George Crook

George R. Crook (September 8, 1830 – March 21, 1890)[1][2][3][4] was a career United States Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. During the 1880s, the Apache nicknamed Crook Nantan Lupan, which means "Chief Wolf."[5]

George Crook
George Crook - Brady-Handy
Portrait of George Crook
Nickname(s)Nantan Lupan, which means "Chief Wolf"
BornSeptember 8, 1828
Taylorsville, Ohio
DiedMarch 21, 1890 (aged 59)
Chicago, Illinois
Place of burial
AllegianceUnited States of America
Union
Service/branchUnited States Army
Union Army
Years of service1852–1890
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Commands held36th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment
Kanawha Division
Army of West Virginia
Arizona Territory
Department of the Platte
Department of the West
Division of the Missouri
Battles/warsIndian Wars

American Civil War

Indian Wars

Spouse(s)Mary Tapscott Dailey
Signature
Appletons' Crook George signature

Early life and military career

Crook was born to Thomas and Elizabeth Matthews Crook on a farm near Taylorsville, Montgomery County, Ohio (near Dayton). Nominated to the United States Military Academy by Congressman Robert Schenck, he graduated in 1852, ranking near the bottom of his class.

He was assigned to the 4th U.S. infantry as brevet second lieutenant, serving in California, 1852–61. He served in Oregon and northern California, alternately protecting or fighting against several Native American tribes. He commanded the Pitt River Expedition of 1857 and, in one of several engagements, was severely wounded by an Indian arrow. He established a fort in Northeast California that was later named in his honor; and later, Fort Ter-Waw in what is now Klamath Glen, California.[6]

During his years of service in California and Oregon, Crook extended his prowess in hunting and wilderness skills, often accompanying and learning from Indians whose languages he learned. These wilderness skills led one of his aides to liken him to Daniel Boone, and more importantly, provided a strong foundation for his abilities to understand, navigate and use Civil War landscapes to Union advantage.[6]

Crook was promoted to first lieutenant in 1856, and to captain in 1860. He was ordered east and in 1861, with the beginning of the American Civil War, was made colonel of the 36th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.[7]

He married Mary Tapscott Dailey, from Virginia.

Civil War

Early service

When the Civil War broke out, Crook accepted a commission as Colonel of the 36th Ohio Infantry and led it on duty in western Virginia. He was in command of the 3rd Brigade in the District of the Kanawha where he was wounded in a small fight at Lewisburg.[8] Crook returned to command of his regiment during the Northern Virginia Campaign. He and his regiment were part of John Pope's headquarters escort at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

After the Union Army's defeat at Second Bull Run, Crook and his regiment were attached to the Kanawha Division at the start of the Maryland Campaign. On September 12 Crook's brigade commander, Augustus Moor, was captured and Crook assumed command of the 2nd Brigade, Kanawha Division which had been attached to the IX Corps. Crook led his brigade at the Battle of South Mountain and near Burnside's Bridge at the Battle of Antietam. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier general on September 7, 1862. During these early battles he developed a lifelong friendship with one of his subordinates, Col. Rutherford B. Hayes of the 23rd Ohio Infantry.

Following Antietam, General Crook assumed command of the Kanawha Division. His division was detached from the IX Corps for duty in the Department of the Ohio. Before long Crook was assigned to command an infantry brigade in the Army of the Cumberland. This brigade became the 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps, which he led at the Battle of Hoover's Gap. In July he assumed command of the 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps in the Army of the Cumberland. He fought at the battle of Chickamauga and was in pursuit of Joseph Wheeler during the Chattanooga Campaign.[9]

In February 1864, Crook returned to command the Kanawha Division, which was now officially designated the 3rd Division of the Department of West Virginia.

Southwest Virginia

To open the spring campaign of 1864, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant ordered a Union advance on all fronts, minor as well as major. Grant sent for Brigadier General Crook, in winter quarters at Charleston, West Virginia, and ordered him to attack the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, Richmond's primary link to Knoxville and the southwest, and to destroy the Confederate salt works at Saltville, Virginia.

The 35-year-old Crook reported to army headquarters at City Point, Virginia, where the commanding general explained the mission in person. Grant instructed Crook to march his force, the Kanawha Division, against the railroad at Dublin, Virginia, 140 miles (230 km) south of Charleston. At Dublin he would put the railroad out of business and destroy Confederate military property. He was then to destroy the railroad bridge over New River, a few miles to the east. When these actions were accomplished, along with the destruction of the salt works, Crook was to march east and join forces with Major General Franz Sigel, who meanwhile was to be driving south up the Shenandoah Valley.

After long dreary months of garrison duty, the men were ready for action. Crook did not reveal the nature or objective of their mission, but everyone sensed that something important was brewing. "All things point to early action", the commander of the second brigade, Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, noted in his diary.

On April 29, 1864, the Kanawha Division marched out of Charleston and headed south. Crook sent a force under Brigadier General William W. Averell westward towards Saltville, then pushed on towards Dublin with nine infantry regiments, seven cavalry regiments, and 15 artillery pieces, a force of about 6,500 men organized into three brigades. The West Virginia countryside was beautiful that spring, but the mountainous terrain made the march a difficult undertaking. The way was narrow and steep, and spring rains slowed the march as tramping feet churned the roads into mud. In places, Crook's engineers had to build bridges across wash-outs before the army could advance.

The column reached Fayette on May 2, and then passed through Raleigh Court House and Princeton. On the night of May 8, the division camped at Shannon's Bridge, Virginia, 10 miles (16 km) north of Dublin.

The Confederates at Dublin soon learned the enemy was approaching. Their commander, Colonel John McCausland, prepared to evacuate his 1100 men, but before transportation could arrive, a courier from Brigadier General Albert G. Jenkins informed McCausland that the two of them were ordered by General John C. Breckinridge to stop Crook's advance. The combined forces of Jenkins and McCausland amounted to 2,400 men. Jenkins, the senior officer, took command.

Breaking camp on the morning of May 9, Crook moved his men south to the top of a spur of Cloyd's Mountain. Before the Union troops lay a precipitous, densely wooded slope with a meadow about 400 yards wide at the bottom. On the other side of the meadow, the land rose in another spur of the mountain, and there Jenkins' rebels waited behind hastily erected fortifications.

Crook dispatched the third brigade under Colonel Carr B. White to work its way through the woods and deliver a flank attack on the rebel right. At 11 am, he sent Hayes' first brigade and Colonel Horatio G. Sickel's second brigade down the slope to the edge of the meadow, where they were to launch a frontal assault on the Confederates as soon as they heard the sound of White's guns.

The slope before them was so steep that the officers had to dismount and descend on foot. Crook stationed himself with Hayes' brigade, which was to lead the assault. After a long, anxious wait, Hayes at last heard cannon fire off to his left and led his men at a slow double time out onto the meadow and into the rebels' musketry and artillery fire, which Crook called "galling". Their pace quickened as they neared the other side, but just before the up-slope they came to a waist-deep creek. The barrier caused little delay and the Yankee infantry stormed up the hill and engaged the rebel defenders at close range.

The only man to have trouble with the creek was General Crook. Dismounted, he still wore his high riding boots, and as he stepped into the stream, the boots filled with water and bogged him down. Nearby soldiers grabbed their commander's arms and hauled him to the other side.

Vicious hand-to-hand fighting erupted as the Yankees reached the crude rebel defenses. The Southerners gave way, tried to re-form, then broke and retreated up and over the hill towards Dublin.

The Yankees rounded up rebel prisoners by the hundreds and seized General Jenkins, who had fallen wounded. At this point the discipline of the Union men wavered, and there was no organized pursuit of the fleeing enemy. General Crook was unable to provide leadership as the excitement and exertion had sent him into a faint.

Colonel Hayes kept his head and organized a force of about 500 men from the soldiers milling about the site of their victory. With his improvised command, he set off, closely pressing the rebels.

While the fight at Cloyd's Mountain was going on, a train pulled into the Dublin station and disgorged 500 fresh troops of General John Hunt Morgan's cavalry, which had just diverted Averell away from Saltville. The fresh troops hastened towards the battlefield, where they soon met their compatriots retreating from Cloyd's Mountain. The reinforcements halted the rout, but Colonel Hayes, although ignorant of the strength of the force now before him, immediately ordered his men to "yell like devils" and rush the enemy. Within a few minutes General Crook arrived with the rest of the division, and the defenders broke and ran.

Cloyd's Mountain cost the Union army 688 casualties, while the rebels suffered 538 killed, wounded, and captured.

Unopposed, Crook moved his command into Dublin, where he laid waste to the railroad and the military stores. He then sent a party eastward to tear up the tracks and burn the ties. The next morning the main body set out for their next objective, the New River bridge, a key point on the railroad, a few miles to the east.

The Confederates, now commanded by Colonel McCausland, waited on the east side of the New River to defend the bridge. Crook pulled up on the west bank, and a long, ineffective artillery duel ensued. Seeing that there was little danger from the rebel cannon, Crook ordered the bridge destroyed, and both sides watched in awe as the structure collapsed magnificently into the river. McCausland, without the resources to oppose the Yankees any further, withdrew his battered command to the east.

General Crook, supplies running low in a country not suited for major foraging, now entertained second thoughts about his orders to push on east and join Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley. At Dublin he had intercepted an unconfirmed report that General Robert E. Lee had beaten Grant badly in the Wilderness, which led him to consider whether the Confederate commander might not soon move against Crook with a vastly superior force.

Having accomplished the major part of his mission, destruction of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, Crook turned his men north and after another hard march, reached the Union base at Meadow Bluff, West Virginia.

Shenandoah Valley

The following July, Crook assumed command of a small force called the Army of the Kanawha. Crook was defeated at the Second Battle of Kernstown. Nevertheless, he was appointed as a replacement for David Hunter in command of the Department of West Virginia the following day. However Crook did not assume command until August 9.[10] Along with the title of his department Crook added "Army of West Virginia." Crook's army was soon absorbed into Philip H. Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah and for all practical purposes functioned as a corps in that unit. Although Crook's force kept its official designation as the Army of West Virginia,[11] it was often referred to as the VIII Corps.[12] The official VIII Corps of the Union Army was led by Lew Wallace during this time and its troops were on duty in Maryland and Northern Virginia.[13]

Crook led his corps in the Valley Campaigns of 1864 at the battles of Opequon (Third Winchester), Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek. On October 21, 1864, he was promoted to major general of volunteers.

In February 1865, General Crook was captured by Confederate raiders at Cumberland, Maryland, and held as a prisoner of war in Richmond until exchanged a month later. He very briefly returned to command the Department of West Virginia until he took command of a cavalry division in the Army of the Potomac during the Appomattox Campaign. Crook first went into action with his division at the battle of Dinwiddie Court House. He later took a prominent role in the battles of Five Forks, Amelia Springs, Sayler's Creek and Appomattox Court House.

Indian Wars

At the end of the Civil War, George Crook received a brevet as major general in the regular army, but reverted to the permanent rank of major. Only days later, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, serving with the 23rd Infantry on frontier duty in the Pacific Northwest. In 1867, he was appointed head of the Department of the Columbia.

Snake War

Crook successfully campaigned against the Snake Indians in the 1864-68 Snake War, where he won nationwide recognition. Crook had fought Indians in Oregon before the Civil War. He was assigned to the Pacific Northwest to use new tactics in this war, which had been waged for several years. Crook arrived in Boise City to take command on December 11, 1866. The general noticed that the Northern Paiute used the fall, winter and spring seasons to gather food, so he adopted the tactic recommended by a predecessor George B. Currey to attack during the winter.[14] Crook had his cavalry approach the Paiute on foot in attack at their winter camp. As the soldiers drew them in, Crook had them remount; they defeated the Paiute and recovered some stolen livestock.[15]

Crook used Indian scouts as troops as well as to spot enemy encampments. While campaigning in Eastern Oregon during the winter of 1867, Crook's scouts located a Paiute village near the eastern edge of Steens Mountain. After covering all the escape routes, Crook ordered the charge on the village while intending to view the raid from afar, but his horse got spooked and galloped ahead of Crook's forces toward the village. Caught in the crossfire, Crook's horse carried the general through the village without being wounded. The army caused heavy casualties for the Paiute in the battle of Tearass Plain.[16] Crook later defeated a mixed band of Paiute, Pit River, and Modoc at the Battle of Infernal Caverns in Fall River Mills, California.

Yavapai War

George Crook at turret peak
George Crook during the Tonto Basin Campaign.

President Ulysses S. Grant next placed Crook in command of the Arizona Territory. Crook's use of Apache scouts during his Tonto Basin campaign of the Yavapai War brought him much success in forcing the Yavapai and Tonto Apache onto reservations. Crook's victories during the Yavapai War included the Battle of Salt River Canyon, also known as the Skeleton Cave Massacre, and the Battle of Turret Peak.

Camp Verde-Camp Verde Marker
General Crook Trail marker located where in 1871 Crook established a military supply road that connected Forts Whipple, Verde, and Apache. The marker is near the Fort Verde Administration Building in Camp Verde, Arizona.

In 1873, Crook was appointed brigadier general in the regular army, a promotion that passed over and angered several full colonels next in line.

Great Sioux War

From 1875 to 1882 and again from 1886 to 1888, Crook was head of the Department of the Platte, with headquarters at Fort Omaha in North Omaha, Nebraska.

Battle of the Rosebud

On 28 May 1876, Brigadier General George Crook assumed direct command of the Bighorn and Yellowstone Expedition at Fort Fetterman. Crook had gathered a strong force from his Department of the Platte. Leaving Fort Fetterman on 29 May, the 1,051-man column consisted of 15 companies from the 2d and 3d Cavalry, 5 companies from the 4th and 9th Infantry, 250 mules, and 106 wagons. On 14 June, the column was joined by 261 Shoshone and Crow allies. Based on intelligence reports, Crook ordered his entire force to prepare for a quick march. Each man was to carry only 1 blanket, 100 rounds of ammunition, and 4 days' rations. The wagon train would be left at Goose Creek, and the infantry would be mounted on the pack mules.

On 17 June, Crook's column set out at 0600, marching northward along the south fork of Rosebud Creek. The Crow and Shoshone scouts were particularly apprehensive. Although the column had not yet encountered any sign of Indians, the scouts seemed to sense their presence. The soldiers, particularly the mule-riding infantry, seemed fatigued from the early start and the previous day's 35-mile (56 km) march. Accordingly, Crook stopped to rest his men and animals at 0800 (8 o'clock AM). Although he was deep in hostile territory, Crook made no special dispositions for defense. His troops halted in their marching order. The Cavalry battalions led the column, followed by the battalion of mule-borne foot soldiers, and a provisional company of civilian miners and packers brought up the rear.

The Crow and Shoshone scouts remained alert while the soldiers rested. Several minutes later, the soldiers heard the sound of intermittent gunfire coming from the bluffs to the north. As the intensity of fire increased, a scout rushed into the camp shouting, "Lakota, Lakota!" The Battle of the Rosebud was on. By 0830, the Sioux and Cheyenne had hotly engaged Crook's Indian allies on the high ground north of the main body. Heavily outnumbered, the Crow and Shoshone scouts fell back toward the camp, but their fighting withdrawal gave Crook time to deploy his forces. Rapidly firing soldiers drove off the attackers but used up much of the ammunition meant for use later in the campaign. Low on ammunition and with numerous wounded, the General returned to his post.

Historians debate whether Crook's pressing on could have prevented the killing of the five companies of the 7th Cavalry Regiment led by George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Battle of Slim Buttes

Crazy horse c1877
Crazy Horse and his band of Oglala Lakota on their way from Camp Sheridan to surrender to General Crook at Red Cloud Agency near Camp Robinson, Nebraska, May 6, 1877.

After the disaster at the Little Bighorn, the U.S. Congress authorized funds to reinforce the Big Horn and Yellowstone Expedition.[17] Determined to demonstrate the willingness and capability of the U.S. Army to pursue and punish the Sioux, Crook took to the field. After briefly linking up with General Alfred Terry, military commander of the Dakota Territory, Crook embarked on what came to be known as the grueling and poorly provisioned Horsemeat March, upon which the soldiers were reduced to eating their horses and mules. A party dispatched to Deadwood for supplies came across the village of American Horse the Elder on September 9, 1876. The well-stocked village was attacked and looted in the Battle of Slim Buttes. Crazy Horse led a counter-attack against Crook the next day, but was repulsed by Crook's superior numbers.

Standing Bear v. Crook

In 1879, Crook spoke on behalf of the Ponca tribe and Native American rights during the trial of Standing Bear v. Crook. The federal judge affirmed that Standing Bear had some of the rights of U.S. citizens.

That same year his home at Fort Omaha, now called the General Crook House and considered part of North Omaha, was completed.

Geronimo's War

Geronimo and his warriors
"Scene in Geronimo's camp, the Apache outlaw and murderer. Taken before the surrender to Gen. Crook, March 27, 1886, in the Sierra Madre mountains of Mexico, escaped March 30, 1886."

Crook was made head of the Department of Arizona and successfully forced some members of the Apache to surrender, but Geronimo continually evaded capture. As a mark of respect, the Apache nicknamed Crook Nantan Lupan, which means "Chief Wolf". In March, 1886, Crook received word that Geronimo would meet him in Cañon de los Embudos, in the Sierra Madre Mountains about 86 miles (138 km) from Fort Bowie. During the three days of negotiations, photographer C. S. Fly took about 15 exposures of the Apache on 8 by 10 inches (200 by 250 mm) glass negatives.[18] One of the pictures of Geronimo with two of his sons standing alongside was made at Geronimo's request. Fly's images are the only existing photographs of Geronimo’s surrender. His photos of Geronimo and the other free Apaches, taken on March 25 and 26, are only the known photographs taken of an American Indian while still at war with the United States.[19]

Geronimo surrenders March 1886
"Geronimo poses with members of his tribe and General George Crook's staff during peace negotiations on March 27, 1886."

Geronimo, camped on the Mexican side of the border, agreed to Crook's surrender terms. That night, a soldier who sold them whiskey said that his band would be murdered as soon as they crossed the border. Geronimo and 25 of his followers slipped away during the night; their escape cost Crook his command.[18]

Nelson A. Miles replaced Crook in 1886 in command of the Arizona Territory and brought an end to the Apache Wars. He captured Geronimo and the Chiricahua Apache band, and detained the Chiricahua scouts, who had served the U.S. Army, transporting them all as prisoners-of-war to a prison in Florida. (Crook was reportedly furious that the scouts, who had faithfully served the Army, were imprisoned along with the hostile warriors. He sent numerous telegrams protesting their arrest to Washington. They, along with most of Geronimo's band, were forced to spend the next 26 years in captivity at the fort in Florida before they were finally released.)

After years of campaigning in the Indian Wars, Crook won steady promotion back up the ranks to the permanent grade of Major General. President Grover Cleveland placed him in command of the Military Division of the Missouri in 1888.

Later life

Crook served in Omaha again as the Commander of the Department of the Platte from 1886 to 1888. While he was there, his portrait was painted by artist Herbert A. Collins.[20]

He spent his last years speaking out against the unjust treatment of his former Indian adversaries. He died suddenly in Chicago in 1890 while serving as commander of the Military Division of the Missouri. Crook was originally buried in Oakland, Maryland. In 1898, Crook's remains were transported to Arlington National Cemetery, where he was reinterred on November 11.

Red Cloud, a war chief of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux), said of Crook, "He, at least, never lied to us. His words gave us hope."[21]

Legacy

Bronze statue of General George Crook at Fort Omaha
Bronze of Gen. Crook at Fort Omaha.

His good friend and Union Army subordinate, President Rutherford B. Hayes, named one of his sons George Crook Hayes (September 29, 1864 - May 24, 1866), in respect of his commanding officer, although the little boy died before his second birthday of scarlet fever.

Crook County in Wyoming and Oregon were named for him, as was the town of Crook, Colorado.

"Crook City," an unincorporated place in the Black Hills of South Dakota, was named for his 1876 camp there. Nearby and between Deadwood and Sturgis, South Dakota is Crook Mountain, named for him. Crook City Road passes through there from Whitewood heading toward Deadwood.

Crook Peak in Lake County, Oregon, elevation 7,834 feet (2,388 m), in the Warner Mountains is named after him; it is near where the general set up Camp Warner (1867–1874) in a campaign to subdue the Paiute Indians.

Crook Mountain, a peak in the North Cascades, was named for him.

Cañon Pintado Historic District, 10 miles (16 km) south of Rangely, Colorado, has numerous ancient Fremont culture (0-1300 CE) and Ute petroglyphs, first seen by Europeans in the mid-18th century. One group of carvings has several horses, which locals call Crook's Brand Site, as they claim the horses carry the general's brand. The Ute adopted the horse in the 1600s.

Forest Road 300 in the Coconino National Forest is named the "General Crook Trail." It is a section of the trail which his troops blazed from Fort Verde to Fort Whipple, and on to Fort Apache through central Arizona.

Numerous military references honor him: Fort Crook (1857 – 1869) was an Army post near Fall River Mills, California, used during the Indian Wars, and later for the protection of San Francisco during the Civil War. It was named for then Lt. Crook by Captain John W. T. Gardiner, 1st Dragoons, as Crook was recovering there from an injury. California State Historical Marker 355 marks the site in Shasta County.

Fort Crook (1891 – 1946) was an Army Depot in Bellevue, Nebraska, first used as a dispatch point for Indian conflicts on the Great Plains, then later as an airfield for the 61st Balloon Company of the Army Air Corps. It was named for Brig. Gen. Crook due to his many successful Indian campaigns in the west. The site formerly known as Fort Crook is now part of Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division is nicknamed "Greywolf" in his honor, in a variation of his Apache nickname meaning "Grey Wolf".

The General Crook House at Fort Omaha in Omaha, Nebraska is named in his honor, as he was the only Commander of the Department of the Platte to live there. At Fort Huachuca, Crook House on Old Post is named after him as well. The Crook Walk in Arlington National Cemetery is near General Crook's gravesite.

In popular media

  • Crook was portrayed in the 1993 movie Geronimo: An American Legend (1993) by the actor Gene Hackman.[22][23][24]
  • He was represented in The West in a voiceover by Eli Wallach.
  • He was a figure in the television series Deadwood and was portrayed by Peter Coyote.[25]
  • In the 1971 motion picture Valdez Is Coming, the title character, portrayed by Burt Lancaster is revealed to be a former member of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, under Crook's command (although there is no evidence to indicate Crook was in command of that regiment).
  • George Crook appears in the videogame Call of Juarez: Gunslinger as Grey Wolf.[26]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 191-92.
  2. ^ Warner 1964, p. 102-04.
  3. ^ Patterson, Michael Robert (23 April 2004). "George Crook. Major General, United States Army". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Guide to the George Crook Papers 1863-1890". Orbis Cascade Alliance. Northwest Digital Archives. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Native Languages of the Americas". Native Languages. Blogspot. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  6. ^ a b Magid, Paul (2011). George Crook: From the Redwoods to Appomattox. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0806144412.
  7. ^ Goodman, Rebecca (2005). "This Day in Ohio History". Emmis Books. p. 274. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  8. ^ Eicher p.191
  9. ^ Michael Robert Patterson. "Arlington Cemetery". Arlington Cemetery. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  10. ^ Eicher p.852
  11. ^ Eicher p.857
  12. ^ "Civil War Archive". Civil War Archive. Archived from the original on 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  13. ^ Eicher p.859
  14. ^ Oregon Historical Quarterly Vol. 79 (1978) p.132
  15. ^ Nelson, Kurt. Fighting For Paradise: A Military History of the Pacific Northwest, Yardley, Pennsylvania: Westholme Publishing, 2007, p. 167
  16. ^ Michno, Gregory. The Deadliest Indian War in the West; The Snake Conflict, 1864-1868, Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 2007, pp. 202-203
  17. ^ Utley, Robert M. (1973) Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian 1866–1890, pp. 64, 69, note 11.
  18. ^ a b Vaughan, Thomas. "C.S. Fly Pioneer Photojournalist". The Journal of Arizona History (Autumn, 1989 ed.). 30 (3): 303–318. JSTOR 41695766.
  19. ^ "Mary "Mollie" E. Fly (1847-1925)". Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  20. ^ Biography of Herbert Alexander Collins, by Alfred W. Collins, February 1975, 4 pages typed, in the possession of Collins' great-great grand-daughter, D. Dahl of Tacoma, WA
  21. ^ Schmitt, p. ??.
  22. ^ Maslin, Janet (December 10, 1993). "Reviews/Film; A Revisionist Portrait Of an Apache Warrior". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  23. ^ McCarthy, Todd (December 5, 1993). "Geronimo: An American Legend". Variety. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  24. ^ McCarthy, Todd (December 12, 1993). "Geronimo: An American Legend". Variety. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  25. ^ Beck, Henry Cabot (January 30, 2010). "On the Set of The Gundown". True West Magazine. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  26. ^ Fleve (2006). "Part 6: Last of the Chiricahua". Let's Play Archive. Retrieved January 6, 2018.

Further reading

  • Aleshire, Peter, The Fox and the Whirlwind: General George Grook and Geronimo, Castle Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7858-1837-5.
  • Bourke, John Gregory (1892). On the Border with Crook. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Magid, Paul. George Crook: From the Redwoods to Appomattox (University of Oklahoma Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-8061-4207-4).
    • Magid, Paul. The Gray Fox: George Crook and the Indian Wars (2015) vol 2
  • Robinson, Charles M., III. "General Crook and the Western Frontier", Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
  • Schmitt, Martin F., General George Crook, His Autobiography, University of Oklahoma Press, 1986 ISBN 0-8061-1982-9.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1960-4, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.

External links

Army of West Virginia

The Army of West Virginia served in the Union Army during the American Civil War and was the primary field army of the Department of West Virginia. It campaigned primarily in West Virginia, Southwest Virginia and in the Shenandoah Valley. It is noted for having two future U.S. presidents serve in its ranks: Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley, both from the 23rd Ohio Infantry.

Battle of Cloyd's Mountain

The Battle of Cloyd's Mountain was a Union victory in western Virginia on May 9, 1864 that allowed the Union forces to destroy the last line connecting Tennessee to Virginia.

Battle of Infernal Caverns

The Battle of Infernal Caverns was a battle during the Snake War fought between Native Americans and the U.S. Army. The Native American warriors had made a fortress out of lava rocks in the Infernal Caverns of northern California near the town of Fall River Mills., From there they were able to pour a steady fire upon the soldiers commanded by Lt. Col. George Crook. Crook's men attacked on the second day. Despite heavy casualties they managed to scale the cliffs and take the fortifications. Colonel Crook reportedly shot down Chief Sieto himself. Fighting continued into the night as the Native warriors withdrew deeper into the caverns. Crook commented "I never wanted dynamite so bad as I did when we first took the fort and heard the diabolical and defiant yells from down in the rocks". On the third day the Natives had fled the caverns.

Battle of Salt River Canyon

The Battle of Salt River Canyon, the Battle of Skeleton Cave, or the Skeleton Cave Massacre was the first principal engagement during the 1872 Tonto Basin Campaign under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Crook. It was part of the Yavapai War from 1871 to 1875.

Battle of Steen's Mountain

The Battle of Steen's Mountain was a battle during the Snake War. In response to Paiute attacks in Idaho, Lt. Col. George Crook led a punitive expedition into southeast Oregon, defeating Chief Howluck at the battle of Owyhee River. Continuing his pursuit Crook again encountered the Chief Paunina's Paiute village at Steen's Mountain. As Crook ordered the charge his horse bolted and carried him through the native village. Nevertheless, his men followed. Despite several close calls for Crook personally, his troopers' fire was accurate and inflicted heavy casualties. A month later Crook's men engaged in one final skirmish before Crook ended the expedition due to bad weather.

Battle of Turret Peak

The Battle of Turret Peak occurred March 27, 1873 in the Arizona Territory between the United States Army and a group of Yavapai and Tonto Apaches as part of Lieutenant Colonel George Crook's campaign to return the natives to reservations.

Blanquet

Blanquet was an Indian Scout in the United States Army and a recipient of the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions in the Indian Wars of the western United States.

An Apache born in Arizona, Blanquet served as a scout for General George Crook during the Apache Wars. For his participation in campaigns through the winter of 1872–1873, he was awarded the Medal of Honor two years later, on April 12, 1875.Blanquet's official Medal of Honor citation reads:

Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

Crook County, Oregon

Crook County is a county in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,978. The county seat is Prineville. The county is named after George Crook, a U.S. Army officer who served in the American Civil War and various Indian Wars.

Crook County comprises the Prineville, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Bend-Redmond-Prineville, OR Combined Statistical Area.

Crow scouts

Crow Scouts worked with the United States Army in several conflicts, the first in 1876 during the Great Sioux War. Because the Crow Nation was at that time at peace with the United States, the army was able to enlist Crow warriors to help them in their encroachment against the Native Americans with whom they were at war. In 1873, the Crow called for U.S. military actions against the Indigenous people they reported were trespassing into the newly-designated Crow reservation territories.A small group of Crow scouts had witnessed General George A. Custer's defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in the Crow reservation. Many Crow fought in the Nez Perce War in 1877, and again in the Bannock War the next year. Crow scouts rode along with Assiniboine, Bannock and Cheyenne during Colonel Nelson A. Miles search for Sitting Bull north of the Missouri in 1879, and some former scouts fought in the Crow War of 1887.

Emmet Crawford

Emmet Crawford (December 22, 1844 – January 18, 1886) was an American soldier who rose through the ranks to become an officer. He was most noted for his time spent in the Arizona Territory under General George Crook in the United States Cavalry. He was killed in pursuit of the Apache leader Geronimo in January 1886 in Mexico.

Fort Ter-Waw

Fort Ter-Waw is a former US Army fort that was located six miles from the mouth of the Klamath River in the former Klamath River Reservation and in the present town of Klamath Glen, California.

It was a United States military post that was created to guard the Klamath River Reservation and to keep peace between the Tolowa and Yurok Native American tribes and white settlers. It was established in what was then Klamath County, October 12, 1857, by First Lieutenant George Crook and the men of Company D, US 4th Infantry Regiment. The fort was part of the Humboldt Military District headquartered at Fort Humboldt. Most of the fort was destroyed during the Great Flood of 1862 in December 1861 and abandoned June 10, 1862. The garrison was moved to Camp Lincoln.

The site is now in Del Norte County and is marked by a California Historical Landmark (#544). Its location can be found from Hwy 101 taking Ter-Wer Valley exit (Hwy 169), going 3.4 mi to the end of the road, and turning right on Ter-Wer Riffle Road. The site is at the intersection of Ter-Wer Riffle Road and Trinity Way in Klamath Glen.

Frank Grouard

Frank Benjamin Grouard (also known as Frank Gruard and Benjamin Franklin Grouard) (20 September 1850 – 15 August 1905) was a Scout and interpreter for General George Crook during the American Indian War of 1876. For the better part of a decade he lived with the Sioux tribe before returning to the society of people of the U.S.A. He was present at the immediate aftermath of the Battle of the Little Bighorn and several other historical fights of the 1800s including the Wounded Knee Massacre.

General Crook House

The General George Crook House Museum is located at 5730 North 30th Street in Fort Omaha. The Fort is located in the Miller Park neighborhood of North Omaha, Nebraska, United States. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969, and is a contributing property to the Fort Omaha Historic District.

George Crook (rugby union)

George Crook (born 13 October 1988) is an English rugby union player for Birmingham & Solihull in The Championship and Worcester Warriors in the Guinness Premiership.

Crook made his Premiership debut against Harlequins in April 2009 and marked his home Premiership debut with a try againstLondon Irish.

He played as a fly-half.

Crook attended Bromsgrove School. He went on loan to Coventry for the 2009–10 season.

After leaving Worcester Warriors at the end of the 2009–10 season, he signed for the Pertemps Bees. However he was forced to retire from rugby due to a back injury in October 2010 at the young age of 22.

Crook represented England Under 16s and Under 18s.

Following his retirement from rugby, Crook started work for Chubb Insurance, in 2015 he joined Liberty Mutual Insurance and worked as Broker Account Manager. George Currently works for Travelers Insurance Company as a Branch Development Manager.

Kanawha Division

The Kanawha Division was a Union Army division which could trace its origins back to a brigade originally commanded by Jacob D. Cox. This division served in western Virginia and Maryland and was at times led by such famous personalities as George Crook and Rutherford B. Hayes.

Second Battle of Kernstown

The Second Battle of Kernstown was fought on July 24, 1864, at Kernstown, Virginia, outside Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. The Confederate Army of the Valley under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early soundly defeated the Union Army of West Virginia under Brig. Gen. George Crook and drove it from the Shenandoah Valley back over the Potomac River into Maryland. As a result, Early was able to launch the Confederacy's last major raid into northern territory, attacking the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in Maryland and West Virginia and burning Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in retaliation for the burning of civilian houses and farms earlier in the campaign.

Snake War

The Snake War (1864–1868) was an irregular war fought by the United States of America against the "Snake Indians," the settlers' term for Northern Paiute, Bannock and Western Shoshone bands who lived along the Snake River. Fighting took place in the states of Oregon, Nevada, and California, and in Idaho Territory. Total casualties from both sides of the conflict numbered 1,762 dead, wounded, or captured.

Third Battle of Winchester

The Third Battle of Winchester (or Battle of Opequon), was fought just outside Winchester, Virginia, on September 19, 1864, during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War.

After the victory at Battle of Berryville as the month began, Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan sought information about the troop strength of Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early. Earlier in the year, his subordinate Union Gen. George Crook had met Rebecca Wright, a Quaker schoolteacher and Union sympathizer in Winchester, a commercial center and transportation hub at the northern end of the Shenandoah Valley with many Confederate sympathizers and which changed hands 75 times during the war. Slave Thomas Laws of Millwood (between Berryville and Winchester) had a Confederate permit to sell produce in Winchester three days per week, and agreed to act as a Union spy. On September 16, Laws took Sheridan's letter (hidden in his mouth) to Wright, who consulted her mother and then replied (in a note which Laws also hid in his mouth) that a Confederate officer recovering from his wounds had recently bragged about Confederate artillery and infantry battalions under General Joseph B. Kershaw and Lt.Col. Wilfred E. Cutshaw had left Winchester to raid the B&O Railroad at Martinsburg, in the new state of West Virginia.Accordingly, Sheridan advanced toward Winchester along the Berryville Pike with the VI Corps and XIX Corps, crossing Opequon Creek. The Union advance was delayed long enough for Early to concentrate his forces to meet the main assault, which continued for several hours. Casualties were very heavy. The Confederate line was gradually driven back toward the town. Mid-afternoon, the Army of West Virginia and the cavalry turned the Confederate left flank. Early ordered a general retreat. Because of its size, intensity, serious casualties on both sides (particularly among the general officers) and its result (Confederates never again controlling Winchester and President Abraham Lincoln winning re-election), many historians consider this the most important conflict of the Shenandoah Valley. Sheridan would later give much of the credit for the victory to "the brave Quaker girl", whose intelligence he thought worth a brigade of troops.

Yavapai War

The Yavapai War, also known as the Tonto War, or the Apache War, was an armed conflict in the United States from 1871 to 1875 against Yavapai and Western Apache bands of Arizona. It began in the aftermath of the Camp Grant Massacre, on April 28, 1871, in which nearly 150 Pinal and Aravaipa Apaches were massacred by O'odham warriors and American settlers. Some of the survivors fled north into the Tonto Basin to seek protection by their Yavapai and Tonto allies. From there followed a series of United States Army campaigns, under the direction of General George Crook, to return the natives to the reservation system. The war culminated with the Yavapai's removal from the Camp Verde Reservation to San Carlos on February 27, 1875, an event now known as Exodus Day. The conflict should not be confused with the Chiricahua War, which was fought primarily between the Americans and the Chiricahua warriors of Cochise between 1860 and 1873.

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