George Gallup

George Horace Gallup (November 18, 1901 – July 26, 1984) was an American pioneer of survey sampling techniques and inventor of the Gallup poll, a successful statistical method of survey sampling for measuring public opinion.

George Gallup
George Gallup
Born
George Horace Gallup

November 18, 1901
Jefferson, Iowa, United States
DiedJuly 26, 1984 (aged 82)
Alma materUniversity of Iowa
OccupationStatistician
Known forGallup poll

Life and career

George Gallup 2001 Romania stamp
George Gallup on a 2001 Romania stamp
Grave of George H. Gallup
Grave in Princeton Cemetery

Gallup was born in Jefferson, Iowa, the son of Nettie Quella (Davenport) and George Henry Gallup, a dairy farmer.[1] As a teen, George Jr., known then as "Ted", would deliver milk and used his salary to start a newspaper at the high school, where he also played football. His higher education took place at the University of Iowa, where he was a football player, a member of the Iowa Beta chapter of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, and editor of The Daily Iowan, an independent newspaper which serves the university campus. He earned his B.A. in 1923, his M.A. in 1925 and his Ph.D. in 1928.[2]

He then moved to Des Moines, Iowa, where he served as head of the Department of Journalism at Drake University until 1931. That year, he moved to Evanston, Illinois, as a professor of journalism and advertising at Northwestern University. The next year, he moved to New York City to join the advertising agency of Young and Rubicam as director of research (later as vice president from 1937 to 1947). He was also professor of journalism at Columbia University, but he had to give up this position shortly after he formed his own polling company, the American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup Poll), in 1935.[3]

Gallup is often credited as the developer of public polling. In 1932, Gallup did some polling for his mother-in-law, Ola Babcock Miller, a candidate who was a long-shot from winning a position as Iowa Secretary of State. With the Democratic landslide of that year, she won a stunning victory, furthering Gallup's interest in politics.[4]

In 1936, his new organization achieved national recognition by correctly predicting, from the replies of only 50,000 respondents, that Franklin Roosevelt would defeat Alf Landon in the U.S. Presidential election. This was in direct contradiction to the widely respected Literary Digest magazine whose poll based on over two million returned questionnaires predicted that Landon would be the winner. Not only did Gallup get the election right, he correctly predicted the results of the Literary Digest poll as well using a random sample smaller than theirs but chosen to match it.

Twelve years later, his organization had its moment of greatest ignominy, when it predicted that Thomas Dewey would defeat Harry S. Truman in the 1948 election, by five to fifteen percentage points. Gallup believed the error was mostly due to ending his polling three weeks before Election Day.

In 1947, he launched the Gallup International Association, an international association of polling organizations.[5]

In 1948, with Claude E. Robinson, he founded Gallup and Robinson, Inc., an advertising research company.

In 1958, Gallup grouped all of his polling operations under what became The Gallup Organization.

Gallup died in 1984 of a heart attack at his summer home in Tschingel ob Gunten, a village in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland. He was buried in Princeton Cemetery. His wife died in 1988, and their son, writer and pollster George Gallup, Jr., died in 2011.[6]

See also

Pollsters[7]

References

  1. ^ "George Horace Gallup (1901-1984) - Find A Grave..." www.findagrave.com.
  2. ^ Rogers, Everett M. "Iowa School of Journalism". Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  3. ^ "George Gallup Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  4. ^ "Miller, Eunice Viola Babcock – The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa -The University of Iowa". uipress.lib.uiowa.edu.
  5. ^ Wolfgang Donsbach and Michael W. Traugott (2007). The SAGE handbook of public opinion research. Social Science.
  6. ^ "N.Y. Times reporter Tom Wicker was acclaimed for Kennedy assassination coverage". Detroit Free Press. November 26, 2011. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
  7. ^ Kenneth F Warren (February 15, 2018). In Defense Of Public Opinion Polling. Routledge, 2018. ISBN 9780429979538.

Bibliography

External links

Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Henry Bruère
President of the National Municipal League
December 1953 – November 1956
Succeeded by
Cecil Morgan
Gallup

Gallup may refer to:

Gallup (company), a firm founded by George Gallup, well known for its opinion poll

Gallup (surname), a surname

Gallup, New Mexico, a city in New Mexico, United States

Gallup station, an Amtrak train in downtown Gallup, New Mexico

Gallup International Association, a group of polling organizations registered in Zurich, Switzerland

USS Gallup, various ships of the United States Navy

Gallup (company)

Gallup, Inc. is an American analytics and advisory company based in Washington, D.C. Founded by George Gallup in 1935, the company became known for its public opinion polls conducted worldwide. Starting in the 1980s, Gallup transitioned its business to focus on providing analytics and management consulting to organizations globally. In addition to its analytics, management consulting, and Gallup Poll, the company also offers educational consulting, the CliftonStrengths assessment and associated products, and business and management books published by its Gallup Press unit.

George Gallup Jr.

George Horace Gallup Jr. (April 9, 1930 – November 21, 2011) was an American pollster, writer and executive at The Gallup Organization, which had been founded by his father, George Gallup. Gallup expanded the scope of the Gallup Poll to encompass a wider variety of topics, ranging from the outlook of American young people to religious beliefs.Much of Gallup's writings and research focused on religion and spirituality in the United States. His works included The Saints Among Us, published in 1992, and The Next American Spirituality, published in 2002.Born in Evanston, Illinois, Gallup graduated from the Lawrenceville School in 1948 and received a bachelor's degree in religion from Princeton University in 1953. In 1954, Gallup joined his father's polling company, The Gallup Organization, where he worked until his retirement in 2004. He and his brother, Alec Gallup, became co-chairmen of the company upon their father's death.George Gallup was diagnosed with liver cancer in 2010. He died in Princeton, New Jersey, on November 21, 2011, at the age of 81.He was married to Kingsley Hubby, with whom he had three children. He was a devout Episcopalian, who once considered the ministry but instead served as an active layman.

Institut français d'opinion publique

The Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) (English: French Institute of Public Opinion) is an international polling and market research firm, whose motto is "Connection creates value". Its CEO was Laurence Parisot, who was nicknamed "boss of the bosses", when she was the leader of the MEDEF French employers' trade union. The IFOP sells polls to firms and political parties.

It was founded on December 1, 1938 by Jean Stoetzel, former Sorbonne professor, after he met George Gallup in the US.

Ola Babcock Miller

Eunice Viola "Ola" Babcock Miller (March 1, 1871 – January 25, 1937) was an American politician and the first female Iowa Secretary of State.

Born in Washington County, Iowa, Miller and her family moved to Washington, Iowa. She went to Iowa Wesleyan College. She taught in rural schools and then married Andrew Miller. Their daughter Ophelia (died in 1988) married George Gallup who started the Gallup Poll. Miller was elected Iowa Secretary of State in 1932 as a Democrat. While secretary of state in 1935, Miller started the Iowa Highway Safety Patrol. Miller died of pneumonia in Des Moines, Iowa.

Opinion Research Corporation

Opinion Research Corporation is a demographic, health, and market research company based in Princeton, New Jersey, US. It was founded in 1938 by Claude Robinson and George Gallup, although Gallup left the firm in 1939. Opinion Research Corp was acquired by InfoUSA on August 4, 2006 for $12 per share in cash. The company announced its return to independent status through a partnership and majority investment from Lake Capital effective 1 July 2011.ORC has its worldwide headquarters in Princeton, and offices across the U.S., Europe and the Asia Pacific region. Founded in 1938, ORC is focused in the areas of customer engagement strategies, market planning and development, employee engagement, corporate brand and reputation management, competitive intelligence, and on-demand business intelligence.Globally, ORC operates in Asia as NWC Opinion Research, with offices in Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong, and China; in Europe as ORC International with offices in London, Manchester and Edinburgh; and in the United States as ORC with offices in Princeton, New York City, Chicago, Boston, Washington, D.C., Minneapolis, and Seattle.

ORC is a founding member of the Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO), a member of the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR), a member of the Association of Market and Social Research Organizations in Australia, and a member of the Market Research Society Company Partner Service, a UK-based association for the promotion of professional standards.

The company's research is seen around the world through the CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll and through its partnership with NYSE Euronext on the annual NYSE Euronext CEO Report which surveys CEOs of the New York Stock Exchange's listing companies on topics ranging from globalization and governance to strategy and human resources.

The Daily Iowan

The Daily Iowan is an independent, 8,500-circulation daily student newspaper serving Iowa City and the University of Iowa community. It has consistently won a number of collegiate journalism awards, including five National Pacemaker Awards in 2000, 2001, 2006, 2008, and 2013.The paper is distributed Monday through Friday when classes are in session. It is available free of charge on campus and is available for home delivery by subscription. The publication is entirely student-run and independent from the University of Iowa.

The Daily Iowan’s biggest competitors are The Gazette of Cedar Rapids, The Des Moines Register and the Iowa City Press-Citizen.The Daily Iowan is available on three platforms, those of which include print, online, and TV.

George Gallup, creator of the Gallup poll, served as editor of The Daily Iowan in the early 1920s. The newspaper's publisher has been Jason Brummond since 2017, when the previous publisher, William Casey, retired. Casey had served in the post since 1976 and is credited with starting the newspaper's scholarship program for talented future journalists, who have since worked at news agencies such as The Associated Press, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The St. Petersburg Times, The Dallas Morning News, The Star Tribune, The Des Moines Register, ESPN, USA Today, SPIN Magazine and The Times-Picayune. The scholarship program began in 1987. As of 2013, over $700,000 has been awarded to promising journalists to pay for tuition, so long as they work on The Daily Iowan staff. Each year, up to four high school seniors are selected for the four-year scholarship.On December 11, 2011, The Daily Iowan endorsed 2012 Republican Presidential candidate Ron Paul.

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