Geneva

Geneva (/dʒɪˈniːvə/; French: Genève [ʒənɛv]; Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva]; German: Genf [ɡɛnf]; Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra]; Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.

The municipality (ville de Genève) has a population (as of December 2017) of 200,548, and the canton (essentially the city and its inner-ring suburbs) has 495,249 residents.[4] In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France.[5] Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million.[6][7] This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area (Vevey, Montreux) and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud.

Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, and a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations[8] and the Red Cross.[9] Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world.[10] It is also where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.

In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich, Frankfurt and Luxembourg.[11] In 2019 Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Basel.[12] The city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis[13] and the "Peace Capital".[14] In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world.[15] Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018.[16]

Geneva
Genève  (French)
A view over Geneva and the lake
A view over Geneva and the lake
Location of Geneva
Genève  (French)
Geneva Genève  (French) is located in Switzerland
Geneva Genève  (French)
Geneva
Genève  (French)
Geneva Genève  (French) is located in Canton of Geneva
Geneva Genève  (French)
Geneva
Genève  (French)
Coordinates: 46°12′N 6°09′E / 46.200°N 6.150°ECoordinates: 46°12′N 6°09′E / 46.200°N 6.150°E
CountrySwitzerland
CantonGeneva
DistrictN/A
Government
 • ExecutiveConseil administratif
with 5 members
 • MayorMaire (list)
Sami Kanaan SPS/PSS
(as of June 2018)
 • ParliamentConseil municipal
with 80 members
Area
 • Total15.92 km2 (6.15 sq mi)
Elevation
(Pont du Mont Blanc)
375 m (1,230 ft)
Highest elevation
(Chemin du Pommier)
457 m (1,499 ft)
Lowest elevation
(Le Rhône)
370 m (1,210 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[2]
 • Total200,548
 • Density13,000/km2 (33,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Genevan
French: Genevois(e)
Postal code
1200, or 1201–09 Genève, 1213 Petit-Lancy, 1227 Les Acacias[3]
SFOS number6621
Surrounded byCarouge, Chêne-Bougeries, Cologny, Lancy, Grand-Saconnex, Pregny-Chambésy, Vernier, Veyrier
Websiteville-geneve.ch
SFSO statistics

Name

The city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava,[17] probably from the Celtic *genawa- from the stem *genu- ("bend, knee"), in the sense of a bending river or estuary.[18]

The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis (also Gebennensis). After 1400 it became the Genevois province of Savoy (albeit not extending to the city proper, until the reformation of the seat of the Bishop of Geneva).[19]

The name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva /dʒɪˈniːvə/ in English, French: Genève [ʒ(ə)nɛv],[20] German: Genf [ˈɡɛnf] (listen), Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], and Romansh: Genevra.

The city shares the origin of its name, *genawa "estuary", with the Italian port city of Genoa (in Italian Genova).[18]

History

DV307 no.80 From Vile Rousean, Geneva Aug 4 1858
A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858
Escalade-battle-2
L'Escalade, the failed surprise-attack of 12 December 1602 made by troops sent by Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, to take Geneva

Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe,[21] when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, and acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th.

In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva. By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations.[22]

Geography

Topography

Geneva SPOT 1124
Geneva seen from SPOT Satellite

Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out. It is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, and the Salève south-eastward.

Genève vue du Salève
The Geneva area seen from the Salève in France. The Jura mountains can be seen on the horizon.

The city covers an area of 15.93 km2 (6.2 sq mi), while the area of the canton is 282 km2 (108.9 sq mi), including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud. The part of the lake that is attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km2 (14.7 sq mi) and is sometimes referred to as petit lac (small lake). The canton has only a 4.5-kilometre-long (2.8 mi) border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km (66.8 mi) of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east.

Of the land in the city, 0.24 km2 (0.093 sq mi), or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2 (0.19 sq mi), or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km2 (5.65 sq mi), or 91.8%, is built up (buildings or roads), 0.49 km2 (0.19 sq mi), or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2 (4.9 acres), or 0.1%, is wasteland.[23]

Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2% is composed of lakes and 2.9% is rivers and streams.[23]

Confluence Rhône et Arve
Confluence of the Rhône and the Arve

The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 metres (1,225.7 ft), and corresponds to the altitude of the largest of the Pierres du Niton, two large rocks emerging from the lake which date from the last ice age. This rock was chosen by General Guillaume Henri Dufour as the reference point for surveying in Switzerland.[24] The second main river of Geneva is the Arve, which flows into the Rhône just west of the city centre. Mont Blanc can be seen from Geneva and is an hour's drive from the city.

Climate

Average Temp and Precipitation Geneva
Average temperature and precipitation 1961–1990[25]

The climate of Geneva is warm-temperate, more specifically oceanic (Köppen: Cfb). Winters are cool, usually with light frosts at night and thawing conditions during the day. Summers are relatively warm. Precipitation is adequate and is relatively well-distributed throughout the year, although autumn is slightly wetter than other seasons. Ice storms near Lac Léman are normal in the winter: Geneva can be affected by the Bise, a north-easterly wind. This can lead to severe icing in winter.[26]

In summer, many people swim in the lake and patronise public beaches such as Genève Plage and the Bains des Pâquis. The city, in certain years, receives snow during colder months. The nearby mountains are subject to substantial snowfall and are suitable for skiing. Many world-renowned ski resorts such as Verbier and Crans-Montana are less than three hours away by car. Mont Salève (1,379 m (4,524 ft)), just across the border in France, dominates the southerly view from the city centre, and Mont Blanc, the highest of the Alpine range, is visible from most of the city, towering high above Chamonix, which, along with Morzine, Le Grand Bornand, La Clusaz, and resorts of the Grand Massif such as Samoens, Morillon, and Flaine, are the closest French skiing destinations to Geneva.

During the years 2000–2009, the mean yearly temperature was 11 °C and the mean number of sunshine-hours per year was 2003.

The highest temperature recorded in Genève–Cointrin was 39.7 °C (103.5 °F) in July 2015, and the lowest temperature recorded was −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in February 1956.

Politics

Coat of arms

Coat of arms of Geneva
Coat of arms of Geneva as part of the pavement in front of the Reformation Wall, 2013

Administrative divisions

The city is divided into eight quartiers, or districts, sometimes composed of several neighbourhoods. On the left bank are: (1) Jonction, (2) Centre, Plainpalais, and Acacias; (3) Eaux-Vives; and (4) Champel. The right bank includes: (1) Saint-Jean and Charmilles; (2) Servette and Petit-Saconnex; (3) Grottes and Saint-Gervais; and (4) Paquis and Nations.[31]

Government

Geneva city insignia
Logo of the city of Geneva, 2004

The Administrative Council (Conseil administratif) constitutes the executive government of the City of Geneva and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of five councilors (French: Conseiller administratif/ Conseillère administrative), each presiding over a department. The president of the executive department acts as mayor (la/le maire). In the governmental year 2018–2019, the Administrative Council is presided over by Monsieur le maire de Genève Sami Kanaan. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Municipal Council are carried out by the Administrative Council. Elections for the Administrative Council are held every five years. The current term of (la législature) is from 1 June 2015 to 31 May 2020. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz. The mayor changes each year, while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Palais Eynard, near the Parc des Bastions.[32]

As of 2015, Geneva's Administrative Council is made up of two representatives of the Social Democratic Party (PS), and one member each of: the Green Party (PES); Ensemble à Gauche (an alliance of left-wing parties); the Swiss Party of Labour; solidaritéS); and the Christian Democratic Party (PDC). This gives the left-wing parties four out of the five seats. The last election was held on 19 April 2015. All previous members were re-elected.[33]

Le Conseil administratif of Geneva [33]
Councilor
(M. Conseiller administratif/ Mme Conseillère administrative)
Party Head of Office (Département, since) of elected since
Sami Kanaan[SR 1]      PS Culture and Sports (Département de la culture et du sport, 2011) 2011
Esther Alder      PES Social Cohesion and Solidarity (Département de la cohésion sociale et de la solidarité, 2011) 2011
Guillaume Barazzone      PDC Urban Environment and Security (Département de l’environnement urbain et de la sécurité, 2012) 2012
Rémy Pagani      Ensemble à Gauche Construction and Development (Département des constructions et de l’aménagement, 2007) 2007
Sandrine Salerno[SR 2]      PS Finance and Housing (Département des finances et du logement, 2007) 2007
  1. ^ Mayor (Monsieur le maire de Genève) 2018/19
  2. ^ Vice President (Vice-présidente) 2018/19

Municipal Council

Le Conseil municipal of Geneva for the mandate period of 2015–2020

  Ensemble à gauche (PST-POP & Sol) (12.5%)
  PS (23.8%)
  Les Verts (PES) (10%)
  PDC (13.8%)
  PLR (18.8%)
  UDC (7.5%)
  MCG (13.8%)

The Municipal Council (Conseil municipal) holds legislative power. It is made up of 80 members, with elections held every five years. The Municipal Council makes regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Administrative Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of proportional representation with a seven percent threshold.

The sessions of the Municipal Council are public. Unlike members of the Administrative Council, members of the Municipal Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Geneva allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. The Council holds its meetings in the Town Hall (Hôtel de Ville), in the old city.[34]

The last election of the Municipal Council was held on 20 April 2015 for the (législature) of 2015–2020. Currently, the Municipal Council consist of: 19 members of the Social Democratic Party (PS); 15 Les Libéraux-Radicaux (PLR); 11 Christian Democratic People's Party (PDC); 11 Geneva Citizens' Movement (MCG,); 10 Ensemble à Gauche (an alliance of the left parties PST-POP (Parti Suisse du Travail – Parti Ouvrier et Populaire) and solidaritéS); 8 Green Party (PES); and 6 Swiss People's Party (UDC).[35]

Elections

National Council

In the 2015 federal election for the Swiss National Council the most popular party was the PS which received 23.8% of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the PLR (17.6%), the UDC (16.3%), the Green Party (11.4%), the PDC (10.7%), and the solidaritéS (8.8%). In the federal election a total of 36,490 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 44.1%.[36]

International relations

Geneva intentionally does not have any sister relationships with other cities. It declares itself related to the entire world.[37][38]

Demographics

Population

Horloge Fleurie au Quai du Général-Guisan (Jardin Anglais) Genève
L'horloge fleurie at the Quai du Général-Guisan (Jardin anglais), during the 2012 Geneva Festival
Rue Pierre-Fatio, Genève
Rue Pierre-Fatio in Geneva.

Geneva has a population (as of December 2017) of 200,548.[39] The city of Geneva is at the centre of the Geneva metropolitan area, known as Grand Genève in French (Greater Geneva). Greater Geneva includes the Canton of Geneva in its entirety as well as the District of Nyon in the Canton of Vaud and several areas in the neighbouring French departments of Haute-Savoie and Ain. In 2011, the agglomération franco-valdo-genevoise had 915,000 inhabitants, two-thirds of whom lived on Swiss soil and one-third on French soil.[40] The Geneva metropolitan area is experiencing steady demographic growth of 1.2% a year and the population of the agglomération franco-valdo-genevoise is expected to reach a total of one million people in the near future.[40]

The official language of Geneva (both the city and the canton) is French. English is also common due to the high number of anglophone expatriates and foreigners working in international institutions and in the bank sector. As of 2000 128,622 or 72.3% of the population speaks French as a first language, with English being the second most common (7,853 or 4.4%) language. 7,462 inhabitants speak Spanish (or 4.2%), 7,320 speak Italian (4.1%), 7,050 speak German (4.0%) and 113 people who speak Romansh.[41] As a result of immigration flows in the 1960s and 1980s, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish are also spoken by a considerable proportion of the population.

In the city of Geneva, as of 2013, 48% of the population are resident foreign nationals.[42] For a list of the largest groups of foreign residents see the cantonal overview. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009), the population has changed at a rate of 7.2%; a rate of 3.4% due to migration and at a rate of 3.4% due to births and deaths.[43]

As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. The male population was made up of 46,284 Swiss men (24.2% of the population) and 45,127 (23.6%) non-Swiss men. There were 56,091 Swiss women (29.3%) and 43,735 (22.9%) non-Swiss women.[44] As of 2000 approximately 24.3% of the population of the municipality were born in Geneva and lived there in 2000 – 43,296. A further 11,757 or 6.6% who were born in the same canton, while 27,359 or 15.4% were born elsewhere in Switzerland, and 77,893 or 43.8% were born outside of Switzerland.[41]

In 2008, there were 1,147 live births to Swiss citizens and 893 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in the same time span there were 1,114 deaths of Swiss citizens and 274 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 33, while the foreign population increased by 619. There were 465 Swiss men and 498 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2933 non-Swiss men and 2662 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 135 and the non-Swiss population increased by 3181 people. This represents a population growth rate of 1.8%.[45]

As of 2000, children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 18.2% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65.8% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 16%.[43]

As of 2000, there were 78,666 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 74,205 married individuals, 10,006 widows or widowers and 15,087 individuals who are divorced.[41]

As of 2000, there were 86,231 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.9 persons per household.[43] There were 44,373 households that consist of only one person and 2,549 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 89,269 households that answered this question, 49.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 471 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 17,429 married couples without children, 16,607 married couples with children. There were 5,499 single parents with a child or children. There were 1,852 households that were made up of unrelated people and 3,038 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.[41]

Geneva - Quartier des Grottes
Apartment buildings in the Quartier des Grottes
Geneva-aerial-view
Geneva, aerial view
Geneva and Lake Geneva View
Geneva and Lake Geneva View

In 2000, there were 743 single family homes (or 10.6% of the total) out of a total of 6,990 inhabited buildings. There were 2,758 multi-family buildings (39.5%), along with 2,886 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (41.3%) and 603 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (8.6%). Of the single family homes, 197 were built before 1919, while 20 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (277) were built between 1919 and 1945.[46]

In 2000, there were 101,794 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 27,084. There were 21,889 single room apartments and 11,166 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 85,330 apartments (83.8% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 13,644 apartments (13.4%) were seasonally occupied and 2,820 apartments (2.8%) were empty.[46] As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.3 new units per 1000 residents.[43]

As of 2003, the average price to rent an average apartment in Geneva was 1163.30 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$930, £520, €740 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 641.60 CHF (US$510, £290, €410), a two-room apartment was about 874.46 CHF (US$700, £390, €560), a three-room apartment was about 1126.37 CHF (US$900, £510, €720) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2691.07 CHF (US$2150, £1210, €1720). The average apartment price in Geneva was 104.2% of the national average of 1116 CHF.[47] The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.25%.[43]

In June 2011, the average price of an apartment in and around Geneva was 13,681 CHF per square metre (11 square feet). The average can be as high as 17,589 Swiss francs (CHF) per square metre (11 square feet) for a luxury apartment and as low as 9,847 Swiss francs (CHF) for an older or basic apartment. For houses in and around Geneva, the average price was 11,595 Swiss francs (CHF) per square metre (11 square feet) (June 2011), with a lowest price per square metre (11 square feet) of 4,874 Swiss francs (CHF), and a maximum price of 21,966 Swiss francs (CHF).[48]

Historical population

William Monter calculates that the city's total population was 12,000–13,000 in 1550, doubling to over 25,000 by 1560.[49]

The historical population is given in the following chart:[50]

Religion

The 2000 census recorded 66,491 residents (37.4% of the population) as Roman Catholic, while 41,289 people (23.20%) belonged to no church or were agnostic or atheist, 24,105 (13.5%) belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church, and 8,698 (4.89%) were Muslim. There were also 3,959 members of an Orthodox church (2.22%), 220 individuals (or about 0.12% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, 2,422 (1.36%) who belonged to another Christian church, and 2,601 people (1.46%) who were Jewish. There were 707 individuals who were Buddhist, 474 who were Hindu and 423 who belonged to another church. 26,575 respondents (14.93%) did not answer the question.[41]

According to 2012 statistics by Swiss Bundesamt für Statistik 49.2% of the population are Christian, divided into 34.2% Roman Catholic, 8.8% Swiss Reformed (organized in the Protestant Church of Geneva) and 6.2% other Christian (mostly various other Protestants), 38% of Genevans are non-religious, 6.1% are Muslim and 1.6% are Jews.[51]

Geneva has historically been considered a Protestant city and was known as the Protestant Rome due to it being the base of John Calvin, William Farel, Theodore Beza and other Protestant reformers. Over the past century, substantial immigration from France and other predominantly Roman Catholic countries, as well as general European secularization has changed its religious landscape. As a result, three times as many Roman Catholics as Protestants lived in the city in 2000, while a large number of residents were members of neither group. Geneva forms part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg.

The World Council of Churches and the Lutheran World Federation both have their headquarters at the Ecumenical Centre in Grand-Saconnex, Geneva. The World Communion of Reformed Churches, a worldwide organization of Presbyterian, Continental Reformed, Congregational and other Reformed churches gathering more than 80 million people around the world was based here from 1948 until 2013. The Executive Committee of the World Communion of Reformed Churches voted in 2012 to move its offices to Hanover, Germany, citing the high costs of running the ecumenical organization in Geneva, Switzerland. The move was completed in 2013. Likewise, the Conference of European Churches have moved their headquarters from Geneva to Brussels.

Protestant Rome

ReformationsdenkmalGenf1
Reformation Wall in Geneva; from left to right: William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox

Prior to the Protestant Reformation the city was de jure and de facto Roman Catholic. Reaction to the new movement varied across Switzerland. John Calvin went to Geneva in 1536 after William Farel encouraged him to do so. In Geneva, the Catholic bishop had been obliged to seek exile in 1532. Geneva became a stronghold of Calvinism. Some of the tenets created there influenced Protestantism as a whole. St. Pierre Cathedral was where Calvin and his Protestant reformers preached. It constituted the epicentre of the newly developing Protestant thought that would later become known as the Reformed tradition. Many prominent Reformed theologians operated there, including William Farel and Theodore Beza, Calvin's successor who progressed Reformed thought after his death.

Geneva was a shelter for Calvinists, but at the same time it persecuted Roman Catholics and others considered heretics. The case of Michael Servetus, an early Nontrinitarian, is notable. Condemned by Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the city's Protestant governing council. John Calvin and his followers denounced him, and possibly contributed to his sentence.

In 1802, during its annexation to France under Napoleon I, the Diocese of Geneva was united with the Diocese of Chambéry, but the 1814 Congress of Vienna and the 1816 Treaty of Turin stipulated that in the territories transferred to a now considerably extended Geneva, the Catholic religion was to be protected and that no changes were to be made in existing conditions without an agreement with the Holy See.[21] Napoleon's common policy was to emancipate Catholics in Protestant-majority areas, and the other way around, as well as emancipating Jews. In 1819, the city of Geneva and 20 parishes were united to the Diocese of Lausanne by Pope Pius VII and in 1822, the non-Swiss territory was made into the Diocese of Annecy. A variety of concord with the civil authorities came as a result of the separation of church and state, enacted with strong Catholic support in 1907.[21]

Crime

In 2014 the incidence of crimes listed in the Swiss Criminal Code in Geneva was 143.9 per thousand residents. During the same period the rate of drug crimes was 33.6 per thousand residents. The rate of violations of immigration, visa and work permit laws was 35.7 per thousand residents.[52]

Cityscape

View of Geneva to the south. Mont Salève (in France) dominates the foreground, with the white summit of Mont Blanc just visible behind it and 70 km (43 mi) away to the southeast. To the left of Mont Blanc is the point of Le Môle.
View of Geneva to the south. Mont Salève (in France) dominates the foreground, with the white summit of Mont Blanc just visible behind it and 70 km (43 mi) away to the southeast. To the left of Mont Blanc is the point of Le Môle.
View of Geneva from the Salève.
View of Geneva from the Salève.

Heritage sites of national significance

There are 82 buildings or sites in Geneva that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance, and the entire old city of Geneva is part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites.[53]

Religious buildings: Cathedral St-Pierre et Chapel des Macchabés, Notre-Dame Church, Russian church, St-Germain Church, Temple de la Fusterie, Temple de l'Auditoire

Civic buildings: Former Arsenal and Archives of the City of Genève, Former Crédit Lyonnais, Former Hôtel Buisson, Former Hôtel du Résident de France et Bibliothèque de la Société de lecture de Genève, Former école des arts industriels, Archives d'État de Genève (Annexe), Bâtiment des forces motrices, Bibliothèque de Genève, Library juive de Genève «Gérard Nordmann», Cabinet des estampes, Centre d'Iconographie genevoise, Collège Calvin, École Geisendorf, University Hospital of Geneva (HUG), Hôtel de Ville et tour Baudet, Immeuble Clarté at Rue Saint-Laurent 2 and 4, Immeubles House Rotonde at Rue Charles-Giron 11–19, Immeubles at Rue Beauregard 2, 4, 6, 8, Immeubles at Rue de la Corraterie 10–26, Immeubles at Rue des Granges 2–6, Immeuble at Rue des Granges 8, Immeubles at Rue des Granges 10 and 12, Immeuble at Rue des Granges 14, Immeuble and Former Armory at Rue des Granges 16, Immeubles at Rue Pierre Fatio 7 and 9, House de Saussure at Rue de la Cité 24, House Des arts du Grütli at Rue du Général-Dufour 16, House Royale et les deux immeubles à côté at Quai Gustave Ador 44–50, Tavel House at Rue du Puits-St-Pierre 6, Turrettini House at Rue de l'Hôtel-de-Ville 8 and 10, Brunswick Monument, Palais de Justice, Palais de l'Athénée, Palais des Nations with library and archives of the SDN and ONU, Palais Eynard et Archives de la ville de Genève, Palais Wilson, Parc des Bastions avec Mur des Réformateurs, Place de Neuve et Monument du Général Dufour, Pont de la Machine, Pont sur l'Arve, Poste du Mont-Blanc, Quai du Mont-Blanc, Quai et Hôtel des Bergues, Quai Général Guisan and English Gardens, Quai Gustave-Ador and Jet d'eau, Télévision Suisse Romande, University of Geneva, Victoria Hall.

Archeological sites: Foundation Baur and Museum of the arts d'Extrême-Orient, Parc et campagne de la Grange and Library (neolithic shore settlement/Roman villa), Bronze Age shore settlement of Plonjon, Temple de la Madeleine archeological site, Temple Saint-Gervais archeological site, Old City with Celtic, Roman and medieval villages.

Museums, theaters, and other cultural sites: Conservatoire de musique at Place Neuve 5, Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Fonds cantonal d'art contemporain, Ile Rousseau and statue, Institut et Musée Voltaire with Library and Archives, Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme, Musée Ariana, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Museum d'art moderne et contemporain, Museum d'ethnographie, Museum of the International Red Cross, Musée Rath, Muséum d'histoire naturelle, Salle communale de Plainpalais et théâtre Pitoëff, Villa Bartholoni et Museum d'Histoire et Sciences.

International organizations: International Labour Organization (BIT), International Committee of the Red Cross, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), World Meteorological Organization, World Trade Organization, International Telecommunication Union, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Association

Basilique Notre-Dame, Genève

Notre-Dame Church

Hotel de Ville Geneva

Hôtel de Ville and the Tour Baudet

Musee Reforme

Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme

Tavel House

Tavel House

Society and culture

Media

The city's main newspaper is the daily Tribune de Genève, with a readership of about 187,000. Le Courrier mainly focuses on Geneva. Both Le Temps (headquartered in Geneva) and Le Matin are widely read in Geneva, but cover the whole of Romandy.

Geneva is the main media center for French-speaking Switzerland. It is the headquarters for the numerous French language radio and television networks of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation, known collectively as Radio Télévision Suisse. While both networks cover the whole of Romandy, special programs related to Geneva are sometimes broadcast on some of the local radio frequencies. Other local radio stations broadcast from the city, including YesFM (FM 91.8 MHz), Radio Cité (non-commercial radio, FM 92.2 MHz), OneFM (FM 107.0 MHz, also broadcast in Vaud), and World Radio Switzerland (FM 88.4 MHz). Léman Bleu is a local TV channel, founded in 1996 and distributed by cable. Due to the proximity to France, many French television channels are also available.

Traditions and customs

Geneva observes Jeûne genevois on the first Thursday following the first Sunday in September. By local tradition, this commemorates the date news of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of Huguenots reached Geneva.

Geneva celebrates L'Escalade on the weekend nearest 12 December, celebrating the defeat of the surprise attack of troops sent by Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy during the night of 11–12 December 1602. Festive traditions include chocolate cauldrons filled with vegetable-shaped marzipan treats and the Escalade procession on horseback in seventeenth century armour. Geneva has also been organizing a 'Course de l'Escalade', which means 'Climbing Race'. This race takes place in Geneva's Old Town, and has been popular across all ages. Non-competitive racers dress up in fancy costumes, while walking in the race.

Since 1818, a particular chestnut tree has been used as the official "herald of the spring" in Geneva. The sautier (secretary of the Parliament of the Canton of Geneva) observes the tree and notes the day of arrival of the first bud. While this event has no practical effect, the sautier issues a formal press release and the local newspaper will usually mention the news.[54]

As this is one of the world's oldest records of a plant's reaction to climatic conditions, researchers have been interested to note that the first bud has been appearing earlier and earlier in the year. During the 19th century many dates were in March or April. In recent years, they have usually been in late February (sometimes earlier).[55] In 2002, the first bud appeared unusually early, on 7 February, and then again on 29 December of the same year. The following year, one of the hottest years recorded in Europe, was a year with no bud. In 2008, the first bud also appeared early, on 19 February.

Music and festivals

Fireworks at the Fêtes de Genève 2012 - panoramio (54)
Fireworks at the Fêtes de Genève, 2012

The opera house, the Grand Théâtre de Genève, which officially opened in 1876, was partly destroyed by a fire in 1951 and reopened in 1962. It has the largest stage in Switzerland. It features opera and dance performances, recitals, concerts and, occasionally, theatre. The Victoria Hall is used for classical music concerts. It is the home of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.

Every summer the Fêtes de Genève (Geneva Festival) are organised in Geneva. According to Radio Télévision Suisse in 2013 hundreds of thousands of people came to Geneva to see the annual hour-long grand firework display of the Fêtes de Genève.[56]

An annual music festival takes place in June. Groups of artists perform in different parts of the city. In 2016 the festival celebrated its 25th anniversary.[57]

Education

The Canton of Geneva's public school system has écoles primaires (ages 4–12) and cycles d'orientation (ages 12–15). Students can leave school at 15, but secondary education is provided by collèges (ages 15–19), the oldest of which is the Collège Calvin, which could be considered one of the oldest public schools in the world,[56][58] écoles de culture générale (15-18/19) and the écoles professionnelles (15-18/19). The écoles professionnelles offer full-time courses and part-time study as part of an apprenticeship. Geneva also has a number of private schools.[59]

In 2011 89,244 (37.0%) of the population had completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 107,060 or (44.3%) had completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 107,060 who completed tertiary schooling, 32.5% were Swiss men, 31.6% were Swiss women, 18.1% were non-Swiss men and 17.8% were non-Swiss women.

During the 2011–2012 school year, there were a total of 92,311 students in the Geneva school system (primary to university). The education system in the Canton of Geneva has eight years of primary school, with 32,716 students. The secondary school program consists of three lower, obligatory years of schooling, followed by three to five years of optional, advanced study. There were 13,146 lower-secondary students who attended schools in Geneva. There were 10,486 upper-secondary students from the municipality along with 10,330 students who were in a professional, non-university track program. An additional 11,797 students were attending private schools.[60]

Geneva is home to the University of Geneva. In 1559 John Calvin founded the Geneva Academy, a theological and humanist seminary. In the 19th century the Academy lost its ecclesiastic links and in 1873, with the addition of a medical faculty, it became the University of Geneva. In 2011 it was ranked 35th European university.[61]

The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies was among the first academic institutions in the World to teach international relations. It is one of Europe's most prestigious institutions, offering MA and PhD programmes in law, political science, history, economics, international affairs, and development studies.

The oldest international school in the world is the International School of Geneva, founded in 1924 along with the League of Nations. The Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations is a private university in the grounds of the Château de Penthes.

CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is probably the best known of Geneva's educational and research facilities, most recently for the Large Hadron Collider. Founded in 1954, CERN was one of Europe's first joint ventures and has developed as the world's largest particle physics laboratory. Physicists from around the world travel to CERN to research matter and explore the fundamental forces and materials that form the universe.

Geneva is home to five major libraries, the Bibliothèques municipales Genève, the Haute école de travail social, Institut d'études sociales, the Haute école de santé, the Ecole d'ingénieurs de Genève and the Haute école d'art et de design. There were (as of 2008) 877,680 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year 1,798,980 items were loaned.[62]

Economy

Geneva's economy is services oriented. The city has an important and long-established finance sector, which specialises in private banking, managing assets of about US$1 trillion, and the financing of international trade. In the September 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Geneva was ranked as being the 15th most competitive financial centre in the world (up from 20th in March 2017) and the fifth most competitive in Europe (after London, Zürich, Frankfurt, and Luxembourg).[11]

Geneva hosts the international headquarters of companies such as Japan Tobacco International, Mediterranean Shipping Company, Vitol, Gunvor, Mercuria Energy Group. Merck Serono,[63] SITA, Société Générale de Surveillance, STMicroelectronics, and Weatherford International.[64] Many other multinational companies such as Caterpillar, DuPont, and Cargill have their international headquarters in the city; Take Two Interactive, Electronic Arts, INVISTA, Procter & Gamble and Oracle Corporation have their European headquarters in the city. Hewlett Packard has its Europe, Africa, and Middle East headquarters in Meyrin, near Geneva,[65][66] as does PrivatAir.[67][68]

There is a long tradition of watchmaking in the city, which dates back to the 16th century.[69] Many watchmakers have been based in Geneva since their foundation, such as (Baume et Mercier, Charriol, Chopard, Franck Muller, Patek Philippe, Rolex, Universal Genève, Raymond Weil, Vacheron Constantin and Frédérique Constant).

Two major international producers of flavours and fragrances, Firmenich and Givaudan, have their headquarters and main production facilities in Geneva.

The private sector has a number of employers' organizations, including the Fédération des Entreprises Romandes Genève (FER Genève) and the Fédération des métiers du bâtiment (FMB).[70][71]

Many people also work in the numerous offices of international organisations located in Geneva (about 22,233 in March 2012).[72]

The Geneva Motor Show is one of the most important international auto shows. It is held at Palexpo, a large convention centre next to the International Airport.[73]

In 2009, Geneva was ranked as the fourth most expensive city in the world. Geneva moved up four places from eighth place the previous year.[15]

As of  2011, Geneva had an unemployment rate of 6.3%.[74] As of 2008, there were five people employed in the primary economic sector and about three businesses involved in this sector. 9,783 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 1,200 businesses in this sector. 134,429 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 12,489 businesses in this sector.[43] There were 91,880 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, with women making up 47.7% of the workforce.

In 2008, the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 124,185. The number of jobs in the primary sector was four, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 9,363 of which 4,863 or (51.9%) were in manufacturing and 4,451 (47.5%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 114,818. In the tertiary sector; 16,573 or 14.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 3,474 or 3.0% were in the movement and storage of goods, 9,484 or 8.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 4,544 or 4.0% were in the information industry, 20,982 or 18.3% were the insurance or financial industry, 12,177 or 10.6% were technical professionals or scientists, 10,007 or 8.7% were in education and 15,029 or 13.1% were in health care.[75]

In 2000, there were 95,190 workers who commuted into the municipality and 25,920 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 3.7 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 13.8% of the workforce coming into Geneva are coming from outside Switzerland, while 0.4% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work.[76] Of the working population, 38.2% used public transportation to get to work, and 30.6% used a private car.[43]

Sport

Ice hockey is popular in Switzerland.[77] Geneva is home to Genève-Servette HC, which plays in the National League. They play their home games in the 7,135-seat Patinoire des Vernets. In 2008 and 2010 the team made it to the league finals but lost to the ZSC Lions and SC Bern respectively.[78] The team is by far the most popular one in both the city and the canton of Geneva, drawing three times more spectators than the football team in 2017.[79][80]

The town is home to Servette FC, a football club founded in 1890 and named after a borough on the right bank of the Rhône. The home of Servette FC is the 30,000-seat Stade de Genève. Servette FC plays in the Challenge League.

Geneva is home to the basketball team Lions de Genève, 2013 and 2015 champions of the Swiss Basketball League. The team plays its home games in the Pavilion des Sports.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Gare de Geneve 2236 Michelides
Geneva railway station
TCMC (Tramway Cornavin - Meyrin - CERN)
TCMC (Tramway Cornavin – Meyrin – CERN)

The city is served by the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. It is connected by Geneva Airport railway station (French: Gare de Genève-Aéroport) to both the Swiss Federal Railways network and the French SNCF network, including links to Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Montpellier by TGV. Geneva is connected to the motorway systems of both Switzerland (A1 motorway) and France.

Public transport by bus, trolleybus or tram is provided by Transports Publics Genevois. In addition to an extensive coverage of the city centre, the network extends to most of the municipalities of the Canton, with a few lines reaching into France. Public transport by boat is provided by the Mouettes Genevoises, which link the two banks of the lake within the city, and by the Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman which serves more distant destinations such as Nyon, Yvoire, Thonon, Évian, Lausanne and Montreux using both modern diesel vessels and vintage paddle steamers.

Train Station Geneva 2006 808
Geneva Sécheron railway station

Trains operated by Swiss Federal Railways connect the airport to the main station of Cornavin in six minutes. Regional train services are being developed towards Coppet and Bellegarde. At the city limits two new railway stations have been opened since 2002: Genève-Sécheron (close to the UN and the Botanical Gardens) and Lancy-Pont-Rouge.

In 2011 work started on the CEVA rail (Cornavin – Eaux-Vives – Annemasse) project, first planned in 1884, which will connect Cornavin with the Cantonal hospital, Eaux-Vives railway station and Annemasse, in France. The link between the main railway station and the classification yard of La Praille already exists; from there, the line will go mostly underground to the Hospital and Eaux-Vives, where it will link to the existing line to France.

TOSA Bus at PALEXPO with flag
TOSA Bus at PALEXPO Flash bus stops

In May 2013, the demonstrator electric bus system[81] with a capacity of 133 passengers commenced between Geneva Airport and Palexpo. The project aims to introduce a new system of mass transport with electric "flash" recharging of the buses at selected stops while passengers are disembarking and embarking.[82]

Taxis in Geneva can be difficult to find, and may need to be booked in advance, especially in the early morning or at peak hours. Taxis can refuse to take babies and children because of seating legislation.[83]

An ambitious project to close 200 streets in the centre of Geneva to cars was approved by the Geneva cantonal authorities in 2010 and was planned to be implemented over a span of four years (2010–2014), though as of 2018, work on the project has yet to be started.[84]

Utilities

Water, natural gas and electricity are provided to the municipalities of the Canton of Geneva by the state-owned Services Industriels de Genève, known as SIG. Most of the drinking water (80%) is extracted from the lake; the remaining 20% is provided by groundwater, originally formed by infiltration from the Arve. 30% of the Canton's electricity needs is locally produced, mainly by three hydroelectric dams on the Rhône (Seujet, Verbois and Chancy-Pougny). In addition, 13% of the electricity produced in the Canton is from the burning of waste at the waste incineration facility of Les Cheneviers. The remaining needs (57%) are covered by imports from other cantons in Switzerland or other European countries; SIG buys only electricity produced by renewable methods, and in particular does not use electricity produced using nuclear reactors or fossil fuels. Natural gas is available in the City of Geneva, as well as in about two-thirds of the municipalities of the canton, and is imported from Western Europe by the Swiss company Gaznat. SIG also provides telecommunication facilities to carriers, service providers and large enterprises. From 2003 to 2005, "Voisin, voisine" a fibre to the Home pilot project with a triple play offering was launched to test the end-user market in the Charmilles district.

International organisations

ONU Geneva mainroom
The assembly hall of the Palace of Nations.

Geneva is the European headquarters of the United Nations, in the Palace of Nations building, which was also the headquarters of the former League of Nations. Several agencies are headquartered at Geneva, including the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization , International Telecommunication Union, the International Baccalaureate Organization and the World Intellectual Property Organization.

Apart from the UN agencies, Geneva hosts many inter-governmental organizations, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, the World Economic Forum, the International Organization for Migration, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross.

The Maison de la Paix building hosts the three Geneva centres supported by the Swiss Confederation: the International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, the Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces and the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, as well as other organisations active in the field of peace, international affairs and sustainable development.[85]

Organizations on the European level include the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) which is the world's largest particle physics laboratory.

The Geneva Environment Network (GEN) publishes the Geneva Green Guide,[86] an extensive listing of Geneva-based global organisations working on environment protection and sustainable development. A website,[87] jointly run by the Swiss Government, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Union for Conservation of Nature, includes accounts of how NGOs, business, government and the UN cooperate. By doing so, it attempts to explain why Geneva has been picked by so many NGOs and UN bodies as their headquarters' location.

The World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Scout Bureau Central Office are headquartered in Geneva.

Notable people

A–C

GustaveAdor
Gustave Ador
Valais Cup 2013 - OM-FC Porto 13-07-2013 - Marion Bartoli
Marion Bartoli, 2013
Christiane Brunner
Christiane Brunner
MCC-31320 Portret van Johannes Calvijn (1509-1564)-uitsnede
John Calvin, ca.1550
Isaac Casaubon from NPG
Isaac Casaubon

D–G

Michel Decastel
Michel Decastel, 2012
Jean Henri Dunant
Jean Henri Dunant, 1901
Kat Graham during an interview in June 2017 01
Kat Graham, 2017

H–M

Francois-huber-(1750-1831)
Francois Huber
Paul Lachenal
Paul Lachenal, 1939
LeninEnSuizaMarzo1916--barbaroussovietr00mcbr
Lenin in Switzerland, 1916
Amelie Mauresmo at the Aegon Championships 2014
Amelie Mauresmo, 2014

N-R

Maury Pasquier Liliane
Liliane Maury Pasquier, 2007
Physicist Pierre Prévost
Pierre Prévost
Rousseau in later life
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

S–Z

Ferdinand de Saussure by Jullien
Ferdinand de Saussure
Salzburger Festspiele 2012 - Szene aus "Das Labyrinth"
Michael Schade, 2012
Michel Simon in The Train (1964) trailer
Michel Simon, 1964
Vogel061115
Johann Vogel, 2006
Voltaire3
Voltaire

See also

Notes and references

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Bibliography

External links

1954 Geneva Conference

The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954. It was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the First Indochina War. The part of the conference on the Korean question ended without adopting any declarations or proposals, so is generally considered less relevant. The Geneva Accords that dealt with the dismantling of French Indochina proved to have long-lasting repercussions, however. The crumbling of the French Empire in Southeast Asia would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos.

Diplomats from South Korea, North Korea, the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the United States of America (US) dealt with the Korean side of the Conference. For the Indochina side, the Accords were between France, the Viet Minh, the USSR, the PRC, the US, the United Kingdom, and the future states being made from French Indochina. The agreement temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Viet Minh rebels, and a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam, then headed by former emperor Bảo Đại. A Conference Final Declaration, issued by the British chairman of the conference, provided that a general election be held by July 1956 to create a unified Vietnamese state. Despite helping create the agreements, they were not directly signed onto nor accepted by delegates of both the State of Vietnam and the United States. In addition, three separate ceasefire accords, covering Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, were signed at the conference.

CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; French pronunciation: ​[sɛʁn]; derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 22 member states. Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official United Nations Observer.The acronym CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific, technical, and administrative staff members, and hosted about 12,000 users. In the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data.CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations. The main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has historically been a major wide area network hub. CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.

Canton of Geneva

The Republic and Canton of Geneva (French: République et canton de Genève; Arpitan: Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; German: Republik und Kanton Genf; Italian: Repubblica e Cantone di Ginevra; Romansh: Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes). As is the case in several other Swiss cantons (canton of Ticino, canton of Neuchâtel, and canton of Jura), this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation.

The canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a great influence on the canton, which essentially consists of the city and its hinterlands.

Geneva, New York

Geneva is a city in Ontario and Seneca counties in the U.S. state of New York. It is at the northern end of Seneca Lake; all land portions of the city are within Ontario County; the water portions are in Seneca County. The population was 13,261 at the 2010 census. The city is supposedly named after the city and canton of Geneva in Switzerland. The main settlement of the Seneca was spelled Zoneshio by early white settlers, and was described as being 2 miles north of Seneca Lake.The city borders and was once (the portion in Ontario County) part of the Town of Geneva. The city identifies as the "Lake Trout Capital of the World."

Geneva Airport

Geneva Airport (IATA: GVA, ICAO: LSGG), formerly and still unofficially known as Cointrin Airport, is the international airport of Geneva, the second most populous city in Switzerland. It is located 4 km (2.5 mi) northwest of the city centre. It surpassed the 15 million passengers mark for the first time in December 2014. The airport serves as a hub for Swiss International Air Lines and easyJet Switzerland. It features a route network of flights mainly to European metropolitan and leisure destinations as well as some long-haul routes to North America, China and the Middle East, amongst them Swiss International Air Lines' only long-haul service (to New York-JFK) outside of Zürich.

The airport lies entirely within Swiss territory, however, its northern limit runs along the Swiss–French border and the airport can be accessed from both countries. The freight operations are also accessible from both countries, making Geneva a European Union freight hub although Switzerland is not a member of the EU. The airport is partially in the municipality of Meyrin and partially in the municipality of Le Grand-Saconnex.

Geneva Conventions

The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term Geneva Convention usually denotes the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War (1939–45), which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties, and added two new conventions. The Geneva Conventions extensively defined the basic rights of wartime prisoners (civilians and military personnel), established protections for the wounded and sick, and established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone. The treaties of 1949 were ratified, in whole or with reservations, by 196 countries. Moreover, the Geneva Convention also defines the rights and protections afforded to non-combatants, yet, because the Geneva Conventions are about people in war, the articles do not address warfare proper—the use of weapons of war—which is the subject of the Hague Conventions (First Hague Conference, 1899; Second Hague Conference 1907), and the bio-chemical warfare Geneva Protocol (Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, 1925).

Geneva Motor Show

The Geneva International Motor Show (French: Salon international de l'automobile) is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, and is considered an important major international auto show.First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted almost all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own.

International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 (Protocol I, Protocol II) and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and 190 National Societies. It is the oldest and most honoured organization within the movement and one of the most widely recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, and 1963.

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are:

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, in particular by Henry Dunant and Gustave Moynier. Its 25-member committee has a unique authority under international humanitarian law to protect the life and dignity of the victims of international and internal armed conflicts. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions (in 1917, 1944 and 1963).

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was founded in 1919 and today it coordinates activities between the 190 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies within the Movement. On an international level, the Federation leads and organizes, in close cooperation with the National Societies, relief assistance missions responding to large-scale emergencies. The International Federation Secretariat is based in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1963, the Federation (then known as the League of Red Cross Societies) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the ICRC.

National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies exist in nearly every country in the world. Currently 190 National Societies are recognized by the ICRC and admitted as full members of the Federation. Each entity works in its home country according to the principles of international humanitarian law and the statutes of the international Movement. Depending on their specific circumstances and capacities, National Societies can take on additional humanitarian tasks that are not directly defined by international humanitarian law or the mandates of the international Movement. In many countries, they are tightly linked to the respective national health care system by providing emergency medical services.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (UK: , US: ; French: [ʒɑ̃ˈʒak ʁuˈso]; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic and educational thought.

His Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. Rousseau's sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise (1761) was important to the development of preromanticism and romanticism in fiction. His Emile, or On Education (1762) is an educational treatise on the place of the individual in society. Rousseau's autobiographical writings—the posthumously published Confessions (composed in 1769), which initiated the modern autobiography, and the unfinished Reveries of a Solitary Walker (composed 1776–1778)—exemplified the late-18th-century "Age of Sensibility", and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing.

Rousseau befriended fellow philosophy writer Denis Diderot in 1742, and would later write about Diderot's romantic troubles in his autobiography, Confessions. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophers among members of the Jacobin Club. He was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.

John Calvin

John Calvin (;French: Jean Calvin [ʒɑ̃ kalvɛ̃]; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational, Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world.

Calvin was a tireless polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy. He also exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, and various other theological treatises.

Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes. In that same year, Calvin was recruited by Frenchman William Farel to join the Reformation in Geneva, where he regularly preached sermons throughout the week; but the governing council of the city resisted the implementation of their ideas, and both men were expelled. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees. He continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, and in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city.

Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite opposition from several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva. He was denounced by Calvin and burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out. Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both in Geneva and throughout Europe.

Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva (French: lac Léman or le Léman [lak lemɑ̃]/[lə lemɑ̃], rarely lac de Genève [lak də ʒ(ə)nɛːv]; German: Genfersee [ˈɡɛnfərˌzeː]) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France. It is one of the largest lakes in Western Europe and the largest on the course of the Rhône. 59.53% (345.31 km2 or 133.32 sq mi) of it comes under the jurisdiction of Switzerland (cantons of Vaud, Geneva, and Valais), and 40.47% (234.71 km2 or 90.62 sq mi) under France (department of Haute-Savoie).

Lake Geneva has been explored by four submarines: the Auguste Piccard and the F.-A. Forel, both built by Jacques Piccard, and the two Mir submersibles.

Lake Geneva, Wisconsin

Lake Geneva is a city in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA. The population was 7,651 at the 2010 census. A resort city located on Geneva Lake, it is popular with vacationers from the Chicago and Milwaukee areas.

League of Nations

The League of Nations, abbreviated as LN or LoN, (French: La Société des Nations, [la sɔsjete de nasjɔ̃] abbreviated as "SDN" or "SdN" and meaning "Society of Nations") was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants,

human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.

The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious Great Powers of World War I (France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Japan were the permanent members of the executive Council) to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. The Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."After some notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never officially joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and only briefly. Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy, Spain and others. The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.

Mamie Eisenhower

Mamie Geneva Eisenhower (née Doud; November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979) was the wife of United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

Mamie married Dwight Eisenhower at age 19 in 1916. The young couple moved frequently between military quarters in many postings, from Panama to the Philippines. As First Lady, she entertained a wide range of foreign dignitaries, who reacted well to her confident style and clothing choices.

Mamie Eisenhower spent her retirement and widowhood at the family farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western, central and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi)). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million people is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva.

The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation; it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815 and did not join the United Nations until 2002. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties.

Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, and Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz [ˈʃvaɪts] (German); Suisse [sɥis(ə)] (French); Svizzera [ˈzvittsera] (Italian); and Svizra [ˈʒviːtsrɐ] or [ˈʒviːtsʁːɐ] (Romansh). On coins and stamps, the Latin name – frequently shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.

Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich, Geneva and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018.

United Nations Office at Geneva

The United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) is the second-largest of the four major office sites of the United Nations (second to the United Nations Headquarters in New York City). It is located in the Palais des Nations building constructed for the League of Nations between 1929 and 1938 at Geneva in Switzerland, and expanded in the early 1950s and late 1960s.

Besides United Nations administration, it also hosts the offices for a number of programmes and funds such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE).

The United Nations and its specialized agencies, programmes and funds may have other offices or functions hosted outside the Palais des Nations, normally in office spaces provided by the Swiss Government.

UN specialized agencies and other UN entities with offices in Geneva hold bi-weekly briefings at the Palais des Nations, organized by the United Nations Information Service at Geneva.

University of Geneva

The University of Geneva (French: Université de Genève) is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.

It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin as a theological seminary and law school. It remained focused on theology until the 17th century, when it became a center for Enlightenment scholarship. In 1873, it dropped its religious affiliations and became officially secular. Today, the university is the third largest university in Switzerland by number of students. In 2009, the University of Geneva celebrated the 450th anniversary of its founding. Almost 40% of the students come from foreign countries.

The university holds and actively pursues teaching, research, and community service as its primary objectives. In 2016, it was ranked 53rd worldwide by the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities, 89th by the QS World University Rankings, and 131st in the TIMES Higher Education World University Ranking.UNIGE is a member of the League of European Research Universities (including academic institutions such as Amsterdam, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Helsinki and Milan) the Coimbra Group and the European University Association.

War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torturing, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, performing a perfidy, raping, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and seriously violating the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations.The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred. Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law. Additionally, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 defined new war crimes and established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, following the creation of several international courts, additional categories of war crimes applicable to armed conflicts other than those between states, such as civil wars, were defined.

Climate data for Geneva (GVA), elevation: 412 m or 1,352 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1901–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
24.9
(76.8)
27.5
(81.5)
33.8
(92.8)
36.5
(97.7)
39.7
(103.5)
37.6
(99.7)
34.8
(94.6)
27.3
(81.1)
23.2
(73.8)
20.8
(69.4)
39.7
(103.5)
Average high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
6.3
(43.3)
11.2
(52.2)
14.9
(58.8)
19.7
(67.5)
23.5
(74.3)
26.5
(79.7)
25.8
(78.4)
20.9
(69.6)
15.4
(59.7)
8.8
(47.8)
5.3
(41.5)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
2.5
(36.5)
6.2
(43.2)
9.7
(49.5)
14.2
(57.6)
17.7
(63.9)
20.2
(68.4)
19.5
(67.1)
15.4
(59.7)
11.1
(52.0)
5.5
(41.9)
2.8
(37.0)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.6
(34.9)
4.8
(40.6)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.4
(57.9)
14.0
(57.2)
10.8
(51.4)
7.4
(45.3)
2.4
(36.3)
0.1
(32.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −19.9
(−3.8)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−13.3
(8.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.3
(34.3)
3.0
(37.4)
4.9
(40.8)
0.2
(32.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
−10.9
(12.4)
−17.0
(1.4)
−20.0
(−4.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 76
(3.0)
68
(2.7)
70
(2.8)
72
(2.8)
84
(3.3)
92
(3.6)
79
(3.1)
82
(3.2)
100
(3.9)
105
(4.1)
88
(3.5)
90
(3.5)
1,005
(39.6)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 10.8
(4.3)
8.1
(3.2)
2.8
(1.1)
0.2
(0.1)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.8
(1.1)
7.4
(2.9)
32.1
(12.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.5 8.1 9.0 8.9 10.6 9.3 7.6 7.9 8.1 10.1 9.9 10.0 109.0
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 2.5 2.0 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 2.0 8.2
Average relative humidity (%) 81 76 69 67 69 66 64 67 73 79 81 81 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59 88 154 177 197 235 263 237 185 117 66 49 1,828
Percent possible sunshine 23 33 45 46 45 53 58 58 53 38 26 20 44
Source #1: MeteoSwiss[27]
Source #2: KNMI[28][29]
Climate data for Geneva (GVA), elevation: 420 m or 1,380 ft, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
18.0
(64.4)
22.3
(72.1)
25.8
(78.4)
28.6
(83.5)
33.9
(93.0)
36.6
(97.9)
35.5
(95.9)
32.9
(91.2)
27.5
(81.5)
21.1
(70.0)
16.4
(61.5)
36.6
(97.9)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
13.3
(55.9)
18.1
(64.6)
21.5
(70.7)
25.3
(77.5)
29.9
(85.8)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
28.0
(82.4)
22.1
(71.8)
15.9
(60.6)
12.5
(54.5)
33.1
(91.6)
Average high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
5.3
(41.5)
9.2
(48.6)
13.5
(56.3)
17.6
(63.7)
21.8
(71.2)
24.6
(76.3)
23.7
(74.7)
20.3
(68.5)
13.9
(57.0)
8.0
(46.4)
4.2
(39.6)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
2.0
(35.6)
5.0
(41.0)
8.8
(47.8)
12.8
(55.0)
16.5
(61.7)
19.1
(66.4)
18.1
(64.6)
14.9
(58.8)
9.9
(49.8)
5.0
(41.0)
1.8
(35.2)
9.6
(49.2)
Average low °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
0.3
(32.5)
3.5
(38.3)
7.1
(44.8)
10.3
(50.5)
11.8
(53.2)
11.3
(52.3)
9.0
(48.2)
5.4
(41.7)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.1
(30.0)
4.7
(40.4)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −9.6
(14.7)
−7.5
(18.5)
−5.7
(21.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.0
(33.8)
4.9
(40.8)
6.3
(43.3)
6.1
(43.0)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
−7.7
(18.1)
−9.6
(14.7)
Record low °C (°F) −19.5
(−3.1)
−17.4
(0.7)
−13.4
(7.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.3
(34.3)
2.5
(36.5)
4.3
(39.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
−2.1
(28.2)
−9.2
(15.4)
−16.7
(1.9)
−19.5
(−3.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.0
(2.87)
74.0
(2.91)
74.0
(2.91)
61.0
(2.40)
72.0
(2.83)
84.0
(3.31)
65.0
(2.56)
78.0
(3.07)
80.0
(3.15)
73.0
(2.87)
88.0
(3.46)
82.0
(3.23)
904
(35.57)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 11.0 10.0 8.0 9.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 111
Average relative humidity (%) 82.0 77.0 72.0 69.0 70.0 67.0 64.0 67.0 73.0 79.0 79.0 81.0 73.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.8 76.2 130.8 161.2 180.5 212.3 255.2 225.5 184.9 114.9 60.9 42.0 1,694.2
Source: NOAA[30]
Historic population data[50]
Year Total population German-speaking French-speaking Catholic Protestant Other Jewish Islamic No religion given Swiss Non-Swiss
1850 37,724 11,123 26,446 29,203 8,521
1870 60,004 27,092 35,064 39,012 24,507
1888 75,709 10,806 61,429 32,168 41,605 1,330 654 47,482 28,227
1900 97,359 11,703 77,611 44,958 49,875 1,918 1,055 58,376 38,983
1910 115,243 14,566 86,697 53,248 55,474 4,267 2,170 67,430 47,813
1930 124,121 18,717 93,058 49,531 66,016 4,584 2,224 92,693 31,428
1950 145,473 20,603 111,314 58,556 74,837 6,164 2,642 118,863 26,610
1970 173,618 19,657 111,553 90,555 65,393 22,591 3,128 959 6,164 115,107 58,511
1990 171,042 9,610 112,419 79,575 34,492 39,227 2,444 4,753 29,747 98,812 72,230
2000 177,964 7,050 128,622 66,491 26,020 34,972 2,601 8,698 41,289 99,935 78,029
Municipalities of the Canton of Geneva (Switzerland)
Capitals of Swiss cantons
Cities in Switzerland by population
300,000+
100,000+
30,000+
15,000+

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