Sir George Howard Darwin
Sir George Howard Darwin
George Howard Darwin
9 July 1845
|Died||7 December 1912 (aged 67)|
|Alma mater||St John's College, Cambridge|
Trinity College, Cambridge
|Awards||Smith's Prize (1868)|
Royal Medal (1884)
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1892)
Copley Medal (1911)
|Fields||Astronomy and mathematics|
|Academic advisors||Edward John Routh|
|Notable students||Ernest William Brown|
E. T. Whittaker
From the age of 11 he studied under Charles Pritchard at Clapham Grammar School, and entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1863, though he soon moved to Trinity College, where his tutor was Edward John Routh. He graduated as second wrangler in 1868, when he was also placed second for the Smith's Prize and was appointed to a college fellowship. He earned his M.A. in 1871. He was admitted to the bar in 1872, but returned to science. George Darwin conducted studies into the prevalence and health outcomes of contemporary first-cousin marriages in Great Britain. His father Charles had become concerned after the death of three of his children, including his favorite daughter, Annie, from tuberculosis in 1851, that his and Emma’s union may have been a mistake from a biological perspective. He was reassured by George's results.
In 1879, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and won their Royal Medal in 1884 and their Copley Medal in 1911. He delivered their Bakerian Lecture in 1891 on the subject of "tidal prediction".
In 1883 Darwin became Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at the University of Cambridge. He studied tidal forces involving the Sun, Moon, and Earth, and formulated the fission theory of Moon formation.
Darwin was a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) and won the Gold Medal of the RAS in 1892. From 1899–1901 he served as President of the RAS. The RAS founded a prize lectureship in 1984 and named it the George Darwin Lectureship in Darwin's honour.
He was an invited speaker in the International Congress of Mathematicians 1908, Rome on the topic of "Mechanics, Physical Mathematics, Astronomy." As President of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, he also gave the Introductory Address to the Congress in 1912 on the character of pure and applied mathematics.
He received the degree of Doctor mathematicae (honoris causa) from the Royal Frederick University on 6 September 1902, when they celebrated the centennial of the birth of mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. Darwin crater on Mars is named after him.
She died on 6 February 1947. They had three sons and two daughters:
He is buried in Trumpington Extension Cemetery in Cambridge with his son Leonard and his daughter Gwen (Raverat), his wife Lady Maud Darwin was cremated at Cambridge Crematorium; his brothers Sir Francis Darwin and Sir Horace Darwin and their respective wives are interred in the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground.
|Ancestors of George Darwin|
André-Louis Danjon (6 April 1890 – 21 April 1967) was a French astronomer born in Caen to Louis Dominique Danjon and Marie Justine Binet.Danjon devised a method to measure "earthshine" on the Moon using a telescope in which a prism split the Moon's image into two identical side-by-side images. By adjusting a diaphragm to dim one of the images until the sunlit portion had the same apparent brightness as the earthlit portion on the unadjusted image, he could quantify the diaphragm adjustment, and thus had a real measurement for the brightness of earthshine. He recorded the measurements using his method (now known as the Danjon Scale, on which zero equates to a barely visible Moon) from 1925 until the 1950s.
Among his notable contributions to astronomy was the design of the impersonal (prismatic) astrolabe now known as the Danjon astrolabe, which led to an improvement in the accuracy of fundamental optical astrometry. An account of this instrument, and of the results of some early years of its operation, are given in Danjon's 1958 George Darwin Lecture to the Royal Astronomical Society (in Monthly Notices of the RAS (1958), vol.118, pages 411-431).
He also developed the Danjon Limit, a proposed measure of the minimum angular separation of the Sun and Moon at which a lunar crescent is visible. However, this limit may not exist.
He was Director of the Observatory of Strasbourg from 1930 to 1945 and of the Paris Observatory from 1945 to 1963.Danjon was the President of the Société astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, from 1947-1949 and from 1962-1964.He was awarded the Prix Jules Janssen of the Société astronomique de France in 1950, and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1958.
Danjon died in 1967 in Suresnes, Hauts-de-Seine.Cousin marriage
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors). Opinions and practice vary widely across the world. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriage is considered ideal and actively encouraged; in others, it is subject to social stigma. In some countries, this practice is common; in others it is uncommon but still legal. In others, it is seen as incestuous and is legally prohibited: it is banned in China and Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, the Philippines, Russia and 24 of the 50 United States. Supporters of cousin marriage where it is banned may view the prohibition as discrimination, while opponents may appeal to moral or other arguments. Worldwide, more than 10% of marriages are between first or second cousins.In the past, cousin marriage was practised within indigenous cultures in Australia, North America, South America, and Polynesia. Various religions have ranged from prohibiting sixth cousins or closer from marrying, to freely allowing first-cousin marriage. Cousin marriage is an important topic in anthropology and alliance theory.Children of first-cousin marriages may have an increased risk of genetic disorders, particularly if their parents both carry a harmful recessive mutation, but this can only be estimated empirically, and those estimates are likely to be specific to particular populations in specific environments. Children of more distantly related cousins have less risk of genetic disorders. In fact, a study of Icelandic records indicated that marriages between third or fourth cousins (people with common great-great- or great-great-great-grandparents) may produce the most children and grandchildren.Darwin (Martian crater)
Darwin is an impact crater on Mars, located at 57°S 19°E to the southeast of Argyre Planitia in Noachis Terra. It is approximately 176 km in diameter. The crater's name was formally approved by the IAU in 1973.To the northeast of Darwin are the craters Green and Roddenberry. To the northwest is the larger crater Galle, and to the southwest is the crater Maraldi.Darwin (surname)
Darwin is a surname that is a modern spelling of Anglo-Saxon and Old English name Deorwine. Notable people with the surname include:
Members of Charles Darwin's family:
Anne Darwin (1841–1851), daughter of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Bernard Darwin (1876–1961), golf writer
Charles Darwin (1809–1882), English naturalist and writer
Charles Darwin (1758–1778) physician and scientist, uncle of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Sir Charles Galton Darwin (1887–1962), physicist
Charles Waring Darwin (infant) (1856–1858), youngest son of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Charles Waring Darwin (soldier) (1855–1928), second cousin once removed of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Edward Levett Darwin (1821–1901), solicitor and author
Elinor Darwin (1871–1954), illustrator, engraver and portrait painter, wife of Bernard Darwin
Emma Darwin née Wedgwood (1808–1896), wife of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Emma Darwin (novelist) (born 1964), novelist
Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802), physician and biologist, grandfather of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Erasmus Darwin IV (1881–1915), businessman and soldier, son of Sir Horace Darwin
Erasmus Alvey Darwin (1804–1881), brother of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Etty Darwin, better known as Henrietta Litchfield (1843–1929), daughter of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Sir Francis Darwin (1848–1925), botanist
Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin (1786–1859), physician and traveler
Sir George Darwin (1845–1912), astronomer and mathematician
Gwendoline Mary Darwin, birth name of Gwen Raverat (1885–1957), artist
Sir Horace Darwin (1851–1928), civil engineer
Ida Darwin (1854–1946), mental health campaigner, wife of Sir Horace Darwin
Leonard Darwin (1850–1943), soldier, politician, and activist
Emma Nora Darwin, birth name of Nora Barlow (1885–1989), editor and biographer of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Robert Darwin (1766–1848), physician, father of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Robert Waring Darwin of Elston (1724–1816), author of Principia Botanica
Robin Darwin (1910–1974), artist
Ursula Frances Elinor Darwin, birth name of Ursula Mommens (1908–2010), potter
William Erasmus Darwin (1839–1914), eldest son of Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
Ben Darwin (born 1976), Australian international Rugby player
Bobby Darwin, (born 1943), American baseball player
Charles Darwin (disambiguation), several people
Danny Darwin (born 1955), American baseball player
Donald Victor Darwin (1896–1972) Australian road engineer
George Darwin (footballer) (born 1932), English footballer
Jeff Darwin (born 1969), American baseball player
John Darwin (disambiguation), several people
Mike Darwin (born 1955), American writer and activistDarwin College, Cambridge
Darwin College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded on 28 July 1964, Darwin was Cambridge University's first graduate-only college, and also the first to admit both men and women. The college is named after one of the university's most famous families, that of Charles Darwin. The Darwin family previously owned some of the land, Newnham Grange, on which the college now stands.
The college has between 600 and 700 students, mostly studying for PhD or MPhil degrees. About half the students come from outside the United Kingdom, representing 80 nationalities as of 2016. Darwin is the largest graduate college of Cambridge.Darwin–Wedgwood family
The Darwin–Wedgwood family is composed of two interrelated English families, descending from prominent 18th-century doctor Erasmus Darwin, and Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the pottery company Josiah Wedgwood and Sons. Its most notable member was Charles Darwin, a grandson of both. The family included at least ten Fellows of the Royal Society and several artists and poets (including the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams). Presented below are brief biographical descriptions and genealogical information with links to articles on the members. The individuals are listed by year of birth and grouped into generations. The relationship to Francis Galton and his immediate ancestors is also given. Note that the data tree below does not include all descendants or even all prominent descendants.Genetic genealogy
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level and type of the genetic relationship between individuals. This application of genetics became popular with family historians in the 21st century, as tests became affordable. The tests have been promoted by amateur groups, such as surname study groups, or regional genealogical groups, as well as research projects such as the genographic project. As of 2018, 18.5 million people had been tested. As this field has developed, the aims of practitioners broadened, with many seeking knowledge of their ancestry beyond the recent centuries for which traditional pedigrees can be constructed.George D. Lamont
George Darwin Lamont (January 24, 1819 Yates, Orleans County, New York – January 15, 1876 Lockport, Niagara County, New York) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.George Darwin (footballer)
George Darwin (born 16 May 1932) is an English former professional footballer who played as an inside forward.George Darwin Lectureship
The George Darwin Lectureship is an award granted by the Royal Astronomical Society to a 'distinguished and eloquent speaker' on the subject of Astronomy including astrochemistry, astrobiology and astroparticle physics. The award named after the astronomer George Darwin and given annually since 1984. The speaker may be based in the UK or overseas.Jacques Raverat
Jacques Pierre Paul Raverat (pronounced Rav-er-ah) (March 20, 1885– March 6, 1925) was a French painter; Raverat was the son of Georges Pierre Raverat and Helena Lorena Raverat, née CARON
He married the English painter and wood engraver Gwen Darwin, in 1911, the daughter of George Darwin and Lady Maud Darwin, née Maud du Puy; she was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin. They had two daughters, Elisabeth (1916–2014), who married the Norwegian politician Edvard Hambro, and Sophie Jane (1919-2011) who married the Cambridge scholar M. G. M. Pryor and later Charles Gurney. Raverat suffered from a form of multiple sclerosis and died on March 6 1925 following complications of it. His funeral took place in Christ Church in Cannes, France where he may be buried.
Before moving, in 1920, to Vence in France Jacques and Gwen Raverat were active members of an intellectual circle known as the "Neo-Pagans" and centred round Rupert Brooke. They also moved on the fringes of the Bloomsbury Group, whose members included Virginia Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, Vanessa Bell and Lytton Strachey.
In 2004, his grandson, William Pryor edited the complete correspondence between Raverat, his wife and Virginia Woolf which was published as Virginia Woolf and the Raverats.James Dunlop (astronomer)
James Scott Dunlop is a Scottish astronomer. He is professor of Extragalactic Astronomy and Head of the Institute for Astronomy, an institute within the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Edinburgh.Maud Darwin
Lady Martha Haskins "Maud" Darwin (née du Puy; July 27, 1861- 6 February 1947) was an American socialite. She was the wife of the English Cambridge University astronomer Sir George Darwin.Milo Keynes
William Milo Keynes, MD, FRCS ( KAYNZ; 9 August 1924 – 18 February 2009) was a British doctor and author. He was the brother of Richard, Quentin and Stephen. He was interested in education and art, publishing books and essays about John Maynard Keynes, Isaac Newton, and the history of Science. Upon his death he bequeathed a number of rare artworks to the University of Cambridge.Milo was descended from a Cambridgeshire family that included both the lineage from two great families, the Keynes (of John Maynard Keynes) and Darwins (of Charles Darwin. He was the third son of Sir Geoffrey Keynes, and his wife Margaret Darwin, daughter of Sir George Darwin. He was a great-grandson of the world-renowned scientist Charles Darwin, and the nephew of the famous Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes.
In 2010, his estate bequeathed a number of artworks and rare documents, including a portrait of John Maynard Keynes by Duncan Grant, to the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum.Period Piece (book)
Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood is an autobiographical memoir by the English wood engraver Gwen Raverat covering her childhood in late 19th Century Cambridge society. The book includes anecdotes about and illustrations of many of her extended family (see Darwin–Wedgwood family).
As the author explains in the preface it is "a circular book" and although it begins with the meeting of her parents (Sir George Darwin and Maud du Puy) and ends with Gwen as a student at The Slade, it is not written chronologically, but rather arranged in a series of fifteen themed chapters, each dealing with a particular aspects of life. The book is illustrated throughout with wood engravings by the author.
The book is dedicated to her cousin Frances Cornford.
It was originally published by Faber & Faber in 1952 in hardback and as a paperback in 1960. It was reviewed in The Times and by David Daiches in The Manchester GuardianPeriod Piece has been translated into Danish (Min forunderlige barndom, 1980), Swedish (Så var det då : min barndom i Cambridge, 1985) and German (Eine Kindheit in Cambridge, 1991).Robert Wilson (astronomer)
For the American astronomer, see Robert Woodrow Wilson
Sir Robert Wilson (16 April 1927 – 2 September 2002) was the son of a Durham miner. He studied physics at King's College, Durham and obtained his PhD in Edinburgh, where he worked at the Royal Observatory on stellar spectra. He was an astronomer, who fully embraced the opportunities provided by the space age and he was one of the pioneers who laid the groundwork for the development of the Great Space Observatories, such as the Hubble Space Telescope.In 1959 Wilson joined the Plasma Spectroscopy Group at Harwell where he was responsible for measuring the temperature in the Zeta experiment, confirming that it had not been hot enough to have produced thermonuclear fusion. As head of the Plasma Spectroscopy Group at Culham, he led a programme of rocket observations of ultraviolet spectra of the sun and stars. By placing telescopes on rockets and satellites it was possible to avoid the absorption of the ultraviolet light by the Earth's atmosphere and gain a great deal of information about the hot plasmas especially in the Sun's chromosphere and corona.
Wilson then became involved in the European Space Research Organization's first astronomy satellite, the TD-1A mission, and led the British collaboration with Belgium in the S2/68 experiment which in 1972 conducted the first all sky survey in the ultraviolet.
Wilson was best known for his role as "father" of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. This had started life in 1964 as a proposal to ESRO for a Large Astronomical Satellite, which proved too expensive and studies were abandoned in 1967. Wilson, however, convinced the UK authorities to continue the study, and achieved a radical redesign which at the same time had greater capability and was simpler and therefore cheaper. This concept was called the Ultraviolet Astronomical Satellite (UVAS). It was again submitted to ESRO in November 1968 but despite a favourable assessment report was not accepted. Convinced of the soundness of the concept, Wilson offered the design work to NASA and this ultimately led to IUE, an international project between NASA, ESA and the UK.
In 1972 he relinquished his post as Director, Science Research Council's Astrophysics Research Unit, Culham to become Perren Professor of Astronomy at University College London. He was the George Darwin Lecturer of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1985. He was knighted in 1989.Royal Astronomical Society
The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. Its headquarters are in Burlington House, on Piccadilly in London. The society has over 4,000 members, termed Fellows, most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK. Members of the public who have an interest in astronomy and geophysics but do not qualify as Fellows may become Friends of the RAS.
The society holds monthly scientific meetings in London, and the annual National Astronomy Meeting at varying locations in the British Isles. The RAS publishes the scientific journals Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Geophysical Journal International, along with the trade magazine Astronomy & Geophysics.
The RAS maintains an astronomy research library, engages in public outreach and advises the UK government on astronomy education. The society recognises achievement in astronomy and geophysics by issuing annual awards and prizes, with its highest award being the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. The RAS is the UK adhering organisation to the International Astronomical Union and a member of the UK Science Council.
The society was founded in 1820 as the Astronomical Society of London to support astronomical research. At that time, most members were 'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals. It became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving a Royal Charter from William IV. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women.Sarah Darwin
Sarah Catherine Vogel FLS (née Darwin; born 1 April 1964 in London) is a British botanist.
She is the daughter of George Erasmus Darwin, a metallurgist, and his wife Shuna (née Service). She has two older brothers; Robert George Darwin (born 1959) and the conservationist Chris Darwin (born 1961). She is descended from Charles Darwin via Charles's son George Howard Darwin (1845–1912); his son William Robert Darwin (1894–1970), a stockbroker, and his wife Sarah Monica (née Slingsby) were the parents of George Erasmus Darwin (1927-).Sarah Darwin first visited the Galapagos Islands in 1995 with her parents and brother Chris on holiday. She stayed behind to prepare botanical illustrations for a field guide to the Islands. She is an ambassador for the conservation charity Galapagos Conservation Trust.She gained a BSc in Botany from Reading University in 1999 and a PhD from University College London in 2009. Her PhD thesis was entitled The systematics and genetics of tomatoes on the Galápagos Islands. Her supervisors were Sandra Knapp, James Mallet and Ziheng Yang.She has been married to German botanist Johannes Vogel, former Keeper of Botany at the Natural History Museum and now Director General of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, since 2003, with whom she has two sons, Leo Erasmus Darwin Vogel (born 2003) and Josiah Algy Darwin Vogel (born 2005).
In 2005 the family, along with other descendants of Charles Darwin, including George Erasmus Darwin, and Chris Darwin were involved in counting the flowers at Down House.She wrote a foreword for the 2009 book Galapagos: Preserving Darwin's Legacy by Tui de Roy.
In 2009, Darwin was reported in various media outlets as having "won" a "talking to plants competition" against ten others. In the experiment, tomato plants grew the most when subjected to Darwin reading extracts from The Origin of Species.She appeared in the 2009–10 Dutch VPRO television series Beagle: In Darwin's wake in which she, with her husband and children, along with others such as Redmond O'Hanlon, participated in a recreation of Charles Darwin's voyage on HMS Beagle on board of the sailing ship Stad Amsterdam. She attended the Science & Technology Summit at the World Forum Convention Center in The Hague on 18 November 2010, at which O'Hanlon was also a featured guest.Stephen Keynes
Stephen John Keynes (born 19 October 1927 - 13 August 2017) was a great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and chairman of the Charles Darwin Trust.Keynes was the fourth son of Geoffrey Keynes and his wife Margaret Darwin, daughter of Sir George Darwin; he is also a nephew of the economist John Maynard Keynes. His brothers were Richard, Quentin and Milo. In 1955 he married Mary Cecilia Knatchbull-Hugessen, daughter of the Canadian senator Adrian Knatchbull-Hugessen. They have the following children:
Gregory Robert Edward Keynes (born 3 June 1956)
Elizabeth Harriet Keynes (born 15 December 1957)
Toby William Keynes (born 2 November 1959)
Martha Paganel Keynes (born 25 April 1961)
Zachary Edmund Keynes (born 18 October 1962)