George Costanza

George Louis Costanza is a character in the American television sitcom Seinfeld (1989–1998), played by Jason Alexander. He has variously been described as a "short, stocky, slow-witted, bald man" (by Elaine Benes and Costanza himself), "weak, spineless, man of temptations" (by Cosmo Kramer), and "Lord of the Idiots" (by Costanza himself). George and Jerry were junior high school friends (although in "The Betrayal", Season 9, Episode 8, George says the two have been friends since fourth grade) and remained friends afterwards.[1][2] He is friends with Jerry Seinfeld, Cosmo Kramer, and Elaine Benes. George appears in every episode except "The Pen" (third season).

The character was originally based on Seinfeld co-creator Larry David but is surnamed after Jerry Seinfeld's real-life New York friend, Mike Costanza. Alexander reprised his role in an episode of Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee, reuniting with Jerry Seinfeld and Wayne Knight (also reprising their roles as Jerry and Newman, respectively).

George Costanza
Seinfeld character
George Costanza
First appearance"The Seinfeld Chronicles"
Last appearance"The Finale, Part II" (Seinfeld)
Created byJerry Seinfeld
Larry David
Portrayed byJason Alexander
AliasArt Vandelay
Biff Loman
Body Suit Man
Buck Naked
Colin O'Brien
Donald O'Brien
Liar Man
Mr. Weatherbee
Koko the Monkey
The Urinator
Occupation(constantly changes throughout series) Assistant to the traveling secretary for the New York Yankees
Camp waiter
Car mover
Computer salesman
Importer Exporter
Hand model
Manuscript reader
Real estate agent
Representative for Kruger Industrial Smoothing
Sales rep for Pendant Publishing
Sales rep for Play Now
Sales rep for rest stop supply company
FamilyFrank Costanza (father)
Estelle Costanza (mother)
Unnamed brother
SpouseSusan Biddle Ross (fiancee; deceased)
RelativesShelly (cousin)
Aunt Baby (deceased)
Uncle Moe (deceased)
Henny (first cousin once removed)
Rhisa (cousin)
Unnamed grandfather
ReligionLatvian Orthodox Church, Catholic (by upbringing)
Birth DateApril

Early life and family

George is the son of Frank (Jerry Stiller), an Italian-American and Estelle Costanza (Estelle Harris), presumably Jewish-American. George twice mentions that he has a brother (although never again after season 3). Lloyd Braun is his childhood nemesis whom George feels was the son his parents always wanted.[3][4] George's best friend Jerry Seinfeld described Frank and Estelle as "psychopaths",[5] and said in "The Chinese Woman" that, if they had divorced when George was young, he "could have been normal".[6]

In "The Junior Mint", he states he grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where he went to a public school.[7] In a previous episode he mentions he went to high school on Long Island.[8] He met Jerry during his youth, and they remained friends from that point on.[9] George and Jerry both attended John F. Kennedy High School, class of 1971.[10] During their high school years, George and Jerry frequently hung out at a pizzeria called Mario's Pizzas, where the former, having the highest score "GLC", would play Frogger (although, since Frogger debuted in 1981, this would have been well after the pair's high school graduation in 1971).[11] George was picked on by his gym teacher Mr. Heyman (Biff Yeager), who deliberately mispronounced his name as "Can't stand ya" and gave him wedgies.[12]

Two of George's cousins appear on the show: Shelly, who briefly appears in "The Contest",[13] and Rhisa, whom George plans to date in order to shock his parents in "The Junk Mail".[14] George talks to his parents about his family in "The Money", during which it is revealed that he had an "Uncle Moe", who "died a young man" and an "Aunt Baby", who died at the age seven of internal problems.[15] It is also revealed that his mother has a "Cousin Henny".[15] In "The Doll", it is revealed that Frank Costanza was born in Italy and has a cousin, Carlo, who still lives there.[16] As of "The Robbery", George had living grandparents whom he had recently visited, although it is never made clear whether these were his mom's or dad's parents.[17]


George is neurotic, self-loathing and dominated by his parents, yet also prone to occasional periods of overconfidence that invariably arise at the worst possible time. Throughout Seinfeld's first season, George is depicted as moderately intelligent – at one point, he mentions an intellectual interest in the Civil War and, in some early episodes, appears almost as a mentor to Jerry – but becomes less sophisticated, to the point of being too lazy even to read a ninety-page book (Breakfast at Tiffany's), preferring to watch the movie adaptation at a stranger's house instead. However, one Chicago Tribune reviewer noted that, despite all his shortcomings, George is "pretty content with himself".[18]

George exhibits a number of negative character traits, among them dishonesty, insecurity and neurosis, many of which seem to stem from a dysfunctional childhood with his squabbling parents Frank and Estelle, and often form the basis of his involvement in various plots, schemes and awkward social encounters. George's relationship with Frank is estranged. Episode plots frequently feature George manufacturing elaborate deceptions at work or in his relationships in order to gain or maintain some small or imagined advantage or (pretend) image of success. He had success in "The Opposite", where he starts (with Jerry's encouragement) to do the complete opposite of what his instincts tell him to do, which results in him getting a girlfriend and job with the New York Yankees. His neurosis is also evident in "The Note", where he begins doubting his sexuality after receiving a massage from a male masseuse.

George sometimes refers to himself in the third person (for example, "George is getting UPSET!”), after befriending a person with a similar trait in "The Jimmy".

George's occasional impulsiveness often gets him into trouble, like when he flees a burning kitchen during his girlfriend's son's birthday party, knocking over several children and an old woman in the process, so he can escape first in "The Fire". However, there are moments where George exhibits remarkable courage, but usually accidentally and often in support of inane lies he would rather not confess to. For instance, in "The Marine Biologist", he goes into the sea alone to save a beached whale because his date, a woman on whom he had a crush in college, thinks he is a marine biologist and even tells her the truth about his occupation after he saves the day. However, this causes her to reject him immediately, and he is forced to take the bus home.

George often goes to impressive measures to build and maintain his relationships with women. In "The Conversion", he goes through the process of converting to the Latvian Orthodox religion as his girlfriend's conservative parents would not let her date somebody outside their religion. In "The Susie", he deems it so important that he make a grand entrance at his work's ball with his attractive girlfriend Allison that, upon finding out that she plans to break up with him, George goes to great lengths to avoid her before the ball, stating "If she can't find me, she can't break up with me." Ultimately though, the one relationship he holds long-term, with his fiancé Susan, is the one about which he is seemingly least enthusiastic, as shown by his ongoing attempts to first postpone, and later cancel, their wedding and his rather nonchalant reaction when she suddenly dies. In fact, in "The Foundation", George shows greater emotion while discussing the death of the Star Trek character Spock in the movie, The Wrath of Khan than after Susan's death.

In some episodes, George aligns with both Kramer and Elaine, each of whom he is also frequently pitted against. While he gets into arguments with Elaine, they also work together, most notably in "The Cadillac", although George states in "The Dinner Party" that he is frightened of her. George and Kramer usually feel awkward around one another but find themselves working together (and against one another) in "The Busboy", "The Stall" and "The Slicer". "The Susie" is the only episode where their relationship is as prominent as the relationships between the other characters. Some episodes, like "The Raincoats", "The Money", "The Doorman" and "The Fusilli Jerry", would suggest that Kramer has a more comfortable rapport with George's parents than George.

He has an interest in nice restrooms and his personal bathroom habits border on obsession. In "The Revenge", he quits his real estate job solely because he is forbidden to use his boss' private bathroom. In "The Voice", he admits that one of the reasons he is staying at a job his boss has asked that he resign from (for feigning a disability) is that it gives him "private access to one of the great handicapped toilets in the city". In "The Busboy", he claims to have an encyclopedic knowledge of the locations of the best public bathrooms in the city. He proves this in "The Bizarro Jerry" when he directs Kramer to "the best bathroom in midtown" at the offices of Brand/Leland, even describing the layout, marble, high ceiling and toilets that flush "like a jet engine". In "The Gymnast", he told Jerry that he always removes his shirt when using the bathroom because "it frees me up... no encumbrances". It is unclear if he dropped this habit after an embarrassing incident where he walked out of a bathroom shirtless at a lunch party attended by his girlfriend, her mom and other female members of her family. When working for the Yankees, he suggested having the bathroom stall doors stretched all the way to the ground (letting people's legs not be seen while in the stalls), and, in many episodes, he shows a fascination with toilet paper and its history. He also displays a fear of diseases, like lupus and cancer. In "The Wife", George gets into trouble for peeing in the shower at a gym but defends his action with, "It's all pipes! What's the difference?" even threatening to call a plumber to back him up.

Although occasionally referred to as dumb by his friends, many signs point to the fact that George is actually quite intelligent despite his neurotic behavior. George's foolishness is displayed in "The Cafe", where he has Elaine take an IQ test for him. Apparently, George's neurotic stupidity would progress until it became one of his primary characteristics. By "The Couch", he could not even concentrate enough to read a ninety-page book (Breakfast at Tiffany's). In "The Abstinence", it is discovered that George actually has what would appear to be genius-level intelligence but can never access it because his mind is always so completely focused on sex. When circumstances let him temporarily remove sex from his mind, he is able to reach his true intellectual potential, solving a Rubik's Cube, answering a string of questions on Jeopardy! and giving Derek Jeter and Bernie Williams pointers on hitting based on Newtonian physics.

George and Jerry have been best friends since meeting in high school gym class. The extreme closeness of their friendship is occasionally mistaken for gayness. "The Outing" deals with a reporter from a New York University college paper mistaking George and Jerry for a gay couple, and, in "The Cartoon", George dates somebody who Kramer insists is merely a "female Jerry". When George is forced to note to himself that the idea of a female Jerry who he can have a close personal and also sexual relationship with would be everything he has ever wanted, George, in horror, breaks off his relationship with the woman. When something goes wrong, George has been known to hold his head.


Seinfeld co-creator Larry David based George largely on himself.[19][20] Seinfeld and David created the character as a counterpoint to Seinfeld's character.[21] In the first draft of the show's pilot script, called "Stand-Up" at the time, George's name was Bennett and he, like Jerry, was a comedian.[19] In that same draft, the scene in the pilot in which George and Jerry discuss a woman Jerry met earlier, saw George and Jerry discussing their stand-up act.[19] This idea however, was quickly abandoned and his name was changed to George, the real estate broker instead.[19] George's last name comes from Michael Costanza, a college classmate of Seinfeld.[22] "Louis", George's middle name is a homage to Lou Costello, whose 1950s television series The Abbott and Costello Show, inspired Seinfeld's writing style.[23] Although he is often asked whether he wanted to play the character, Larry David has said that he was only interested in writing the show, that not only did he not want to act on the show, but it had never occurred to him and, even if it had, he highly doubted that NBC would have approved of his being cast.[21]

Casting director Marc Herschfield stated that, during casting for the character, "we saw every actor we could possibly see in Los Angeles", but they could not find the right actor for the part.[21] Among the auditionees were Nathan Lane, David Alan Grier, Brad Hall and Larry Miller.[19][24] The Trivia page for the Seinfeld show on IMDb[25] incorrectly states that George Schimmel auditioned for the Costanza role. A 2011 article by Bradford Evans[26] in Splitsider[27] claims those considered for Costanza include Danny DeVito and Nathan Lane, while Jason Alexander himself has noted that Chris Rock was also considered for the role.[28]

On April 3, 1989, Herschfield sent a partial script to Jason Alexander, who was in New York City at the time.[21] Herschfield had met Alexander when he was working on the CBS sitcom E/R.[21] Alexander enjoyed the script and felt it read like a Woody Allen film; therefore, he did a Woody Allen impression on his audition tape, and bought a pair of glasses to better resemble the character.[21][29] Though Alexander thought his audition was "a complete waste of time", both David and Seinfeld were impressed; Seinfeld stated "the second we saw him, like two lines out of his mouth, we went 'That's the guy'".[21] On April 10, 1989 at 9:00 A.M. Alexander did his first official audition and met David and Seinfeld.[19] While in the waiting room for his final audition, Alexander saw that Larry Miller was also auditioning.[21] Alexander was aware that Miller and Seinfeld were very good friends, and so figured that he would not get the part. After his final audition he returned to New York City, and when he landed he received a phone call informing him that he was hired.[21]

Many of George's predicaments were based on David's past real-life experiences. In "The Revenge", for example, when George quits his job in a fury only to realize he has made a mistake, he goes back the next day as if nothing happened; this mirrors David's actions while working as a writer for Saturday Night Live, when he quit and then returned to his job in the same manner.[21] As the show progressed, Alexander discovered that the character was based on David. As Alexander explains in an interview for the Seinfeld DVD, during an early conversation with David, Alexander questioned a script, saying, "This could never happen to anyone, and even if it did, no human being would react like this." David replied, "What do you mean? This happened to me once, and this is exactly how I reacted." After that, Alexander changed his performance from an imitation of Woody Allen to what he has called a "shameless imitation of Larry David."

In 1998, Michael Costanza sued the show for US$100,000,000, claiming that he never gave permission for his name to be used and that, because of the character's appearance and behavior, he was not treated with respect.[30][31] Costanza lost the suit, as the New York Supreme Court (the trial court in the State of New York court system) decided that Seinfeld and David "did not violate Michael Costanza's privacy rights when they created the character".[32]

Family and background


George becomes engaged to Susan Biddle Ross, a wealthy executive at NBC who approved his and Jerry's show-within-a-show sitcom pilot. George and Susan date for a year, during which time commitment-phobic George is constantly trying to find ways to end their relationship without actually having to initiate the breakup with her. In "The Engagement", he proposes to her in a short-lived bout of midlife crisis, after he and Jerry make a pact to move forward with their lives. When Jerry breaks up with his girlfriend almost immediately thereafter for eating "her peas one at a time" and declares the deal over, George panics and again tries repeatedly to weasel out of his engagement. He gets his wish about 2 weeks before the wedding in "The Invitations", when he inadvertently kills her by selecting cheap envelopes for their wedding invitations, not knowing they contained toxic glue. When notified of her death at the hospital, George displays a combination of shock, apathy and relief (later described by the doctor in Part 2 of The Finale as "restrained jubilation"). A few moments after being notified of Susan's death, he says to Jerry, Kramer and Elaine, "Well, let's go get some coffee." Susan's parents, recent divorcees, never knowing the specifics behind her poisoning but suspecting that George was somehow involved, never forgive him for this, and appoint him to the board of directors of the Susan Ross Foundation to keep him trapped under their influence and ensure that he would never get any of Susan's inheritance.


George is very bad at meeting women and even worse at maintaining his romantic relationships and, as a result, his relationships usually end badly.[33][34] George also dated other women throughout the series:

  • His two dates, Maura (who refuses to break up) and Loretta (who will not make love in "The Strongbox"), make it hard for George to break up.
  • In "The Cadillac", George goes on a date with actress Marisa Tomei (who loves "quirky, funny, bald men"), in the park for a short time but gets punched after revealing that he is engaged.
  • In "The Cafe", George dates Monica, who tests George in an IQ test. Apparently, after letting Elaine help him cheat, the end result is the test being spilled with food, and he is left to explain about the mess on the IQ test.
  • In "The Nose Job", George dates Audrey, who has a big nose, until he, Jerry and Elaine are shocked when Kramer suggests that she get a nose job.
  • In "The Red Dot", by accident, George dates Evie, a cleaning woman who works at Pendant Publishing by sharing Hennigans.
  • In "The Conversion", George willingly converts to the Latvian Orthodox faith for his girlfriend, Sasha, after Elaine mentions that it would be romantic, only to learn after completing the conversion that Sasha is going to Latvia.
  • In "The Boyfriend", George dates Carrie, the daughter of his unemployment-office rep, Mrs. Sokol, in order to get an extension on his unemployment.
  • In "The Good Samaritan", George commits adultery with a married woman, Robin, after he says "God bless you" to her.
  • In "The Outing", George dates Allison, who is having a breakdown. He tries to get out of the relationship by saying he is homosexual, without success.
  • In "The Cartoon", George dates Janet, who Kramer openly says looks like Jerry.
  • In "The Blood", George dates Tara and tries to add food as a part of their sex life.
  • In "The Pez Dispenser" George dates a pianist, Noelle who wishes to break up with George after Elaine laughs during a recital. George has a phone communication with Noelle and feels like she wishes to break up, so he breaks up with her first. Later at an intervention for an old friend of Jerry and Elaine's, Elaine laughs the laugh that Noelle will never forget and it is revealed she is the one that shattered Noelle's confidence during the recital.
  • In "The Fix-Up" George refuses a blind date with Cynthia until assured she meets his intellect (low) and attractiveness (high) standards
  • George's childhood friend Deena repeatedly catches George acting strangely, first in "The Gum", then "The Doll" and in "The Bottle Deposit", where she finds him in a mental institution, where she thinks he is finally getting the help he needs.

In the season 7 Curb Your Enthusiasm episode "Seinfeld", George has married (and divorced) a woman named Amanda in the time since the finale. It is unclear, however, whether these events are considered canon in the Seinfeld series.

Professional life

George's professional life is unstable. He is unable to remain in any job for any great length of time before making an embarrassing blunder and getting fired, and he is unemployed for a large amount of time throughout the series. Very often, the blunder is lying and trying to cover it up, only to have it all fall apart. Most of the many short-lived jobs George holds throughout the series are in sales.

Over the course of the series, he most notably works for a real estate transaction services firm (Rick Bahr Properties), a rest stop supply company (Sanalac), a publishing company Elaine also works at (Pendant Publishing), the New York Yankees (his longest running job), a playground-equipment company (Play Now) and an industrial smoothing company (Kruger Industrial Smoothing). He is fired from his job at Pendant Publishing for having sex with the cleaning woman on his desk in "The Red Dot" (he professes he has always been attracted to cleaning women).

George works briefly for his father selling computers, although he is always outshone by co-worker Lloyd Braun.

His original job when the series starts is as a real estate agent; he ends up quitting and getting re-hired, but fired immediately afterward for drugging his boss. He always wanted to be an architect or least "pretend to be an architect". He first mentions this desire in "The Stake Out", and claims in "The Race" that he had designed "the new addition to the Guggenheim". In "The Van Buren Boys", he denies his young protégé a scholarship from the Susan Ross Foundation when the young man decides he no longer wants to be an architect and wants to become a city planner instead. In "The Marine Biologist", Jerry tells a woman who George wanted to impress that George is a marine biologist. The plan backfires when George is called on to save a beached whale with a Titleist golf ball in its blowhole. He saves the whale, but the woman tells him off when he confesses that he is not, in fact, a marine biologist: "She told me to go to hell, and I took the bus home." He then gets a job working for the Yankees, where he frequently encounters a fictionalized version of Yankees owner George Steinbrenner (the voice of Steinbrenner is made by Larry David).

During Season 4, George gains experience as a sitcom writer as he helps Jerry to write the pilot for the fictitious show Jerry. While pitching the concept of a "show about nothing" to NBC executives, George dates executive Susan until "The Virgin", when she is fired. Following the only episode ("The Pilot"), executive Russell's obsession with Elaine has cost George and Jerry a shot at getting a television series.

Fashion and hairstyle

George is known for his balding hair, which is less noticeable in "The Seinfeld Chronicles" or a flashback in "The Slicer", but gets thinner as the series progresses. In "The Beard", he starts to wear a wig, until Elaine throws it out the window in disgust. He also tries to restore his hair in "The Tape", when he starts using a Chinese cream that is said to be such a great cure for baldness that it will make him "look like Stalin". His hair is rarely seen styled. His clothing is usually very plain. He frequently wears jeans and Nike Cortez sneakers. In "The Pilot", George wears sweatpants; Jerry says that this makes George look like he has given up on life. In "The Subway", when his clothing is taken, he goes to the coffee shop with a sheet, causing a bystander to mistake him for a Hare Krishna. In "The Muffin Tops", he steals clothing from a tourist who asks him to watch his suitcase. "The Gum" has him dressed as Henry VIII. George has, however, mentioned that his clothes are color-coded based on his mood. In "The Trip", Jerry asks him what mood he is in, and George replies, "Morning mist". Several times throughout the show, George mentions a desire to "drape" himself in velvet (if only it were socially acceptable), which he does in "The Doodle". In "The Bizarro Jerry", George can be seen styling his hair based on an Andy Sipowicz (Dennis Franz) poster.[35]


  • Art Vandelay is first used in "The Stake Out". George and Jerry invent an excuse to explain their presence in the lobby of an office building. They explain that they are meeting Art Vandelay, an importer-exporter who works in the building. In "The Boyfriend", George tells the unemployment office he is close to getting a job at "Vandelay Industries", a latex manufacturer. George later applies the name to a fictional problem boyfriend of Elaine, part of an elaborate cover story to hide from Susan that he is also dating Marisa Tomei ("The Cadillac"). George uses the name when asked which authors he reads during an interview with Elaine's publishing house in "The Red Dot". In "The Bizarro Jerry", George asks the receptionist at Brandt/Leland for a Mr. Art Vendelay, to which she replies, "there's no Mr. Vandelay here". In "The Serenity Now", George invents fake customers, one of whom is "Mr. Vandelay", to hide his lack of sales success.In "The Puerto Rican Day", George pretends to be Vandelay (Jerry pretends to be "Kal Varnsen", and Kramer is "H.E. Pennypacker") to take advantage of an open house to watch a Mets game on television. In "The Finale", the name of the presiding judge is actually Arthur Vandelay, much to George's amazement. George says he thinks it is "good luck" that that is the judge's name, though this turns out to be false.
  • In "The Pool Guy", George reveals he has two distinct personas, Relationship George and Independent George. Relationship George, he explains, is the conscientious personality he feels forced to adopt in the presence of his fiancé, Susan. Independent George, on the other hand, is the "real" George. Independent George is composed of a subset of personalities, like Movie George, Coffee Shop George, Liar George and Bawdy George. Independent George is the George that Jerry knows and with whom he grew up. George worries that if Susan begins socializing with the group, his 2 worlds will irrevocably collide, resulting in Relationship George "killing" Independent George. Paraphrasing Lincoln, he declares, "A George divided against itself cannot stand!"
  • At one point ("The Maid"), George wants to be known as "T-Bone", but his coworkers at Kruger Industrial Smoothing nickname him "Koko" because of how he had flailed his arms when demanding the nickname "T-Bone" back from a co-worker. George intentionally hires a woman named Coco to work there, only to be nicknamed Gammy instead.
  • Biff Loman: In "The Subway", Jerry uses this name for George in reference to the character from Death of a Salesman. George is on the way to a job interview, and Jerry tells him not to whistle in the elevator like Biff in the play. Later, George arrives at the coffee shop wearing a bed sheet as a toga. Jerry asks, "What happened, Biff? Did you whistle on the elevator?" The daughter of George's unemployment agent also refers to George as Biff in "The Boyfriend", as does Jerry in "The Pez Dispenser" and "The Visa".


In a list of the "50 Greatest Sidekicks" compiled by Entertainment Weekly, George was placed third behind Robin from the Batman franchise and Ed McMahon, who co-hosted The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson from 1962 to 1992.[36] On a The Times-Union list of the 50 greatest sitcom characters of all time, George was ranked third, behind Lucy Ricardo (Lucille Ball) from I Love Lucy and Barney Fife (Don Knotts) from The Andy Griffith Show.[37] In 1999, TV Guide published a list of the 50 best characters in television history, on which George was ranked 10th.[38] The People called George the greatest television character on a list of the 100 best television characters.[39] British comedian Ricky Gervais and Guardian columnist Marina Hyde have both called George "arguably the greatest sitcom character of all time".[40][41]

For his performance as George, Alexander was nominated for various awards. In 1992, he received his first Primetime Emmy Award nomination in the category Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series;[42] however, he lost the award to Michael Jeter for Evening Shade.[43] He received nominations in the same category the following six years,[44] but failed to win each year.[45] In addition, Alexander was nominated for four Golden Globe Awards—in 1993,[46] 1994,[47] 1995,[48] and 1998[49]—in the Best Supporting Actor in a Series, Miniseries, or Motion Picture Made for Television category, but never won the award.[50] In 1995, Alexander received the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series, he also shared the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series with Seinfeld, Louis-Dreyfus, and Richards.[51] From 1996 through 1998, Alexander was nominated in the same two categories,[52] co-winning the ensemble award in 1997 and 1998.[53][54] In 1999, he was nominated for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series for the last time,[55] but lost to Michael J. Fox for his portrayal of Michael Flaherty on Spin City.[56] In 1992 and 1993, Alexander won the American Comedy Award for Funniest Supporting Male Performer in a TV Series.[57][58] He was also nominated for the award in 1996 (with Richards) and 1999, but did not win again.[59][60]


Explanatory notes
  1. ^ From "The Puffy Shirt" to "The Opposite" George lives with his parents at 1344 Queens Boulevard (his parents' address is revealed in "The Cigar Store Indian").[61]
  1. ^ "Ricky Gervais' Top 10 TV Sitcoms".
  2. ^ Marina Hyde. "Marina Hyde's diary". the Guardian.
  3. ^ Writer: Daniels, Greg; David, Larry; Director: Cherones, Tom (April 22, 1992). "The Parking Space". Seinfeld. Season 3. Episode 22. NBC.
  4. ^ Writer: Leopold, Tom; Director: Cherones, Tom (January 29, 1992). "The Suicide". Seinfeld. Season 3. Episode 15. NBC.
  5. ^ Writer: David, Larry; Director: Cherones, Tom (September 23, 1993). "The Puffy Shirt". Seinfeld. Season 5. Episode 2. NBC.
  6. ^ Writer: Mehlman, Tom; Director: Ackerman, Andy (October 13, 1994). "The Chinese Woman". Seinfeld. Season 6. Episode 4. NBC.
  7. ^ Writer: Robin, Andy; Director: Cherones, Tom (March 18, 1993). "The Junior Mint". Seinfeld. Season 4. Episode 20. NBC.
  8. ^ Writer: Mehlman, Peter; Director: Cherones, Tom (November 21, 1991). "The Nose Job". Seinfeld. Season 3. Episode 9. NBC.
  9. ^ Writer: Charles, Larry; Director: Cherones, Tom (February 11, 1993). "The Betrayal". Seinfeld. Season 9. Episode 8. NBC.
  10. ^ Germain, David (November 6, 2007). "What 'Seinfeld' fans have been waiting for". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. p. 42.
  11. ^ Writer: Kavet, Gregg ; Robin, Andy; Koren, Steve; O'Keefe, Dan; Director: White, Joshua (April 23, 1998). "The Frogger". Seinfeld. Season 9. Episode 18. NBC.
  12. ^ Writer: Charles, Larry; Director: White, Joshua (October 16, 1991). "The Library". Seinfeld. Season 3. Episode 5. NBC.
  13. ^ Writer: David, Larry; Director: Cherones, Tom (November 18, 1992). "The Contest". Seinfeld. Season 4. Episode 11. NBC.
  14. ^ Writer: Feresten, Spike; Director: Ackerman, Andy (October 30, 1997). "The Junk Mail". Seinfeld. Season 9. Episode 5. NBC.
  15. ^ a b Writer: Mehlman, Peter; Director: Ackerman, Andy (January 16, 1997). "The Money". Seinfeld. Season 8. Episode 12. NBC.
  16. ^ Writer: Gammill, Tom; Pross, Max; Director: Ackerman, Andy (February 22, 1996). "The Doll". Seinfeld. Season 7. Episode 17. NBC.
  17. ^ Writer: Goldman, Matt; Director: Cherones, Tom (June 7, 1990). "The Robbery". Seinfeld. Season 1. Episode 3. NBC.
  18. ^ Artner, Alan; Bannon, Tim; Caro, Mark; Christiansen, Richard; Griffin, Jean Latz; Johnson, Steve; May, Mitchell; Nidetz, Steve; Wood, Nancy Watkins; Wilson, Terry; Wiltz, Teresa (December 6, 1995). "The 25 Greatest TV Characters of all Time". Chicago Tribune. p. 1.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Seinfeld Seasons 1 & 2: Notes about Nothing – "The Seinfeld Chronicles" (DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.
  20. ^ Davies, Dan (October 16, 2004). "Unhappy as Larry". The Guardian. Retrieved August 3, 2009. Spotters will know that Jason Alexander's character in Seinfeld, the stooge George Costanza, is largely based on the real Larry David
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Seinfeld Seasons 1 & 2: How it Began: The Making of Seinfeld, Part 1 (DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.
  22. ^ Tuma, Debbie (May 4, 1998). "Seinfeld Book by Real Character". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  23. ^ Seinfeld Season 3: Notes about Nothing – "The Truth" (DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.
  24. ^ Sepinwall, Alan (November 22, 2004). "'Seinfeld' boxed sets: Much ado about 'nothing'". The Star-Ledger.
  25. ^ "Seinfeld (TV Series 1989–1998)". IMDb.
  26. ^ "Bradford Evans".
  27. ^ "The Lost Roles of Seinfeld". Splitsider.
  28. ^
  29. ^ Meyers, Kate (December 1, 1995). ""Bye" George". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  30. ^ "Entertainment: No joke: Seinfeld sued by 'real-life Costanza'". British Broadcasting Corporation. October 27, 1998. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
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Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee

Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee is an American web series talk show directed and hosted by comedian Jerry Seinfeld, distributed for the first nine seasons by digital network Crackle, then moving to Netflix for season ten. The series premiered on July 19, 2012.

Episodes feature Seinfeld introducing a vintage car selected for a guest comedian, followed by a drive to a pre-selected café or restaurant for coffee. Episodes diverge from the format spontaneously, as when Michael Richards implores Seinfeld to take a side street, when Seinfeld returns after coffee with Carl Reiner to join him for dinner with Mel Brooks—or when car trouble arises. As of May 2015, the series had been streamed nearly 100 million times.In January 2017, it was announced that Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee would migrate from Crackle to Netflix starting with the show's tenth season. In January 2018, most of the show's previous episodes became available on Netflix (the episode with Jason Alexander in character as George Costanza was not included). The series' eleventh season premiered on July 19, 2019.

David Labiosa

David Labiosa (born October 4, 1961) is an American actor who had various television appearances. He was in such shows as The Powers of Matthew Star, Silk Stalkings, Diagnosis Murder, NYPD Blue, CSI: Miami, and JAG.

Labiosa had a role in the 1988 season of CBS Schoolbreak in the episode Gangs where he starred as former gang member turns Army soldier Anthony Rojas. Labiosa's most recognizable role was as the fired busboy in the Seinfeld episode "The Busboy". Labiosa plays Antonio, who was fired after George Costanza and Elaine Benes lightly criticised him for leaving a menu to light on fire. George and Kramer go to apologize to the intimidating and muscular Antonio. In the end, Antonio is grateful for getting fired because the restaurant exploded the next day. To wrap the show up, Antonio fights with Elaine's boyfriend.Another important role played by Labiosa was Gomez in the Fox series 24.

In 1981, Labiosa starred in the horror film, The Entity as Billy, the son of Carla Moran.

Glen Chin

Glen Chin (January 27, 1948 – August 16, 2018) was an American actor of Chinese descent who starred in film and television.

Chin grew up in Stockton, California, where he attended Amos Alonzo Stagg High School and was active in drama and choir. He studied music at the University of Pacific Conservatory of Music and played the double bass violin with the Stockton Symphony.

Chin appeared in 50 First Dates as the humorous Hawaiian café regular, The Underachievers (1987), and After One Cigarette as Shigeru. He appeared in Chinese cinema in such films as Hollywood Hong Kong. Chin's television credits include Boy Meets World (the Eskimo), Night Stand with Dick Dietrick (Coco), Mighty Max, and Seinfeld. He played a villain's role in the 1998 movie, Knock Off (film).

In the Seinfeld episode "The Opera", Chin plays Harry Fong, a character who buys a scalped ticket to an opera from George Costanza right before (or during) his girlfriend Susan ends up making the opera, so in the end, Jerry Seinfeld, Elaine Benes, Cosmo Kramer, Chin's character, and Susan all end up watching the opera.

In Michael Jackson's music video for "Black or White", Chin morphs into Tyra Banks.

Heidi Swedberg

Heidi Swedberg (born March 3, 1966) is an American actress and musician, best known for her role as Susan Ross, the fiancée of George Costanza, on the television sitcom Seinfeld.

Jake Johannsen

Jake Johannsen (born July 28, 1960) is an American comedian.

Johannsen attended Iowa State University in the early 1980s, originally majoring in veterinary medicine, and then later changing to chemical engineering. He left after three years in college and relocated to San Francisco, California, in order to pursue a career in comedy. Johannsen made his debut at Cobb's Comedy Club in San Francisco, and by 1986 had won the 11th Annual San Francisco International Comedy Competition.During the 1990s, Johannsen starred in his own HBO comedy special, This'll Take About an Hour, which was listed as one of the Ten Best Television Shows by People Magazine in 1992. In 1994, he was nominated as "Best Male Stand-Up Comedian" for the 1994 American Comedy Awards.According to Jerry Seinfeld, Johannsen was originally wanted for the role of George Costanza in Seinfeld, but he refused the part.In 2010, Johannsen starred in his second Comedy Special titled I Love You, which aired on Showtime and was directed and produced by The Aristocrats editor Emery Emery.

Johannsen also was the star headliner of the inaugural Iowa Comedy Festival. Johannsen performed October 16, 2010, at People's Court in downtown Des Moines to cap off the four-day event.

Johannsen is a favorite of David Letterman and on May 20, 2011, made his 40th appearance on the Late Show with David Letterman. He and his wife, actress Belinda Waymouth, have one child.

Jason Alexander

Jay Scott Greenspan (born September 23, 1959), known by his stage name Jason Alexander, is an American actor, voice actor, singer, comedian, and director. Alexander is best known for his role as George Costanza in the television series Seinfeld, for which he was nominated for six consecutive Primetime Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards. Other well-known roles include Phillip Stuckey in the film Pretty Woman (1990) and the title character in the animated series Duckman (1994–1997).

Alexander has had an active career on stage, appearing in several Broadway musicals including Jerome Robbins' Broadway in 1989, for which he won the Tony Award as Best Leading Actor in a Musical. He appeared in the Los Angeles production of The Producers. He was the Artistic Director of "Reprise! Broadway's Best in Los Angeles", where he has directed several musicals.

List of awards and nominations received by Seinfeld

The following is a list of awards and nominations received by Seinfeld, an American sitcom. The series has received 10 Emmy awards, 3 Golden Globes, and many other awards.

Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series

This is a list of winners and nominees of the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series. In early Primetime Emmy Award ceremonies, the supporting categories were not always genre, or even gender, specific. Beginning with the 22nd Primetime Emmy Awards, supporting actors in comedy have competed alone. However, these comedic performances often included actors from miniseries, telefilms, and guest performers competing against main cast competitors. Such instances are marked below:

# – Indicates a performance in a Miniseries or Television film, prior to the category's creation.

§ – Indicates a performance as a guest performer, prior to the category's creation.

Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series

The Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series is an award given by the Screen Actors Guild to honor the finest acting achievements by a male actor on a comedy television series. The award is for both lead and supporting characters.

The Apartment (Seinfeld)

"The Apartment" is the fifth episode of the second season of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld and the show's tenth episode overall. In the episode, protagonist Jerry Seinfeld (Jerry Seinfeld) gets his ex-girlfriend Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) an apartment above his, but regrets this after realizing it might be uncomfortable living so close together. Meanwhile, Jerry's friend George Costanza (Jason Alexander) wears a wedding ring to a party to see what effect this will have on women.

The episode was written by Peter Mehlman and directed by Tom Cherones. Series co-creators Seinfeld and Larry David asked Mehlman to write an episode for the show after they read a few articles he wrote for newspapers and magazines. Mehlman originally had the idea of Elaine moving away from Jerry, but David and Seinfeld felt it would be funnier if Elaine moved closer to Jerry instead. "The Apartment" was first broadcast in the United States on April 4, 1991 on NBC (and was the first new episode of the series after the underwhelming reception of the previous episode, The Phone Message caused it to go on a two-month hiatus), and was watched in 15.7 million homes, making it the ninth most-watched program of the week it was broadcast. The episode gained mostly positive responses from critics.

The Baby Shower (Seinfeld)

"The Baby Shower" is the fourth episode of the second season of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld, and the show's 15th episode overall. In the episode, Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) throws a baby shower for her friend Leslie (Christine Dunford) at Jerry's (Jerry Seinfeld) apartment, while he is out of town. Jerry's friend George Costanza (Jason Alexander) once had a terrible date with Leslie and confronts her at the shower. Meanwhile, Jerry is convinced by his neighbour Kramer (Michael Richards) to install illegal cable television.

Larry Charles wrote the episode, which was directed by Tom Cherones, and was partly based on a friend of his who was pregnant but did not want to experience childbirth. All of the characters' storylines intersect in the final scenes, an element that the writing staff would continue to use in later episodes. The episode's first broadcast in the United States on May 16, 1991 gained a Nielsen rating of 12.4/21 and was negatively received by critics.

The Comeback (Seinfeld)

"The Comeback" is the 147th episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. This was the 13th episode for the eighth season. It aired on January 30, 1997.

The episode was written by Gregg Kavet & Andy Robin and was directed by David Owen Trainor.

Like many episodes of Seinfeld, this episode contains a plotline for each of the main characters. George Costanza goes to great lengths to deliver a retort to a coworker (the eponymous comeback, a phenomenon described by the French expression "L'esprit de l'escalier"). Jerry Seinfeld knows the secret of a worker from a tennis club pro shop — that he is a bad tennis player. After seeing a movie, Cosmo Kramer decides he needs a living will. Elaine Benes has a tragic romance with a video rental shop worker who shares her taste in movies.

The Ex-Girlfriend

"The Ex-Girlfriend" is the first episode of the sitcom Seinfeld's second season, and is the show's sixth episode overall. The episode first broadcast on NBC in the United States on January 23, 1991, after being postponed for one week due to the start of the First Gulf War. During the course of the show, George Costanza (Jason Alexander) breaks up with his girlfriend Marlene (Tracy Kolis). Later, he remembers that he left some books in her apartment and persuades his friend Jerry (Jerry Seinfeld), the show's protagonist, to retrieve them. Jerry starts dating Marlene, but once she begins to annoy him as much as she did George, he finds himself unable to break up with her because she has a "psycho-sexual" hold on him.

Co-written by the series' co-creators Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, the episode was inspired by one of Larry David's personal experiences. Directed by Tom Cherones, "The Ex-Girlfriend" was the first episode of the show filmed at CBS Studio Center in Los Angeles, California (and would stay there for the remainder of the show's run), the previous season having been filmed at Desilu Cahuenga in Hollywood. The episode featured one new set, a chiropractor's office; the remaining sets had been used on the show earlier. The episode received a Nielsen rating of 10.9/17 and was positively received by critics.

The Good Samaritan (Seinfeld)

"The Good Samaritan" is the 37th episode of the sitcom Seinfeld. It is the 20th episode of the third season, and first aired on March 4, 1992. This is the only episode of Seinfeld to be directed by one of the show's stars, Jason Alexander, who played George Costanza.

The Jacket (Seinfeld)

"The Jacket" is the third episode of the second season of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld and the show's eighth episode overall. In the episode, protagonist Jerry Seinfeld buys an expensive suede jacket and has dinner with the father of his ex-girlfriend Elaine Benes. Elaine's father Alton (Lawrence Tierney), a war veteran and writer, makes Jerry and his friend George Costanza (Jason Alexander) very uncomfortable. Elaine is delayed and Jerry and George are stuck with Alton waiting for her at the hotel.

The episode was written by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld and was directed by Tom Cherones. Most of the episode's storyline was based on one of David's personal experiences. Elaine's father, a published author, was inspired by Richard Yates, author of Revolutionary Road, who Larry David had met while dating his daughter. Tierney's performance as Alton Benes was praised by the cast and crew. However, they were taken aback by his eccentric behavior. The majority of the episode was filmed on December 4, 1990. "The Jacket" premiered on American television on February 6, 1991, on NBC, it gained a Nielsen rating of 10.4/16 and was praised by critics.

The Most Beautiful Girl

"The Most Beautiful Girl" is a song recorded by Charlie Rich and written by Billy Sherrill, Norro Wilson, and Rory Bourke. The countrypolitan ballad reached number 1 in the United States in 1973 on three Billboard music charts: the pop chart (two weeks), the country chart (three weeks), and the adult contemporary chart (three weeks), as well as in Canada on three RPM charts: the RPM 100 Top Singles chart, the Country Tracks chart, and the Adult Contemporary chart. Billboard ranked it as the No. 23 song for 1974.

The song is actually a merging of two songs previously recorded by co-writer Wilson, "Hey Mister" (from 1968, which forms a major part of the song), and "Mama McCluskie", used in part in the song’s chorus.

Rich's B-side, his own "I Feel Like Going Home", was later covered by Rita Coolidge and was released on her 1974 album Fall into Spring.

British pop singer Engelbert Humperdinck included "The Most Beautiful Girl" on his 1973 album Engelbert: King of Hearts.

"The Most Beautiful Girl" was also recorded by Slim Whitman in the 1970s. Andy Williams released a version in 1974 on his album The Way We Were. In 1975 ABBA singer Anni-Frid Lyngstad recorded a Swedish-language version called "Vill du låna en man?" (with Swedish lyrics by Stig Anderson) on her solo album Frida ensam. Sergio Franchi recorded the song on his 1976 DynaHouse album 20 Magnificent Songs. Country music boy band South 65 recorded an updated version of the song, titled "The Most Beautiful Girl (2001 Version)", on their 2001 album Dream Large.

The song receives a very brief airing by Brenda Fricker in the film So I Married an Axe Murderer. Jason Alexander also offered a rendition as his character George Costanza on the December 16, 1992, episode of the sitcom Seinfeld titled "The Pick", where he bemoaned the loss of his girlfriend, Susan.

The Statue (Seinfeld)

"The Statue" is the sixth episode of the second season of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld, and the show's 11th episode overall. In the episode, protagonist Jerry Seinfeld (Jerry Seinfeld) inherits some old possessions of his grandfather. One of these is a statue, resembling one that his friend George Costanza (Jason Alexander) broke when he was ten years old. When Jerry sees the statue in the house of Ray (Michael D. Conway), the man who cleaned his apartment, he believes Ray stole the statue. Jerry struggles to get back at Ray, as his friend Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) is editing a book written by Ray's girlfriend.

The episode was written by Larry Charles and directed by Tom Cherones. The character of Jerry's neighbor Kramer (Michael Richards) is developed in this episode, as he goes undercover as a cop to retrieve the statue. Charles was interested in the development of Kramer, as he felt George and Jerry had their counterparts in co-creators Larry David and Seinfeld. Richards enjoyed how his character acted in the episode and encouraged Charles to continue exploiting the Kramer character. "The Statue" first aired on NBC on April 11, 1991 in the United States and was watched by over 23 million American homes.

The Stock Tip

"The Stock Tip" is the fifth episode of the first season of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld.

It aired on June 21, 1990. In the episode, George Costanza (Jason Alexander) tells Jerry Seinfeld and Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) that a friend of a friend of his has given him a stock tip, and he encourages them to invest with him. Jerry does so, but as soon as he does, the value of his stock falls. At the same time, Jerry takes his girlfriend on a trip to Vermont, which does not go as planned.

The episode was written by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, and was directed by Tom Cherones. It received ratings and praise good enough to commission a second season.


In philosophy, vagueness refers to an important problem in semantics, metaphysics and philosophical logic. Definitions of this problem vary. A predicate is sometimes said to be vague if the bound of its extension is indeterminate, or appears to be so. The predicate "is tall" is vague because there seems to be no particular height at which someone becomes tall. Alternately, a predicate is sometimes said to be vague if there are borderline cases of its application, such that in these cases competent speakers of the language may faultlessly disagree over whether the predicate applies. The disagreement over whether a hotdog is a sandwich suggests that “sandwich” is vague.

Vagueness is commonly demonstrated by the Sorites paradox. A standard form of this paradox features a 2000-man sequence of progressively taller men, starting with a paradigm case of a short man at one extreme, say George Costanza, and at the other extreme, a paradigm case of a tall one, say Kramer.

Base step: Man 1 (George Costanza) is short.

Induction step: If man n is short, then man n + 1 is short.

Conclusion: Man 2000 (Kramer) is short.Sorites paradoxes exploit the intuition that some vague predicates are tolerant with respect to small enough differences on a dimension decisive of their application. This principle may seem to hold on the basis that (for example) no particular height is more justified than others in its vicinity as a cut-off for shortness.

This intuition has been called the No Sharp Boundaries thesis about vague predicates and plays a prominent role in theories of vagueness.The Sorites paradox dates to the fourth century BCE and is attributed to Eubulides of Melitus. It has received a resurgence of attention since 1975, when three papers published in Synthese effectively conceived the contemporary study of vagueness.

The problem posed by vagueness is to explain its particular kind of indeterminacy. Does vagueness render large portions of ordinary language meaningless? Likely not, since we frequently use vague language to great effect in ordinary discourse. If not, what is vagueness, at the level of predicate logic? How is it to be modeled without contradiction, and without sacrificing too much of classical logic? Is vagueness semantic, metaphysical or epistemic?

Vagueness has in its own right reaped the attention of an extensive literature. In addition, vagueness is a topic that touches many other questions in philosophy, linguistics and cognitive science, not to mention ordinary conversation.

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