Gentile

Gentile (from Latin gentilis (“of or belonging to the same people or nation”), from gēns (“clan; tribe; people, family”) + adjective suffix -īlis (“-ile”) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew according to Judaism.[1] Other groups that claim Israelite heritage sometimes use the term to describe outsiders.[2]

The term is used by English translators for the Hebrew גוי (goy) and נכרי (nokhri) in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek word ἔθνη (éthnē) in the New Testament. The term "gentiles" is derived from Latin and not an original Hebrew or Greek word from the Bible.

The original words goy and ethnos refer to "peoples" or "nations" and are applied to both Israelites and non-Israelites in the Bible.[3] However, in most biblical uses, it denotes peoples distinct from Israel.

Etymology

"Gentile" derives from Latin gentilis, which itself derives from the Latin gens, meaning clan or tribe. Along with forms of the cognate Greek word genos. Gens derives from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁tis.[4] The original meaning of "clan" or "family" was extended in post-Augustan Latin to acquire the wider meaning of belonging to a distinct nation or ethnicity. Later still, the word came to refer to other nations, 'not a Roman citizen'.

Judaism

Hebrew Bible

In Saint Jerome's Latin version of the Bible, the Vulgate, gentilis was used in this wider sense, along with gentes, to translate Greek and Hebrew words with similar meanings when the text referred to the non-Israelite peoples. The most important of such Hebrew words was goyim (singular, goy), a term with the broad meaning of "peoples" or "nations" which was sometimes used to refer to Israelites, but most commonly as a generic label for peoples.

In the pre-exilic times the relationship between Israelites and gentiles was mostly hostile and the non-Israelites such as Babylonians, Egyptians, and Assyrians were always seen as an enemy. After the Babylonian exile, the Jewish-gentile relationship became less hostile. The books of Ruth and Jonah reject the racialization of the Israelite religion by Ezra.[3]

In rabbinical writings

Tannaim

Rabbinical writings often show more hostility towards gentiles due to frequent persecution of the Jews by these nations. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus writes that the mind of every gentile is always intent upon idolatry.[3] He believed that gentiles only perform animal sacrifice to make a name for themselves. He further believed that gentiles have no share in the world to come.

Other rabbis show a more positive attitude towards the gentiles. Joshua ben Hananiah believed that there are righteous men amongst the gentiles who will enter the world to come. He believed that except for the descendants of the Amaleks, the rest of the gentiles will adopt monotheism and the righteous among them will escape Gehenna. There is also a story about a dialogue between Joshua ben Hananiah and the Roman emperor Hadrian in which he tries to demonstrate that God deals with Israel with greater punishment for similar crimes.

Eleazar of Modi'im wrote that Jews, when guilty of the same sin as gentiles, will not enter hell whereas the gentiles will.[3] Eleazar ben Azariah believed that the rulings performed by a gentile court are not valid for Jews. Rabbi Akiva believed that Israel's monotheism is far superior to the ever-changing beliefs of the gentiles. Jose the Galilean criticizes Israel for inconsistency compared to the faithfulness of the gentiles to their ancestral beliefs. He believed the good deeds of the gentiles will be rewarded as well.

The most famous of the anti-gentile teachers is Simeon bar Yochai. He is often quoted by antisemites in his sayings: "The best of gentiles kill it, the best of snakes cut its head, the most pious of women is prone to sorcery."[3] His beliefs might reflect the extreme persecution of the Jews by the Romans during his time and the fact that he spent a great portion of his life escaping from the Romans.

Judah ben Ilai suggests that the recital "Blessed be thou ... Who has not made me a gentile" should be performed daily.

Hananiah ben Akabia believed that shedding the blood of the gentiles, although not punishable in human courts, will be punished in heavenly judgement.

Jacob, the grandson of Elisha ben Abuyah, wrote that he saw a gentile binding his father and throwing him to his dog as food.

Simeon ben Eleazar does not favor social interaction between Jews and gentiles.

Amoraim

Hananiah bar Hama wrote about the extreme immoralities perpetrated by gentiles. He believed that in messianic time only the heathen will be subject to death. Hezekiah ben Hiyya believed that treating gentiles with hospitality results in the exile of the children. Johanan bar Nappaha wrote of the mistreatment of the Jews by gentiles. He believed that the evil of the serpent was neutralized in Jews, whereas the gentiles still have that in their blood. While he also wrote that the wise amongst the gentiles should be treated as a wise man, he further wrote that a gentile who reads Torah deserves death. He has also said, "Whoever abandons idolatry is called Jew." Abbahu complains of gentile mistreatment of Israel. He endorsed the law according to which a gentile should not be compensated if his ox was damaged by an Israelite. Assi suggested that gentiles should not be taught about the laws of the Torah. Abba b. Kahana refers to the book of Ruth and preaches against the racial arrogance of Israel.

Later sages

Rav Ashi believed that a Jew who sells a gentile property adjacent to a Jewish property should be excommunicated. The violation of Jewish women by gentile men was so frequent that the rabbis declared that a woman raped by a gentile should not be divorced from her husband, as Torah says: "The Torah outlawed the issue of a gentile as that of a beast."[3] A gentile midwife was not to be employed for fear of the poisoning of the baby. The gentiles should be dealt with caution in cases of using them as witness in a criminal or civil suit. The gentile does not honor his promises like that of a Jew. The laws of the Torah were not to be revealed to the gentiles, for the knowledge of these laws might give gentiles an advantage in dealing with Jews. Shimon ben Lakish wrote that "A gentile who observes Sabbath deserves death".[3]

In modern times

Under rabbinical law, a modern-day gentile is required only to observe the Seven Laws of Noah, while Jews are bound by Mosaic law. In periods of decreased animosity between Jews and gentiles, some of the rabbinical laws against fellowship and fraternization were relaxed; for example Maimonides himself was a physician to the Sultan. Even though most rabbinical schools do not teach the same hostility as Middle Age rabbinical teachings, some Orthodox rabbinical schools hold extreme conservative views. For example, scholars from the Zionist HaRav Kook yeshiva are schooled in the doctrine that Jews and gentiles have different kinds of souls. One of the yeshiva's scholars, David Bar-Hayim, published an paper in 1989 explaining the doctrine, entitled "Yisrael Nikraim Adam" (Jews Are Called 'Men'). In his conclusion, Bar-Chayim writes:

There is no escaping the facts: the Torah of Israel makes a clear distinction between a Jew, who is defined as "Man," and a Gentile. This distinction is expressed in a long list of Halachic laws, be they monetary laws, the laws of the Temple, capital laws or others. Even one who is not an erudite Torah scholar is obligated to recognize this simple fact; it cannot be erased or obscured ... One who carefully studies the sources cited previously will realize the abysmal difference between the concepts "Jew" and "Gentile" -- and consequently, he will understand why Halacha differentiates between them.[5][6]

Bar-Chayim further quotes Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935), founder of the yeshiva and the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine:

The difference between the Jewish soul, in all its independence, inner desires, longings, character and standing, and the soul of all the Gentiles, on all of their levels, is greater and deeper than the difference between the soul of a man and the soul of an animal, for the difference in the latter case is one of quantity, while the difference in the first case is one of essential quality.[7]

Similar anti-gentile remarks have been expressed by the late chief Sephardi Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, in which he stated in a sermon in 2010 that "The sole purpose of Gentiles is to serve Jews". He said that gentiles served a divine purpose: "Why are Gentiles needed? They will work, they will plow, they will reap. We will sit like an effendi and eat. That is why Gentiles were created.[8]

These remarks by Yosef were sharply criticized by many Jewish organizations such as Anti-Defamation League (ADL) and American Jewish Committee.[9]

In Kabbalah

Some Kabbalistic writings suggest a distinction between the souls of the gentiles and the souls of the Jews. These writings describe three levels, elements, or qualities of soul:[10]

  • Nefesh (נפש): the lower part, or "animal part", of the soul. It is linked to instincts and bodily cravings. This part of the soul is provided at birth.
  • Ruach (רוח): the middle soul, the "spirit". It contains the moral virtues and the ability to distinguish between good and evil.
  • Neshamah (נשמה): the higher soul, or "super-soul". This separates man from all other life-forms. It is related to the intellect and allows man to enjoy and benefit from the afterlife. It allows one to have some awareness of the existence and presence of God.

Both Jewish and gentile souls are composed of these three elements. The human soul has two additional elements that are completely outside of the lower realm of existence that all humanity currently lives in. These parts of the soul are neither felt nor experienced even by a Jew who has them. It cannot be experienced by any person while they are living in the physical (lower) universe. That obviously does not mean these additional parts do not exist. They are called the Chaya and the Yechida.[11] The only distinction between a Jewish soul and a gentile soul is how it is nourished. Each part of the soul is nourished by a different aspect of fulfillment of a commandment. Gentile souls require and are completely fulfilled by more basic nourishment which comes from the Seven Laws of Noah. The Jewish soul derives additional nourishment that it requires from the proper observance of the additional commandments.

Christianity

The Greek ethnos where translated as "gentile" in the context of early Christianity implied non-Israelite. Jesus himself in Gospel of Matthew forbade his disciples from preaching onto the gentiles in Matthew 10:6-7:

These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Later on with the ministry of Saint Paul the apostle the gospel began to be spread among the non-Jewish subjects of the Roman empire. A question existed among the disciples whether receiving the Holy Spirit through proselytization would be restricted to Israelites or whether it would include the gentiles as in Acts 10:34–47:

And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?

Within a few centuries, some Christians used the word "gentiles" to mean non-Christians. The alternative pagani was felt to be less elegant.[12]

Christian Bibles

In the King James Version, "gentile" is only one of several words used to translate goy or goyim. It is translated as "nation" 374 times, "heathen" 143 times, "gentiles" 30 times, and "people" 11 times. Some of these verses, such as Genesis 12:2 ("I will make of thee a great nation") and Genesis 25:23 ("Two nations are in thy womb") refer to Israelites or descendants of Abraham. Other verses, such as Isaiah 2:4 and Deuteronomy 11:23 are generic references to any nation. Typically, the KJV restricts the translation to "gentile" when the text is specifically referring to non-Jewish people. For example, the only use of the word in Genesis is in chapter 10, verse 5, referring to the peopling of the world by descendants of Japheth, "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations."[13]

In the New Testament, the Greek word ethnos is used for peoples or nations in general, and is typically translated by the word "people", as in John 11:50. ("Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.") The translation "gentiles" is used in some instances, as in Matthew 10:5–6 to indicate non-Israelite peoples:

These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.[14]

Altogether, the word is used 123 times in the King James Version of the Bible,[15] and 168 times in the New Revised Standard Version.[16]

LDS Church usage

In the terminology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the word "gentile" takes on different meanings in different contexts which may confuse some and alienate others. Hence, in Mormon contexts the word can be used simply to refer to people who are not members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, since members of the LDS Church regard themselves as regathered Israelites. According to John L. Needham of Utah State University, "Mormons in the American West applied 'gentile', as an adjective as much as a slur, to nearly everyone and everything that did not adhere to their faith or desert kingdom." Because they had suffered persecution, the word gentile was "a call to circle the wagons socially and politically around the fold."[2] In such usage, Jewish people may be colloquially referred to as "gentiles" because they are not members of the LDS Church.[17] However, the traditional meaning is also to be found in the introduction to the Book of Mormon, in the statement written to both "Jew" (literal descendants of the House of Israel) and "gentile" (those not descended from the House of Israel or those of the tribe of Ephraim scattered among the "gentiles" throughout the earth). Needham writes that Mormons have "outgrown the term."[2] The LDS website states this about the meaning of gentile. "As used in the scriptures, gentiles has several meanings. Sometimes it designates people of non-Israelite lineage, sometimes people of non-Jewish lineage, and sometimes nations that are without the gospel, even though there may be some Israelite blood among the people. This latter usage is especially characteristic of the word as used in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants.[18]

Islam

Some translations of the Quran, such as the famous Pickthall translation, employed the word "gentile" in some instances of the translation of the Arabic word Al-ummīyīn (الْأُمِّيِّينَ). For example, in the following verse:

Among the People of the Scripture there is he who, if thou trust him with a weight of treasure, will return it to thee. And among them there is he who, if thou trust him with a piece of gold, will not return it to thee unless thou keep standing over him. That is because they say: We have no duty to the Gentiles. They speak a lie concerning Allah knowingly. - Quran 3:75[19]

Antigentilism

"Gentile" also appears in compounds such as "antigentilism", hostility of Jews to non-Jews.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Gentile." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 6 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b c John L. Needham, "The Mormon-Gentile Dichotomy in PMLA", PMLA, Vol. 114, No. 5 (October 1999), pp. 1109–1110
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "GENTILE - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com.
  4. ^ "Kind"; in: M. Philippa e.a., Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands
  5. ^ Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims By James L. Heft, Reuven Firestone, Omid Safi, Oxford University Press, USA, 2011, p. 163.
  6. ^ "Yisrael Nikraim Adam", Tzfiyah, v. 3, 1989, pp. 45-73.
  7. ^ "Daat Emet: Gentiles in Halacha". www.daatemet.org.il. Retrieved 2015-12-25. citing Orot Yisrael chapter 5, article 10 (page 156)
  8. ^ "5 of Ovadia Yosef's most controversial quotations".
  9. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha; Service, Haaretz (20 October 2010). "ADL Slams Shas Spiritual Leader for Saying non-Jews 'Were Born to Serve Jews'" – via Haaretz.
  10. ^ Qabbalistic Magic: Talismans, Psalms, Amulets, and the Practice of High Ritual. Salomo Baal-Shem, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co, 2013, Chapter 5.
  11. ^ 1934-1983., Kaplan, Aryeh, (1991). Innerspace : introduction to the kabbalah, meditation and prophecy. Sutton, Abraham. New York: Moznaim Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0940118564. OCLC 228219990.
  12. ^ Alan Cameron, The Last Pagans of Rome (Oxford University Press 2010 ISBN 978-0-19978091-4), p. 16
  13. ^ "Bible Gateway passage: Genesis 10:5 - King James Version". Bible Gateway.
  14. ^ "Bible Gateway passage: Matthew 10 - King James Version". Bible Gateway.
  15. ^ Did a search for "Gentile" in KJV. Used BibleGateway.com Archived 2007-07-26 at WebCite. It returned 123 results of the word "gentile". Retrieved 11 Feb 2007.
  16. ^ Kohlenberger, John. The NRSV Concordance Unabridged. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1991.
  17. ^ "Utah Jewish History". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  18. ^ "Gentiles". www.lds.org.
  19. ^ "The Meaning of the Glorious Qur'ân,: 3. Al-Imran: The Family Of Imran". www.sacred-texts.com.
  20. ^ Marcus, Jacob Rader. "Judeophobia and Antigentilism" in States Jewry, 1776–1985: Volume III The Germanic Period, Part 2, pp. 359–360. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-8143-2188-1. "Yet very few Jews were antigentilic. Despite his occasional hostility Wise was particularly close to liberal Christian religious groups. But where Judaism, the religion was concerned, neither Wise nor any other Jewish leader made any concessions to Christianity, not in substance."

External links

Actual idealism

Actual idealism was a form of idealism, developed by Giovanni Gentile, that grew into a 'grounded' idealism, contrasting the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, and the absolute idealism of G. W. F. Hegel. To Gentile, who considered himself the "philosopher of Fascism," actualism was the sole remedy to philosophically preserving free agency, by making the act of thinking self-creative and, therefore, without any contingency and not in the potency of any other fact.

Alessandro Gentile

Alessandro Gentile (born November 12, 1992) is an Italian professional basketball player for Movistar Estudiantes of the Liga ACB. Standing at 2.01 m (6 ft. 7 in.), he plays at the shooting guard and small forward positions. He was selected by the Minnesota Timberwolves with the 53rd overall pick in the 2014 NBA draft.

Appiano Gentile

Appiano Gentile (Comasco: Pian) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northwest of Milan and about 12 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Como.

The city borders the following municipalities: Beregazzo con Figliaro, Bulgarograsso, Carbonate, Castelnuovo Bozzente, Guanzate, Lurago Marinone, Lurate Caccivio, Oltrona di San Mamette, Tradate (VA), Veniano

Appiano received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree of February 28, 2009.

The main sights is the church of Santo Stefano, housing works from Nuvolone and Isidoro Bianchi. The town is also home to the training ground of Serie A side Inter Milan.

Claudio Gentile

Claudio Gentile (Italian pronunciation: [ˈklaudjo dʒenˈtiːle]; born 27 September 1953 in Tripoli, Libya) is an Italian association football manager and former defender of the 1970s and 1980s.

Gentile appeared for Italy in two World Cup tournaments, and played for the winning Italian team in the 1982 final. His club career was notably spent with Juventus for whom he made almost 300 league appearances, winning six national titles and two major European trophies.

Demonym

A demonym (; from Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and όνομα, ónoma, "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place and is derived from the name of the place.Examples of demonyms include Cochabambino, for a person from the city of Cochabamba; American for a person from the country called the United States of America; and Swahili, for a person of the Swahili coast.

Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a Thai may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people.

Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a British person, a Briton or, informally, a Brit. In some languages, a demonym may be borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective for a group of people: for example, "Québécois(e)" is commonly used in English for a native of Quebec (though "Quebecker" is also available).

In English, demonyms are capitalized and are often the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. Egyptian, Japanese, or Greek. Significant exceptions exist; for instance, the adjectival form of Spain is "Spanish", but the demonym is "Spaniard".

English commonly uses national demonyms such as "Ethiopian" or "Guatemalan", while the usage of local demonyms such as "Chicagoan", "Okie", or "Parisian", is rare. Many local demonyms are rarely used and many places, especially smaller towns and cities, lack a commonly used and accepted demonym altogether.

Fortana

Fortana (also known as Canina nera) is a red Italian wine grape variety grown primarily in the Emilia–Romagna region of northern Italy. A permitted grape variety in several Denominazione di origine controllatas (DOCs), mostly in Emilia, Fortana mostly contributes tartness and acidity in red blends.

Garganega

Garganega is a variety of white Italian wine grape widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. It is Italy's 6th most widely planted white grape. It forms the basis of Venetian white wine Soave and is also a major portion of the blend used to make Gambellara.DNA typing studies in 2003 and 2008 have confirmed that the Grecanico Dorato (Grecanico) grape of Sicily is identical to Garganega. Already before these studies, ampelographers believed the grapes to be related due to the similarities of clusters, berries and leaf characteristics.

Gentile Bellini

Gentile Bellini (c. 1429 – 23 February 1507) was an Italian painter of the school of Venice. He came from Venice's leading family of painters, and at least in the early part of his career was more highly regarded than his younger brother Giovanni Bellini, the reverse of the case today. From 1474 he was the official portrait artist for the Doges of Venice, and as well as his portraits he painted a number of very large subjects with multitudes of figures, especially for the Scuole Grandi of Venice, wealthy confraternities that were very important in Venetian patrician social life.In 1479 he was sent to Constantinople by the Venetian government when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II requested an artist; he returned the next year. Thereafter a number of his subjects were set in the East, and he is one of the founders of the Orientalist tradition in Western painting. His portrait of the Sultan was also copied in paintings and prints and became known all over Europe.

Gentile da Fabriano

Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1370 – 1427) was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style. He worked in various places in central Italy, mostly in Tuscany. His best-known works are his Adoration of the Magi from the Strozzi Altarpiece, (1423) and the Flight into Egypt.

Giovanni Gentile

Giovanni Gentile (Italian: [dʒoˈvanni dʒenˈtiːle]; 30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician. The self-styled "philosopher of Fascism", he was influential in providing an intellectual foundation for Italian Fascism, and ghostwrote part of The Doctrine of Fascism (1932) with Benito Mussolini. He was involved in the resurgence of Hegelian idealism in Italian philosophy and also devised his own system of thought, which he called "actual idealism" or "actualism", and which has been described as "the subjective extreme of the idealist tradition".

Goy

Goy (, Hebrew: גוי, regular plural goyim , גוים or גויים) is the standard Hebrew biblical term for a nation. The word nation has been the common translation of the Hebrew goy or ethnos in the Septuagint, from the earliest English language bibles such as the 1611 King James Version and the 1530 Tyndale Bible, following the Latin Vulgate which used both gentile (and cognates) and nationes. The term nation did not have the same political connotations it entails today. The word "gentile" is a synonym for the Hebrew word Nokri (Hebrew: נָכְרִי) which signifies "stranger" or "non-Jew".Long before Roman times it had also acquired the meaning of someone who is not Jewish. It is also used to refer to individuals from non-Jewish religious or ethnic groups; when used in this way in English, it occasionally has pejorative connotations and non-Jews find it disparaging. The term goy is not inherently any more or less offensive than the term gentile, unlike the term shegetz.

As the Jews considered all of the non-Jewish nations in biblical times as polytheistic and idolatrous, the Hebrew word goy has for some time acquired the meaning "heathen". In a more comprehensive definition, the word goy corresponds to the later term ummot ha-olam (nations of the world).

Hey Monday

Hey Monday is an American rock band from West Palm Beach, Florida, formed in 2008. The band is on a hiatus as of December 2011. They released their debut album Hold On Tight in 2008, which produced the singles "Homecoming" and "How You Love Me Now." The album was followed up with their 2010 EP Beneath It All, which achieved moderate commercial success, and Candles EP in 2011. Their final release, The Christmas EP, was released on December 6, 2011. Hey Monday is on hiatus and claims to not be "broken up". The lead singer Cassadee Pope is now a solo artist.

Jewish religious clothing

Jewish religious clothing has been influenced by Biblical commandments, modesty requirements, and the contemporary style of clothing worn in the many societies in which Jews have lived. In Judaism, clothes are also a vehicle for religious ritual.

Jim Gentile

James Edward Gentile (born June 3, 1934), also nicknamed "Diamond Jim", is an American former professional baseball first baseman. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Brooklyn / Los Angeles Dodgers, Baltimore Orioles, Kansas City Athletics, Houston Astros, and Cleveland Indians between 1957 and 1966.

Joseph J. Gentile Arena

The Joseph J. Gentile Arena, formerly known as the Joseph J. Gentile Center or "The Joe", is a 4,486-seat multi-purpose arena on the campus of Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois. The arena opened in 1996. It is the home of the Loyola Ramblers men's and women's basketball programs. Renovations at the facility began in the summer of 2011.On March 3, 2011, the $26 million Norville Center for Intercollegiate Athletics opened adjacent to the Gentile Arena. The Norville Center houses the university's athletic training facilities, locker rooms, as well as the offices of the athletic department that were formerly housed in Alumni Gym.The Gentile Center was the site of the 1999 Midwestern Collegiate Conference NCAA Women's Volleyball Tournament.

The Gentile Center was also the site of the 2014 NCAA Men's Collegiate Volleyball Championships on May 1 and May 3, 2014.

Joe Gentile was a Chicago area car dealer who donated money to the university for the arena.

Marzemino

Marzemino is a red Italian wine grape variety that is primarily grown around Isera, south of Trentino. The wine is most noted for its mention in the opera Don Giovanni of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ("Versa il vino! Eccellente Marzimino!"). The vine ripens late and is susceptible to many grape diseases including oidium. Wine produced from the grape has a characteristic dark tint and light plummy taste.Ampelographers have long theorized that the grape originated in northern Italy. Recent DNA profiling conducted at the research facility in San Michele all'Adige revealed Marzemino to have a parent-offspring relationship with the grapes Marzemina bianca in the Veneto, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso and Teroldego, from Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino respectively, which gives further evidence to its likely origins in this region.

Righteous Among the Nations

Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, khasidei umót ha'olám "righteous (plural) of the world's nations") is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. The term originates with the concept of "righteous gentiles", a term used in rabbinic Judaism to refer to non-Jews, called ger toshav, who abide by the Seven Laws of Noah.

Sangiovese

Sangiovese (; Italian: [sandʒoˈveːze]) is a red Italian wine grape variety that derives its name from the Latin sanguis Jovis, "the blood of Jupiter". Though it is the grape of most of central Italy from Romagna down to Lazio (the most widespread grape in Tuscany), Campania and Sicily, outside Italy it is most famous as the only component of Brunello di Montalcino and Rosso di Montalcino and the main component of the blends Chianti, Carmignano, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Morellino di Scansano, although it can also be used to make varietal wines such as Sangiovese di Romagna and the modern "Super Tuscan" wines like Tignanello.Sangiovese was already well known by the 16th century. Recent DNA profiling by José Vouillamoz of the Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’Adige suggests that Sangiovese's ancestors are Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo. The former is well known as an ancient variety in Tuscany, the latter is an almost-extinct relic from the Calabria, the toe of Italy. At least fourteen Sangiovese clones exist, of which Brunello is one of the best regarded. An attempt to classify the clones into Sangiovese grosso (including Brunello) and Sangiovese piccolo families has gained little evidential support.Young Sangiovese has fresh fruity flavours of strawberry and a little spiciness, but it readily takes on oaky, even tarry, flavours when aged in barrels. While not as aromatic as other red wine varieties such as Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah, Sangiovese often has a flavour profile of sour red cherries with earthy aromas and tea leaf notes. Wines made from Sangiovese usually have medium-plus tannins and high acidity.

South African Gentile National Socialist Movement

Greyshirts or Gryshemde is the common short-form name given to the South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, a South African Nazi movement that existed during the 1930s and 1940s. Initially referring only to a paramilitary group, it soon became shorthand for the movement as a whole.

The NSDAP/AO arrived in South Africa in 1932 and as a result a number of groups sympathetic to Nazism emerged. The most notable of these was the South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (also known as the South African Christian National Socialist Movement), formed by Louis Weichardt the following year. A fiercely anti-Semitic group, it organised the Gryshemde as its equivalent of the Sturmabteilung, although the grey shirt became so associated with the group that it was applied to the movement as a whole. In contrast to some extremist groups the Greyshirts did not split along linguistic lines, but rather sought to work with both the Afrikaans and the English-speaking populations.The Greyshirts struggled to maintain unity and spawned a number of minor splinter groups, such as Johannes von Moltke's South African Fascists. Most of these groups united under Daniel François Malan's aegis when he formed his 'Purified' National Party, although the Greyshirts did not take part and contested the 1938 election alone. The decision proved unwise, however, as the Greyshirts failed to make any impact. The group was roundly attacked by the National Party, with an article appearing in Die Burger in October 1934 stating that: 'We believe that this party, generally known as the Greyshirts, under the cloak of an anti-Jewish movement, strives for a dangerous form of government in South Africa. The Greyshirts have as their aim to set up a dictator in South Africa.'Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany to South Africa grew significantly during the 1930s and the Greyshirts launched a campaign calling for an end to the practice. A ship was chartered by the Council for German Jewry, a UK-based group, to bring as many Jews as possible to Cape Town, leading to the Greyshirts organising a mass protest against the move. The scale of opposition was such that Sarah Millin appealed to Jan Smuts to deal with the Greyshirts, although her request was ignored. Indeed, relations between the National Party and the Greyshirts actually improved, initially as a result of a 1937 letter from Frans Erasmus, at the time Secretary of the National Party, praising the Greyshirts for bringing the "Jewish problem" to the fore and culminating in a number of leading Greyshirts also holding National Party membership.Activities were monitored during the Second World War, although the Greyshirts continued to exist and renamed themselves the White Workers Party in 1949. However, by this time most of the membership had been lost to the Herenigde Nasionale Party and so the Greyshirts faded.

Africans
Americans​ (North & South)
Asians
Europeans
Arabs
Jews
Romani
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Outsiders

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