breed and Stalwart factions both dissociated towards the end of the 1880s.

Randy Pendleton

Randall George Pendleton (March 15, 1937 – October 4, 2009), was a businessman from Andrews, Texas, and later a lobbyist in Austin, who served as a Democrat in the Texas House of Representatives from 1963 to 1969, first in District 75 (1963-1967) and then in District 73 (1967-1969).Pendleton was born to George H. Pendleton (1908–1993) and the former Beatrice D. Nelson (1912–1976) in Wellman in Terry County, Texas. He attended public schools in Andrews and graduated from Texas Tech University in Lubbock. He was elected to the House in 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966, and 1968, but he resigned in 1969 to accept appointment from Governor Preston E. Smith as the Director of State and Federal Relations in Washington, D.C. Pendleton was also a deputy commissioner for the Texas Department of Parks and Wildlife. He served as executive assistant to the commissioner of the Board of Public Welfare. He was a lobbyist for the Beneficial Corporation and in that capacity worked for passage of the November 4, 1997 state constitutional amendment allowing home-equity lending in Texas. Pendleton was a board member of the Austin Club.Pendleton served in District 73 from 1967–1969; in District 75, 1961–1966. He tendered his resignation to accept the appointment in Washington, effective June 30, 1969. E L Short, a rancher, farmer, and businessman from Tahoka, the seat of Lynn County, won the special runoff election on August 8, 1969. Short held the seat for nearly a decade, having vacated it in January 1979 to serve a single term in the Texas State Senate.

In 1972, Pendleton returned to the political arena to run, unsuccessfully, against the long-term incumbent Robert S. Calvert for Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, who won the last of his two-year terms. Pendleton accused Calvert of having mishandled sales tax collections, a situation which led to declining state revenues. Two years later, Calvert withdrew from the Democratic primary when faced with the strong challenge of Bob Bullock, a former Texas Secretary of State who would serve as comptroller from 1975–1991, when he became Lieutenant Governor of Texas.

Pendleton died in Austin, where he had resided after his political career ended. He was survived by his wife of fifty-two years, the former Frances Ann Guillet (born 1936), the daughter of the former Bernice Guillet (1908–1997) and Henry F. Guillet (1908–1985), a former county attorney of Andrews County. There are three Pendleton daughters, Kathryn Ann Winter, Alisa Karen Hudson, and Kristina Kay O'Connor. Services were held at Hyde Park Baptist Church, 3901 Speedway in Austin. Interment was at the Texas State Cemetery, a prerogative for all Texas legislators and their spouses.

William A. Wallace

William Andrew Wallace (November 28, 1827 – May 22, 1896) was an American lawyer and Democratic party politician from Clearfield, Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania State Senate and was its speaker in 1871. He represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate from 1875 to 1881.

Offices and distinctions
Articles and topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.