Generation of '36

The Generation of '36 (Spanish: Generación del 36) is the name given to a group of Spanish artists,[1] poets and playwrights who were working about the time of the Spanish Civil War (1936 and 1939).

The Generation of '36 was a literary movement that suffered harsh criticism and persecution that followed from the division of neighbors into winners and losers in the various battles of that struggle, as well as the physical hardships and moral miseries arising from social instability and political chaos. These were the ingredients that gave strength to their essentially existentialist philosophy.

Ricardo Gullón listed some of the authors associated with this movement, since he was closely associated both as a contributor and literary critic of the genre.

Generation '36 membership criteria are not rigid, but the label provides a convenient portfolio of the cultural and literary style of the contemporary period, covering individual works, literary collections, magazines, journals newspapers, and other publications that document the experiences of creative people working during a difficult and frighting civil war.

Poets

The poets of Generación del 36 include

Writers

The writers of prose included in Generación del 36:

Raconteurs

Famous Generación del 36 raconteurs

Dramatists and playwrights

Performance works of the epoch included Antonio Buero Vallejo and Alfonso Sastre.

Important contributors

Other luminaries that may be included in this classification because they started working at the end or after the Civil War include the Garcilasismo group and

See also

References

  1. ^ Peirats, Jose (Jan 2001). The Confederacin Nacional del Trabajo in the Spanish Revolution, Volume 1. Meltzer Press, UK. ISBN 978-1-901172-05-8.
Alfonso Sastre

Alfonso Sastre (born 20 February 1926 in Madrid) is a Spanish playwright, essayist, and critic associated with the Generation of '36 movement. He was an outspoken critic of censorship during the reign of General Francisco Franco. His most noteworthy plays include Death Squad (1953), The Gag (1954), Death Thrust (1960), and Tragicomedy of the Gypsy Celestina (1984).

Antonio Buero Vallejo

Antonio Buero Vallejo (September 29, 1916, Guadalajara - April 29, 2000, Madrid) was a Spanish playwright associated with the Generation of '36 movement and considered the most important Spanish dramatist of the Spanish Civil War.

Camilo José Cela

Camilo José Cela y Trulock, 1st Marquis of Iria Flavia (Spanish: [kamilo xoˈse ˈθela]; 11 May 1916 – 17 January 2002) was a Spanish novelist, poet, story writer and essayist associated with the Generation of '36 movement.

He was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Literature "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability".

Dionisio Ridruejo

Dionisio Ridruejo Jiménez (12 October 1912 – 29 June 1975) was a Spanish poet and political figure associated with the Generation of '36 movement and a member of the Falange political party. He was co-author of the words to the Falangist anthem Cara al Sol. In later years he fell from favour with the Francoist State and eventually became associated with opposition groups.

Dolores Medio

María Dolores Medio Estrada (16 December 1911 – 16 December 1996) was a Spanish writer, the winner of the Premio Nadal in 1952 for her work Nosotros, los Rivero. She is often included in the literary Generation of '36.

Generation of '27

The Generation of '27 (Spanish: Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. Their first formal meeting took place in Seville in 1927 to mark the 300th anniversary of the death of the baroque poet Luis de Góngora. Writers and intellectuals paid homage at the Ateneo de Sevilla, which retrospectively became the foundational act of the movement.

Gonzalo Torrente Ballester

Gonzalo Torrente Ballester (June 13, 1910 – January 27, 1999) was a Spanish writer associated with the Generation of '36 movement.

José Antonio Maravall

José Antonio Maravall Casesnoves (1911 in Xàtiva – 1986 in Madrid) was a Spanish historian and essayist associated with the Generation of '36 movement.

José Suárez Carreño

José Suárez Carreño (1915–2002) was a Spanish writer associated with the Generation of '36 movement. He was born in Guadalupe, Mexico, but lived in Madrid from an early age.

Juan Panero

Juan Panero, Spanish poet born in Astorga (León) in 1908 and deceased in 1937. Brother of Leopoldo Panero, his works are characterized by the use of classical forms and romantic themes. They are both classified as part of the Generation of '36 movement.

Julián

Julián is the Spanish equivalent of the name Julian (name). Notable people with the name include:

Julián, Julián Cuesta, Spanish footballer

Julián Orbón (1925–1991) Cuban composer

Julián Carrón (1950) Spanish Catholic theologian

Julián Robles (1981) Spanish footballer

Julián Vara (1983) Spanish footballer

Julián Infante (1957–2000) Spanish guitarist and song writer

Julián Marías (1914–2005) Spanish philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement

Julián Herranz Casado (1930) Spanish Cardinal of the Catholic Church

Julián Besteiro (1870–1940) Spanish socialist politician

Julián Sánchez (cyclist) (1980) Spanish professional road bicycle racer

Julián Grimau (1911–1963) Spanish Communist activist

Julián Retegi Retegi II

Julián Simón Spanish motorcycle racer

Juli, Julián Cerdá Vicente (1981) Spanish footballer

Julián de Olivares (1895–1977) Spanish fencer

Julián Juderías (1877–1918) Spanish historian and sociologist

Julián Zugazagoitia member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, editor of the El Socialista

Julián Miralles (1965) Spanish motorcycle racer

Julián Marías

Julián Marías Aguilera (17 June 1914 – 15 December 2005) was a Spanish philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement. He was a pupil of the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset.

Luis Felipe Vivanco

Luis Felipe Vivanco (22 August 1907 in San Lorenzo de El Escorial – 21 November 1975 in Madrid) was a Spanish architect and poet. He was the son of a judge whose peripatetic career took him to different corners of Spain during his childhood. In 1915 the family settled in Madrid, where Vivanco spent the majority of his life. He studied architecture at university, where he also composed poetry. His friendship with Rafael Alberti and Xavier Zubiri also dates from this period. He finished his architecture course in 1932. His acquaintances also included Luis Rosales and Pablo Neruda.

He spent a long time recovering from illness in the Sierra de Guadarrama. He published his first works in the journal Cruz y Raya run by his uncle José Bergamín. At the same time, he was also working as an architect with another uncle Rafael Bergamín. When the Spanish Civil War broke out, he decided in favour of the Nationalists and wrote propaganda poetry. He wrote in the journal Escorial with Luis Rosales, Leopoldo Panero, etc. They were all considered part of the Generation of '36. In Escorial, he wrote poetry described as intimate, realist and meditative. Also in his work, nature acquires a transcendental quality akin to religious experience. Among his other themes are the family and daily life.

Luis Rosales

Luis Rosales Camacho (31 May 1910 – 24 October 1992) was a Spanish poet and essay writer member of the Generation of '36.

He was born in Granada (Spain). He became a member of the Hispanic Society of America and the Royal Spanish Academy in 1962. Rosales obtained the Miguel de Cervantes Prize in 1982 for his literary work. He died in Madrid in 1992, aged 82.

María Zambrano

María Zambrano Alarcón (22 April 1904, in Vélez-Málaga – 6 February 1991, in Madrid) was a Spanish essayist and philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement. She was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award (1981) and the Miguel de Cervantes Prize (1988).

Miguel Hernández

Miguel Hernández Gilabert (30 October 1910 – 28 March 1942) was a 20th-century Spanish language poet and playwright associated with the Generation of '27 movement and the Generation of '36 movement.

Segundo Serrano Poncela

Segundo Serrano Poncela (1912 – 9 December 1976) was a Spanish Republican politician, writer, literary critic, and essayist associated with the Generation of '36 movement. He was a contributor to Claridad, the periodical of Francisco Largo Caballero, as well as a member of the Defense Council of Madrid, in which capacity he signed the orders for the removal from the prisons of Madrid various inmates who were subsequently massacred. At the end of the Spanish Civil War he went into exile in Latin America, where he taught literature.

Spain

Spain (Spanish: España [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Málaga and Bilbao.

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north, lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.

In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez.

The most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was also published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group.

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