Sweden has a long coastline on the eastern side and the Scandinavian mountain chain (Skanderna) on the western border, a range that separates Sweden from Norway. It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and it is also linked to Denmark (southwest) by the Öresund Bridge. At 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world. It is the fifth largest in Europe and the largest in Northern Europe.
39,960- km2 (8.69%)
|Coastline||3,218 km (2,000 mi)|
|Land boundaries||2,333 km (1,550 mi)|
|Countries bordered||Norway 1,666 km |
Finland 545 km
|Highest point||Kebnekaise, 2,097 m / 6,880 ft|
|Lowest point||Kristianstad, −2.41 m|
|Longest river||Klarälven-Göta älv, 720 km (447.4 mi)|
|Largest inland body of water||Vänern 5,648 km2 (3,510 sq mi)|
- Arable land
94.18 % (2011)
|Irrigated land||1,640 km2 (2012)|
|Climate:||Temperate to subarctic|
|Terrain:||Flat lowlands, mountains|
|Natural resources||Iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower|
|Natural hazards||Ice flow|
|Environmental issues||Acid rains, eutrophication|
Much of Sweden is heavily forested, with 69% of the country being forest and woodland, while farmland constitutes only 8% of land use. Sweden consists of 39,960 km2 of water area, constituting around 95,700 lakes.[A] The lakes are sometimes used for water power plants, especially the large northern rivers and lakes.
Most of northern and western central Sweden consists of vast tracts of hilly and mountainous land called the Norrland terrain. From the south the transition to the Norrland terrain is not only seen in the relief but also in the wide and contiguous boreal forests that extend north of it with till and peat being the overwhelmingly most common soil types.
South of the Norrland terrain lies the Central Swedish lowland which forms a broad east-west trending belt from Gothenburg to Stockholm. This is the traditional heartland of Sweden due to its large population and agricultural resources. The region forms a belt of fertile soils suitable for agriculture that interrupts the forested and till-coated lands to the north and south. Before the expansion of agriculture, these fertile soils were covered by a broad-leaved tree forest where maples, oaks, ashes, small-leaved lime and common hazel grew. The Central Swedish lowland does however also contain soils of poor quality, particularly in hills where Scots pine and Norway spruce grow on top of thin till soils. Agriculture aside, the region benefits also from the proximity of hydropower, forest and bergslagen's mineral resources. Sweden's four largest lakes, Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren and Hjälmaren, lie within the lowlands.
To the south of the Central Swedish lowland lies the South Swedish highlands which except for a lack of deep valleys is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden. The highest point of the highlands lies at 377 m. Geologically, the highlands are an upwarped dome formed by epeirogenic movements of Earth's crust.
Southernmost Sweden contains a varied landscape with both plains and hilly terrain. A characteristic chain of elongated hills runs across Scania from northwest to southeast. These hills are horsts located along the Tornquist Zone. Some of the horst are Hallandsåsen, Römelåsen and Söderåsen. The plains of Scania and Halland make up 10% of Sweden's cultivated lands and are the country's main agricultural landscape. Productivity is high relative to the rest of Sweden and more akin to that of more southern European countries. The natural vegetation is made up of broadleaf forest although conifer plantations are common. Southern Sweden has Sweden's greatest animal and plant diversity.
The two largest islands are Gotland and Öland in the southeast. They differ from the rest of Sweden by being made up of limestone and marl with an alvar vegetation adapted to the island's calcareous soils. Gotland and Öland have landforms that are rare or absent in mainland Sweden. These include active cliffs seen in segments of their western coasts, sea stacks called rauks and large cave systems.
Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap ("landscapes"), based on culture, geography and history: Bohuslän, Blekinge, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gotland, Gästrikland, Halland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lapland, Medelpad, Norrbotten, Närke, Skåne, Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värmland, Västmanland, Västerbotten, Västergötland, Ångermanland, Öland and Östergötland.
While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role for people's self-identification. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands (landsdelar): the northern Norrland, the central Svealand and southern Götaland. The sparsely populated Norrland encompasses almost 60% of the country.
In each county there is also a separate County Council, or landsting, which is the municipal representation appointed by the county electorate.
The letters shown were on the vehicle registration plates until 1973.
The northern municipalities are often large in size, but have small populations – the largest municipality is Kiruna with an area as large as the three southern provinces in Sweden (Scania, Blekinge and Halland) combined, but it only has a population of 25,000, and its density is about 1 / km2.
Sweden has a population of 10 million as of January 2017. The mountainous north is considerably less populated than the southern and central regions, partly because the summer period lasts longer in the south, and this is where the more successful agricultural industries were originally established. Another historical reason is said to be the desired proximity to key trade routes and partners in continental Europe, e.g. Germany. As a result, all seven urban areas in Sweden with a population of 100,000 or more, are located in the southern half of the country.
Cities and towns in Sweden are neither political nor administrative entities; rather they are localities or urban areas, independent of municipal subdivisions. The largest city, in terms of population, is the capital Stockholm, in the east, the dominant city for culture and media, with a population of 1,250,000. The second largest city is Gothenburg, with 510,500, in the west. The third largest is Malmö in the south, with 258,000. The largest city in the north is Umeå with 76,000 inhabitants.
Acid rain has become an issue because it is damaging soils and lakes and polluting the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The HBV hydrology transport model has been used to analyze nutrient discharge to the Baltic from tributary watersheds.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Sweden|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−49.4
The extreme points of Sweden include the coordinates that are farthest north, south, east and west in Sweden, and the ones that are at the highest and the lowest elevations in the country. Unlike Norway and Denmark, Sweden has no external territories that can be considered either inside or outside the country depending on definition, meaning that the extreme points of Sweden are unambiguous.
The latitude and longitude are expressed in decimal degree notation, in which a positive latitude value refers to the Northern Hemisphere, and a negative value refers to the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, a negative elevation value refers to land below sea level. The coordinates used in this article are sourced from Google Earth, which makes use of the World Geodetic System (WGS) 84, a geodetic reference system.
Sweden's northernmost point is Treriksröset, in the Lapland province, where the borders of Sweden, Norway, and Finland meet. The closest Swedish city to the area is Kiruna, which is Sweden's northernmost city. Sweden's southernmost point is in the harbour of the fishing village Smygehuk, near the city of Trelleborg, which borders the Baltic Sea. At the pier of the harbour, a signpost displays the exact position of the point, as well as the distance to Treriksröset, Stockholm, Berlin, Paris, and Moscow.
Sweden's westernmost point is on Stora Drammen, an islet in Skagerrak outside the coast of Bohuslän. Seabirds and harbor seals have colonies on the islet, but it is uninhabited by humans. Sweden's easternmost point is on Kataja, an islet south of Haparanda in the Bothnian Bay. The islet is divided between Sweden and Finland. The border was established in 1809, after the Finnish War, between what was previously two islets, a Swedish one called Kataja and a smaller Finnish one called Inakari. Since 1809, post-glacial rebound has caused the sea level in the region to drop relative to land level, joining the two islets. If counting the mainland only, Stensvik in Strömstad is Sweden's westernmost point, and Sundholmen in Haparanda is the easternmost point.
|North||Treriksröset, Kiruna||Lapland||Troms, Norway, and Lapland, Finland|||
|South||Smygehuk, Trelleborg||Scania||Baltic Sea|||
|West||Stora Drammen, Strömstad||Bohuslän||Skagerrak|||
|West (mainland)||Stensvik, Strömstad||Bohuslän||Skagerrak|||
|East||Finnish border on north coast of Kataja, Haparanda||Norrbotten||Bothnian Bay|||
|East (mainland)||Sundholmen, Haparanda||Norrbotten||Torne River, and the Bothnian Bay|||
The highest point in Sweden is Kebnekaise, which stands at 2,097 metres (6,880 ft) (August 2018). It is in the Scandinavian Mountains chain, in the province of Lapland. The mountain has two peaks, of which the glaciated southern one is the highest at 2,097 metres (6,880 ft). The northern peak, which stands at 2,096 metres (6,877 ft), is free of ice. Although the south top is traditionally said to be 2,097 metres (6,880 ft) high, new measurements have shown that the glacier has shrunk fairly fast; therefore the summit is not as high as earlier. It was 2,104 metres (6,903 ft) in 2008. Other points of comparable height in the vicinity of Kebnekaise include Sarektjåkka at 2,089 metres (6,854 ft), and Kaskasatjåkka at 2,076 metres (6,811 ft). If the summers of 2016 and 2017 get as warm as the previous years, the northern peak will become the highest.
Sweden's lowest point, which is 2.41 metres (7.91 ft) below sea level, is in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve in the city of Kristianstad. The point is at the bottom of what was once Nosabyviken, a bay on the lake of Hammarsjön. The bay was drained in the 1860s by John Nun Milner, an engineer, to get more arable land for Kristianstad.
|Highest||Kebnekaise||2,097 metres (6,880 ft)||Scandinavian Mountains||Lapland|||
|Lowest||Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve||−2.41 metres (−7.91 ft)||Kristianstad||Scania|||
|Deepest lake (from its surface)||Hornavan||221 metres (725 ft)||Arjeplog||Norrbotten|
Only public transportation.
|Heading||Airport||Railway station||Bus stop|
|North||Kiruna||Vassijaure ()||Karesuando bus station ( )|
|South||Malmö||Trelleborg (||Smygehuk Hamnen ( )|
|West||Göteborg||Strömstad ( )||Strömstad Color line terminal ( )|
|East||Pajala||Luleå ( )||Haparanda-Tornio bus station ( )|
|Highest||Kiruna||Storlien, 592 m (1,942 ft) ( )|
The Baltoscandian Confederation or Baltoscandia is a geopolitical concept of a Baltic–Scandinavian union (consisting of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The idea was proposed by a Swedish professor Sten de Geer (1886–1933) in the journal Geografiska Annaler in 1928 and further developed by Professor Kazys Pakštas (1893–1960), a Lithuanian scientist in the field of geography and geopolitics.Cap of the North
The Cap of the North (Nordkalotten in Norwegian and Swedish, or Pohjoiskalotti in Finnish) consists of the counties Finnmark, Nordland and Troms in Norway, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Lapland/Lappi Region in Finland and Murmansk Oblast in Russia.
This area is roughly equal to the parts of Fennoscandia (including the Kola Peninsula in Russia) lying north of the Arctic Circle. The region has a subarctic climate and is home to the majority of the Sámi people.
Historian Per Guttorm Kvenanger has criticized the term Nordkalotten for displacing the overlapping term Sápmi and hiding the "Sami character" of northern Fennoscandia.Central Swedish ice-edge zone
The central Swedish ice-edge zone was formed when the melting of inland ice slowed down during a cold period approximately 12,000 years ago and the ice edge stood relatively still for around 800 years. This occurred during the Younger Dryas period. The two main terminal moraines of this zone are the Skövde and Billigen ones. These two terminal moraines form parallel and semicontinuous ridges spanning from the Västgöta plains though the Östgöta plains to the Stockholm archipelago.Demographical center of Sweden
The demographic center of a country is the point to which the cumulative distance the registered population would have to travel is the smallest, were they all to meet at a single location. As the population distribution of a country changes, the demographic center will move. In Sweden, Statistics Sweden (Statistiska Centralbyrån, or SCB) calculates the official demographic center, using a weighted mean population per property, by geographical coordinates.The calculation of the actual location of the central point as carried out by Statistics Sweden in 2007 determined Hjortkvarn as the location of Sweden's demographic center. The same calculation done in 1989 had resulted in naming Svennevad the central point. Both places are in the municipality of Hallsberg, Örebro County. Over the 18 years between the calculations the center moved a few kilometres to the south, due to a decreasing population in northern Sweden and an increasing population in the south.Diabasbrottet Quarry
The Diabasbrottet Quarry (58°21′32.2″N 12°30′08.6″E), located on Mt. Hunneberg, Västergötland, Sweden, is the location of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) which marks the lower boundary of the Floian stage of the Lower Ordovician.
The lower boundary of the Floian is defined as the first appearance of Tetragraptus approximatus, a graptolite species. The rock section, dominated by shale, is unusually fossiliferous, including fossilized remains of graptolites, conodonts, and trilobites. It is highly compressed, and the Ordovician section is only 12 m thick.
The Floian stage is named after Flo Parish, a village 5 km to the southeast of the Diabasbrottet quarry.
It was selected over "The Ledge" in western Newfoundland in 2000 and ratified as the GSSP by the International Union of Geological Sciences in 2002.East Sweden
East Sweden (Swedish: Östra Sverige) is a NUTS 1 region in Sweden. The region is defined and used by the European Union for statistical purposes, it is not used as a region by Sweden which uses other divisions of the country.Geographical center of Sweden
The geographical center of Sweden is contested amongst at least two locations.
The oldest and most famous geographical center of Sweden is Flataklocken, a spot next to Lake Munkby in Torpshammar, Medelpad at 62°23′15″N 16°19′32″E. The site was identified in 1947 after an initiative by the newspaperman Gustaf von Platen. The method used for calculating this point was that of the centre of gravity of the geometrical figure of Sweden. The calculation was made by professor Nils Friberg and Tor Andeldorf at the geography department of Stockholm University, using a cardboard cutout map of Sweden with outlying islands attached directly to the mainland. They balanced the map model on a needle and declared the balancing point the geographical center.
A delegation including Gustaf von Platen, explorer Hans Ostelius and orienteer Gösta Lagerfelt trekked through the wilderness to the site and declared it the geographical center. Later, a sign marking the significance of the spot was erected and a lookout built. The site has since become a popular tourist attraction.
Area towns Ånge and Östersund often claim to be the geographical center of Sweden.
Other places have been claimed to be the centre of Sweden, using differing methods. The most prominent is Ytterhogdal in Hälsingland, based on the methodology of calculating the latitude for the point halfway between the northernmost (Treriksröset) and southernmost (southern tip of Skåne) points, and then taking the mid between the easternmost and westernmost points at that latitude.Gökskulla
Gökskulla is a residential area in Tahult, Landvetter in Härryda Municipality in Sweden. Television presenter Clara Henry was born here.Hallandsås
Hallandsås is a horst on the border between the Swedish counties Skåne and Halland.
It is part of a geological formation that includes an island in the sea outside the village of Torekov near Båstad called Hallands Väderö. The geological formation continues with the Linderödsåsen in Skåne. It was formed during the Late Cretaceous period 80 million years ago. It reaches its highest point at Högalteknall near the village of Hasslöv at 224 metres. In modern times it is most noted for the project which serves to create a tunnel through it to speed up railway communications, the Hallandsås Tunnel and the two skiing centres which were opened during the 1980s. In older times it was most noted for being a dangerous route for the postal services which often were robbed by people in the area. The "Snapphane" guerrilla movement of the late 17th century also operated out of the woods on the horst.Jävre Sandön
Jävre Sandön is a Swedish island belonging to the Piteå archipelago. The island is located off the coast of Jävrebodarna. Jävre Sandön means "island of sand at Jävre". The island has a coastline consisting of beaches. There are two footpaths over the island. There are also remains of a fishing camp from before 1500 and a stone labyrinth.List of Sweden-related topics
This is a list of topics related to Sweden.
Those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar.List of lakes of Sweden
The list of lakes in Sweden contains the major lakes in the nation of Sweden. However, Sweden has over 97,500 lakes larger than 2 acres (8,100 m2), so the list is not comprehensive. The great number of lakes in southern Sweden could according to Alfred Gabriel Nathorst be indebted to the creation of basins due to the stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacier erosion.Norrland terrain
Norrland terrain (Swedish: Norrlandsterräng) is a geomorphic unit covering the bulk of Norrland and the northwestern half Svealand. Except for The High Coast the coastal areas of Norrland do not belong to the Norrland terrain. The southern and eastern boundary of the Norrland terrain is made up of geological faults that disrupt the Sub-Cambrian peneplain found the lowlands. In some locations these faults have been extensively eroded making the Norrland terrain boundary partly a result of erosion. Karna Lidmar-Bergström categorizes the Norrland Terrain into the following clases:
Highlands with well developed valleys above 500 m.a.s.l.
Plains with residual hills of Northern Sweden
Undulating hilly land of Övertorneå/Överkalix
Undulating hilly land of Boden area
Large scale joint valley landscapes
Plains with residual hills of Dalarna
Undulanting hilly land of Central SwedenOutline of Sweden
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sweden:
Sweden – Scandinavian country in Northern Europe, situated between Norway and Finland. Sweden has maintained a policy of neutrality in armed conflicts since the early 19th century. It is a member of the European Union, but retains its own currency (the krona). Swedish icons include Sweden's quality of life, its neutrality, public health care, cars (Volvo, Saab), furniture (IKEA), blonds and pop music performers (ABBA, Roxette, etc.).Subarctic
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, the Shetland Islands, and the Cairngorms. Generally, subarctic regions fall between 50°N and 70°N latitude, depending on local climates.Sweden proper
Sweden proper (Swedish: Egentliga Sverige) is a term used to distinguish those territories that were fully integrated into the Kingdom of Sweden, as opposed to the dominions and possessions of, or states in union with, Sweden.
Specifically this means that from approximately 1155–1156 up to the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in 1809, Sweden proper did also include the bulk of present-day Finland as a fully integrated part of the realm. After 1809 however the use of the term has been to distinguish the western part from former eastern half of the realm, or Sweden from Finland.
Skåne, Halland, Blekinge and Bohuslän formerly parts of Denmark and Norway, came under the Swedish Crown by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, but it was not until 1719 that it was fully integrated and became part of Sweden proper.
Only the estates of the realm of Sweden proper were represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. In Sweden this included the fourth estate, the Peasants.
Sweden proper is, as opposed to Finland Proper, a geographical reference that has changed over time, whereas the latter was a province in southwestern Finland that gave its name to all of Finland.Swedish grid
The Swedish grid (in Swedish Rikets Nät, RT 90) is the coordinate system used for government maps in Sweden. RT 90 is a slightly modified version of the RT 38 from 1938.
While the system could be used with negative numbers to represent all four "quarters" of the earth (NE, NW, SE, and SW hemispheres), the standard application of RT 90 is only useful for the northern half of the eastern hemisphere where numbers are positive. The coordinate system is based on metric measures rooting from the crossing of the Prime Meridian and the Equator at 0,0. The Central Meridian used to be based on a meridian located at the old observatory in Stockholm, but today it is based on the Prime Meridian at Greenwich. The numbering system's first digit represents the largest distance, followed by what can be seen as fractional decimal digits (though without an explicit decimal point). Therefore, X 65 is located halfway between X 6 and X 7.
The coordinate grid is specified using two numbers, named X and Y, X being the south–north axis and Y the west–east axis. Two seven-digit numbers are sufficient to specify a location with a one m resolution.
X=6620000 Y=1317000 (X is the northing and Y is the easting) denotes a position 6620 km north of the Equator and -183 km (1317 km-1500 km) west of the Central Meridian, which happens to be somewhere near the town center of Arvika.Söderslätt
Söderslätt ("South Plain") is a Swedish agricultural district, known for its very high quality soil. It is located in the south-west of Scania, at the southernmost peak of the Scandinavian peninsula. It isn't an administrative area but is usually considered to comprise four municipalities: Skurup, Svedala, Trelleborg and Vellinge (of which the latter includes the Falsterbo peninsula). Malmö, Scania's largest city, is not really associated with this agricultural area. But that city's eastern end equals Söderslätt's western boundary. Whilst the smaller town Trelleborg sooner is a part of the area. It's the southernmost town at the entire Scandinavian peninsula and has extensive car ferry traffic with the European continent.Urban areas in Sweden
An urban area or tätort (literally: "dense locality") in Sweden has a minimum of 200 inhabitants and may be a city, town or larger village. It is a purely statistical concept, not defined by any municipal or county boundaries. Urban areas referred to as cities or towns (Swedish: stad for both terms) for statistical purposes have a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. In 2010, there were 1,956 urban areas in Sweden, covering 85% of the Swedish population.Urban area is a common English translation of the Swedish term tätort. The official term in English used by Statistics Sweden is, however, "locality" (Swedish: ort). It could be compared with "census-designated places" in the United States.