George Callaghan

Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Astley Callaghan GCB, GCVO (21 December 1852 – 23 November 1920) was an officer in the Royal Navy. During the Boxer Rebellion he served as commander of a naval brigade sent ashore to form an element of a larger expedition under Lieutenant-General Sir Alfred Gaselee: the expedition entered Peking and rescued the legations which had been held hostage there. He came to prominence again when, as Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet, he assisted with the provision of aid to survivors of the Messina earthquake, which had caused the loss of circa 123,000 lives.

Callaghan became Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet in November 1911 and was advised in December 1913 that his tenure would be extended for another twelve months. With increasing international tension he started preparing his fleet for war. At the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914, Callaghan set sail in his flagship for his war station at Scapa Flow. There he met his successor-designate Sir John Jellicoe who had received orders from First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill to relieve the ageing Callaghan of command of his fleet. Callaghan was bitterly disappointed not to command his fleet in the war he had completely readied it for. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, The Nore.

Sir George Callaghan
George Callaghan - Project Gutenberg eText 18334
Sir George Callaghan
Born21 December 1852
London
Died23 November 1920 (aged 67)
Chelsea, London
Buried
St Mary the Virgin, Bathwick, Somerset
AllegianceUnited Kingdom United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Service/branchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
Years of service1866–1918
RankAdmiral of the Fleet
Commands heldHMS Alacrity
HMS Hermione
HMS Endymion
HMS Edgar
HMS Caesar
HMS Prince of Wales
5th Cruiser Squadron
Home Fleet
Nore Command
Battles/warsBoxer Rebellion
World War I
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order

Naval career

Early career

Born the son of Captain Frederic Marcus Callaghan (an Irish landowner)[1] and Georgina Frances Callaghan (née Hodgson), Callaghan joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in the training ship HMS Britannia in January 1866.[2] Promoted to midshipman on 15 October 1867, he joined the paddle steamer HMS Liffey at Liverpool later that month.[3] He then transferred to the corvette HMS Wolverine on the East Indies Station in October 1870.[3] Promoted to sub-lieutenant on 15 April 1872 and to lieutenant on 15 April 1875,[4] he joined the corvette HMS Ruby on the East Indies Station in June 1877.[3] In this post he was awarded a commendation by the Admiralty for saving the lives of sailors after a boat capsized in the Irrawaddy River.[3] He attended the gunnery school HMS Excellent in 1880 and then joined the staff there in 1882.[3] He returned to HMS Ruby on the South East Coast of America Station in 1885 and, having been promoted to commander on 31 December 1887,[5] he became Executive Officer in the battleship HMS Bellerophon, flagship of the North America and West Indies Station in 1888.[3] He went on to be commanding officer of the despatch vessel HMS Alacrity, yacht of the Commander-in-Chief, China Station in 1892.[3] Promoted to captain on 1 January 1894,[6] he became naval advisor to the Inspector-General of Fortifications at the War Office later that year.[3] He went on to be commanding officer of the cruiser HMS Hermione in the Channel Fleet in 1897 and commanding officer of the cruiser HMS Endymion on the China Station in 1899.[3]

Boxer rebellion

In April 1900, Callaghan became commander of a naval brigade sent ashore to form an element of a larger expedition under Lieutenant-General Sir Alfred Gaselee as part of the British response to the Boxer Rebellion. The expedition entered Peking and successfully rescued the legations which had been held hostage there.[3] Callaghan was mentioned in dispatches and appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 9 November 1900.[7]

Higher rank

Underwood & Underwood © 1906 No. 10495 - Messina - The once beautiful Water-front after the earthquake dett
The carnage after the Messina earthquake; Callaghan assisted with the provision of aid to survivors

Callaghan became commanding officer of the cruiser HMS Edgar and commanded her in manoeuvres in Summer 1901 before becoming commanding officer of the battleship HMS Caesar on the Mediterranean Station in December 1901.[3] He went on to be Captain of Portsmouth Dockyard early in 1904 and commanding officer of the battleship HMS Prince of Wales on the Mediterranean Station shortly thereafter.[8] He was appointed naval aide-de-camp to the King on 25 April 1904.[9] Promoted to rear-admiral on 1 July 1905,[10] he became Second-in-Command, Channel Fleet, with his flag in the battleship HMS Illustrious, in 1906 and commander of the 5th Cruiser Squadron, with his flag in the armoured cruiser HMS Leviathan, in 1907.[8] Appointed a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 3 August 1907,[11] he went on to be Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet with his flag in the battleship HMS Duncan in 1908.[8] In the latter role he assisted with the provision of aid to survivors of the Messina earthquake, which had caused the loss of circa 123,000 lives, in December 1908 for which he was advanced to Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 30 April 1909[12] and appointed a Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy on 15 April 1912.[13] Promoted to vice-admiral on 27 April 1910,[14] he became Second-in-Command of the Home Fleet, with his flag in the battleship HMS King Edward VII later that month.[8] He was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 24 June 1910.[15]

Callaghan became Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet, with his flag in the battleship HMS Neptune and with the acting rank of admiral in November 1911.[8] Following an inspection of his fleet by King George V he was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order on 11 May 1912[16] and, after a separate visit by the President Raymond Poincaré of France in 1913, he was also awarded the Grand Cordon of the French Legion of Honour.[17] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full admiral on 17 May 1913[18] and was advised in December 1913 that his tenure would be extended for another twelve months. With increasing international tension he started preparing his fleet for war.[8]

The First World War

HMS Iron Duke
The battleship HMS Iron Duke, Callaghan's flagship as Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet

At the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914, Callaghan set sail in his flagship, the battleship HMS Iron Duke, for his war station at Scapa Flow. There he met his successor-designate Sir John Jellicoe, who had received orders from First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill to relieve the ageing Callaghan of command of his fleet. Jellicoe had resisted the order, believing it would cause tension in the fleet, but the order was confirmed by the Admiralty and Jellicoe was instructed to carry it out. Callaghan was bitterly disappointed not to command his fleet in the war he had completely readied it for.[8]

In Autumn 1914 Callaghan took part in a Court of Inquiry into the conduct of Rear Admiral Ernest Troubridge for his failure to pursue the battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau. He referred the matter to a court-martial which ultimately found the case against Troubridge not proven.[8]

Callaghan was appointed First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp to the King on 11 September 1914[19] and became Commander-in-Chief, The Nore in January 1915.[8] He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 3 June 1916[20] and was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 2 April 1917.[21]

Callahan retired in March 1918 and became King of Arms of the Order of the Bath in May 1919.[8] He died at 11 Cadogan Court, Chelsea, London on 23 November 1920 and was given a funeral at Westminster Abbey,[2] following which he was buried in the churchyard of St Mary the Virgin at Bathwick, Somerset.[22]

George Callaghan
Sir George Callaghan as Second-in-Command of the Home Fleet

Family

In 1876, Callaghan married Edith Saumarez; they had one son and three daughters.[3]

References

  1. ^ "Estate: Callaghan". Landed Estates. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Sir George Callaghan". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32247.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Heathcote, p. 38
  4. ^ "No. 24204". The London Gazette. 30 April 1875. p. 2342.
  5. ^ "No. 25772". The London Gazette. 3 January 1888. p. 15.
  6. ^ "No. 26471". The London Gazette. 29 December 1893. p. 7580.
  7. ^ "No. 27246". The London Gazette. 13 November 1900. p. 6927.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Heathcote, p. 39
  9. ^ "No. 27676". The London Gazette. 13 May 1904. p. 3081.
  10. ^ "No. 27814". The London Gazette. 7 July 1905. p. 4700.
  11. ^ "No. 28048". The London Gazette. 6 August 1907. p. 5390.
  12. ^ "No. 28246". The London Gazette. 30 April 1909. p. 3277.
  13. ^ "No. 28599". The London Gazette. 16 April 1912. p. 2702.
  14. ^ "No. 28362". The London Gazette. 3 May 1910. p. 3063.
  15. ^ "No. 28388". The London Gazette (Supplement to the London Gazette Extraordinary). 23 June 1910. p. 4475.
  16. ^ "No. 28607". The London Gazette. 14 May 1912. p. 3475.
  17. ^ Walford, E., The county families of the United Kingdom vol. 59 (1919) page 59
  18. ^ "No. 28722". The London Gazette. 27 May 1913. p. 3753.
  19. ^ "No. 28902". The London Gazette. 15 September 1914. p. 7293.
  20. ^ "No. 29608". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 June 1916. p. 5553.
  21. ^ "No. 30008". The London Gazette. 3 April 1917. p. 3206.
  22. ^ "Sir George Callaghan". CWGC Casualty record. Retrieved 16 June 2018.

Sources

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734 – 1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Francis Bridgeman
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet
1911–1914
Succeeded by
none
Preceded by
Sir Richard Poore
Commander-in-Chief, The Nore
1915–1918
Succeeded by
Sir Doveton Sturdee
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Edmund Poë
First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp
1914–1917
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Jackson
Heraldic offices
Preceded by
Vacant
Title previously held by
Sir Spencer Ponsonby-Fane
King of Arms of the Order of the Bath
1919–1920
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Monro
1852

1852 (MDCCCLII)

was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1852nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 852nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1852, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1852 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1852 in the United Kingdom.

1920 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1920 in the United Kingdom.

2002 Oxford City Council election

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Angora, Philadelphia

Angora is a neighborhood in the Southwest section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Although its boundaries are not precise, West Philadelphia is to its north, Kingsessing is to the south, Cedar Park is to the east, and Cobbs Creek is to the west. The Angora Commuter Rail Station on the Media/Elwyn Line, two bus lines (routes 46 and "G"), and a trolley line (SEPTA Route 34) all intersect around Baltimore Avenue and 58th Street, which is unofficially the nexus of the neighborhood.

Angora was certified as blighted by the City Planning Commission on May 12, 2005, yet Angora Terrace and other portions of the neighborhood are well-kept.

Bath King of Arms

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Daniel Callaghan (politician)

Daniel (Dan) Callaghan (1786–1849) was a prominent businessman and Irish politician who served as MP for Cork City from 1830-1849 (1830-1832 as a member of the Whig Party; 1832-1849 as a member of the Irish Repeal Association).

As a member of the Repeal Association, Dan Callaghan sought to end the Act of Union (1800), which created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Callaghan, along with other Irish MP's like Daniel O' Connell, opposed the introduction of the Poor Laws (Ireland), which established the Victorian workhouses to Ireland.Daniel Callaghan was brother of Gerard Callaghan, who served as an MP for Cork City 1829-1832 as a member of the Tory Party.

He was the grandfather of Admiral George Callaghan.

Edmund Poë

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First Fleet (United Kingdom)

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Henry Jackson (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Bradwardine Jackson, (21 January 1855 – 14 December 1929) was a Royal Navy officer. After serving in the Anglo-Zulu War he established an early reputation as a pioneer of ship-to-ship wireless technology. Later he became the first person to achieve ship-to-ship wireless communications and demonstrated continuous communication with another vessel up to three miles away. He went on to be Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy, then Director of the Royal Naval War College and subsequently Chief of the Admiralty War Staff. He was advisor on overseas expeditions planning attacks on Germany's colonial possessions at the start of the First World War and was selected as the surprise successor to Admiral Lord Fisher upon the latter's spectacular resignation in May 1915 following the failure of the Gallipoli Campaign. He had a cordial working relationship with First Lord of the Admiralty (and former Prime Minister) Arthur Balfour, but largely concerned himself with administrative matters and his prestige suffered when German destroyers appeared in the Channel, as a result of which he was replaced in December 1916.

Home Fleet

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The ships were essentially repeats of the King George V-class battleships; they retained the same ten 13.5 inch (34.3 cm) guns in five twin gun turrets on the centreline. However, the Iron Dukes had improved armour and a more powerful secondary armament of 6-inch weapons instead of the 4-inch mounted on the earlier ships.

The four ships were the most advanced battleships in the Royal Navy at the outbreak of the First World War, though they were soon surpassed by the five ships of the Queen Elizabeth class. They all saw extensive service during the war with the Grand Fleet, where Iron Duke acted as the flagship for the fleet commander, Admiral John Jellicoe. Three of the ships, Iron Duke, Benbow, and Marlborough, were present at the Battle of Jutland; Emperor of India missed the battle by being in dock for periodic refit. The four Iron Duke-class battleships saw limited active duty following the end of the war; they were all demilitarised under the terms of the London Naval Treaty signed in 1930. Iron Duke was reduced to a training and depot ship and lasted in that role until 1946 when she was scrapped. Benbow was scrapped in 1931 and Marlborough followed in 1932. Emperor of India was sunk as a gunnery target in 1931 though was later re-floated to be scrapped in 1932.

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Long Shot is a 1939 American horse racing film directed by Charles Lamont.

The film is also known as The Long Shot.

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McVitie's is a British snack food brand owned by United Biscuits. The name derives from the original Scottish biscuit maker, McVitie & Price, Ltd., established in 1830 on Rose Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. The company moved to various sites in the city before completing the St. Andrews Biscuit Works factory on Robertson Avenue in the Gorgie district in 1888. The company also established one in Glasgow and two large manufacturing plants south of the border, in Heaton Chapel, Stockport, and Harlesden, London. Under United Biscuits McVitie's holds a Royal Warrant from Queen Elizabeth II.

The best-selling biscuit manufacturer in the United Kingdom, McVitie's produces chocolate digestives, Hobnobs and Rich tea (ranked the three favourite biscuits to dunk into tea), and Jaffa Cakes (the best selling cake in the UK).

O'Callaghan

O'Callaghan () or simply Callaghan without the prefix (anglicized from Ó Ceallacháin) is an Irish surname. Often when Irish emigrated to the United States the "g" was removed from the spelling in ships' manifests.

Sir Charles Monro, 1st Baronet

General Sir Charles Carmichael Monro, 1st Baronet, (15 June 1860 – 7 December 1929) was a senior British Army officer who served during the Second Boer War and the First World War and became Commander-in-Chief, India for the latter part of the conflict. From 1923 to 1929 he served as Governor of Gibraltar.

Stan Callaghan

Stan Callaghan (1916-1989) was an Australian rugby league footballer who played in the 1930s and 1940s. He played for Eastern Suburbs in the NSWRL competition during their second golden era where the club won 4 premierships in 6 seasons.

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