Generalitat de Catalunya

The Government of Catalonia[3][4][5] or the Generalitat de Catalunya (Eastern Catalan: [ʒənəɾəliˈtad də kətəˈluɲə]; Spanish: Generalidad de Cataluña) is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised. It consists of the Parliament of Catalonia, the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, and the Executive Council of Catalonia.

The Generalitat has a budget of €34 billion euros.[6]

The Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain on 27 October 2017 as the 'Catalan Republic'. In response then Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy decided to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and to call a snap regional election for 21 December 2017[7], after which a new Parliament and a new Catalan government was elected. The independence declaration was turned down by the central Spanish government, and members of the Catalan government, including Carles Puigdemont, fled to Belgium claiming to be the legitimate government of the Generalitat of Catalonia.[8][9]

Generalitat de Catalunya
Seal of the Generalitat of Catalonia
Logotipo de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Logo of the Generalitat de Catalunya
Government of Catalonia overview
Formed1359 (first inception)
1931 (established by the Second Spanish Republic)
1977 (reestablished from exile)
Dissolved11 September 1714 (Nueva Planta Decrees)
5 February 1939 (Francoist occupation during Spanish Civil War)
Jurisdiction Catalonia
HeadquartersPalau de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Employees240,000[1]
Annual budget€34.03 billion (2017)[2]
Government of Catalonia executive
  • Quim Torra, President of the Generalitat de Catalunya
Websitegencat.cat

History

Medieval origins

Casa generalitat web
Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, seat of the Government and the Presidency of Catalonia
St George's Cross Crowned Badge
Old emblem of the Generalitat.

Catalonia’s political past as a territorially differentiated community having its own representative and separated institutions, with respect to the sovereign power of the combined Catalan counties (988-1164), the Crown of Aragon (1164-1516), the Monarchy of Spain (1516-1808) and of the Spanish constitutional state (since 1812), can be divided into four stages, separated by three great ruptures in the legal/public order.

Pau i Treva de Déu ("Peace and Truce of God") was a social movement promoted in the eleventh century as the response of the Church and the peasants to the violences perpetrated by feudal nobles. The hometowns, then, delimited a protected space of feudal violence. However, to ensure a coexistence climate, it was necessary to go further, establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory. This was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God, the first of which, in the Catalan counties, took place in Toluges (Roussillon), in 1027, under the presidency of Abbot Oliba, on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d'Elna, absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage. The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God.

The Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled, in the name of the King of the Crown of Aragon, some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia. The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a political entity, and approved the Catalan constitutions. The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283.

The medieval precedent of the Generalitat, the Diputació del General de Catalunya ("Deputation of the General of Catalonia", where "General" means the political community of the Catalans and not the military rank) was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new "tax of the General" in 1359, and gained an important political power during the next centuries, assuming tasks of prosecutor. It was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self-government.

First abolition

Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is currently known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia, one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century, which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty.

Then, by the early 18th century, as the Nueva Planta decrees were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, the institution was abolished in the Spanish territory as well.

First restoration

Left: Francesc Macià, first President of the restored Generalitat of Catalonia (1931-1933). Right: Lluís Companys, second President of the Generalitat (1933-1940), executed by Franco's regime

Macia 2a tongada scans 003 editora 8 44 1
Luis Companys, gobernador civil de Barcelona, en Mundo Gráfico 1931-04-29

The Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macià, leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia, declared the Catalan Republic on 14 April but later reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia (Catalan: Generalitat de Catalunya) and given its modern political and representative function as the autonomous government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic.[10] The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes and included a parliament, a presidency, a government and a court of appeal. It was presided by Francesc Macià (1931-1933) and Lluís Companys (1933-1940).

After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1934, the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of that year against the Spanish authorities, and it was temporarily suspended from 1934 to 1936.

Second abolition

Catalonia-bank note-observe
Bank note from the Generalitat de Catalunya, 1936

In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side, the Generalitat of Catalonia as an institution was abolished and remained so during all the Francoist dictatorship until 1975. The president of the Generalitat at the time, Lluís Companys, was tortured and executed in October 1940 for the crime of 'military rebellion'. Nonetheless, the Generalitat remained its official existence in exile, leaded by presidents Josep Irla (1940-1954) and Josep Tarradellas (1954-1980).

Second restoration

The succession of presidents of the Generalitat was maintained in exile from 1939 to 1977, when Josep Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized as the legitimate president by the Spanish government. Tarradellas, when he returned to Catalonia, made his often quoted remark "Ciutadans de Catalunya: ja sóc aquí" ("Citizens of Catalonia: I am back!"), reassuming the autonomous powers of Catalonia, one of the historic nationalities of present-day Spain.

After this, the powers given to the autonomous Catalan government according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978 were transferred and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (Estatut d'Autonomia) was passed after being approved both by referendum in Catalonia and by the Spanish parliament.

Recent history

Governance since 2006

Artur Mas held the office of President of the Generalitat from December 2010[11] until his resignation in January 2016[12], leading a minority government dependent on pacts with other parties including the Socialists' Party of Catalonia following the 2010 election and the 2015 election.

José Montilla, leader of the Socialist Party, had been the president of the Generalitat until November 2010, he was backed up by a tripartite coalition of left-wing and Catalan nationalist political parties. His party actually won fewer seats in parliament than the main opposition party, Convergence and Union, in the 2006 election, but as he gathered more support from MPs from other parties in the parliament, he was able to repeat the same coalition government that his predecessor (Pasqual Maragall) had formed in order to send CiU to the opposition for the first time after 23 years of Jordi Pujol's government.

On 18 June 2006, a reformed version was approved of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia and went into effect in August. In its inception, the reform was promoted by both the leftist parties in the government and by the main opposition party (CiU), which were united in pushing for increased devolution of powers from the Spanish government level, enhanced fiscal autonomy and finances, and explicit recognition of Catalonia's national identity; however the details of its final redaction were harshly fought and the subject became a controversial issue in the Catalan politics, with the ERC, themselves members of the Tripartite, opposing it. In 2006, the Spanish Supreme Court of Justice reduced the main statute voted in a referendum, eliminating more than 200 articles, due to a signature collection promoted by then Mariano Rajoy and Brey. Reason for the Independence Boom that happened in 2010 with 8% support in 2018 with 52.4% Support.

Former president Artur Mas (mentioned above) was recently charged by the Spanish government for civil disobedience, after he organised and staged a referendum on independence in 2014.[13]

Current status

The most recent President of the Generalitat of Catalonia was Carles Puigdemont, member of the Catalan European Democratic Party[14], successor formation to the defunct Convergence and Union alliance[15]. He was suspended from office on 27 October 2017, by the Spanish government.[16][17]

Autonomous system of government

The autonomous government consists of the Executive Council, the President and the Parliament. Some people wrongly apply this name only to the executive council (the cabinet of the autonomous government); however, Generalitat de Catalunya is the system of Catalan autonomous government as a whole.

The region has gradually achieved a greater degree of autonomy since 1979. After Navarre and the Basque Country regions, Catalonia has the greatest level of self-government in Spain. When it is fully instated, the Generalitat holds exclusive and wide jurisdiction in various matters of culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local governments.[18] In many aspects relating to education, health and justice, the region shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government.[19]

One of the examples of Catalonia's degree of autonomy is its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra ("Troopers"), which has taken over most of the police functions in Catalonia which used to be served by the Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) and the Spanish National Police Corps.

With few exceptions, most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions. The legal system is uniform throughout the Spanish state, with the exception of some parts of civil law – especially family, inheritance, and real estate law – that have traditionally been ruled by so-called foral law.[20] The fields of civil law that are subject to autonomous legislation have been codified in the Civil Code of Catalonia (Codi civil de Catalunya) consisting of six books that have successively entered into force since 2003.[21]

Another institution stemming from the Catalan autonomy statute, but independent from the Generalitat in its check and balance functions, is the Síndic de Greuges (ombudsman)[22] to address problems that may arise between private citizens or organizations and the Generalitat or local governments.

Legislature

The Parliament of Catalonia (in Catalan: Parlament de Catalunya) is the legislative body of the Generalitat and represents the citizens of Catalonia. It is elected every four years by universal suffrage, and it has powers to legislate in different matters such as education, health, culture, internal institutional and territorial organization, election and control of the president of the Generalitat and the Government, budget and others, according with the Statute of Autonomy. The last Catalan election was held on 21 December 2017, and its current president is Roger Torrent, incumbent since January 2018.

Presidency

The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: president de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is the highest representative of Catalonia, and is also responsible of leading the government's action. Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia have been Josep Tarradellas (1977–1980, president in exile since 1954), Jordi Pujol (1980–2003), Pasqual Maragall (2003–2006), José Montilla (2006–2010), Artur Mas (2010–2016), Carles Puigdemont (2016–2017) and, after the imposition of direct rule from Madrid, Quim Torra (2018–).

Executive

The Executive Council (in Catalan: Consell Executiu) or Government (Govern), is the body responsible of the government of the Generalitat, it holds executive and regulatory power. It comprises the president of the Generalitat, the First Minister (or the Vice President) and the Ministers (consellers). Its seat is the Palau de la Generalitat, in Barcelona.

International presence

As an autonomous community of Spain, Catalonia is not recognized as a sovereign state by any sovereign state. However, as Catalonia has progressively gained a greater degree of self-government in recent years, the Catalan Government has established nearly bilateral relationships with foreign bodies. For the most part, these relationships are with the governments of other powerful subnational entities such as Quebec[23] or California.[24] In addition, like most Spanish autonomous communities, Catalonia has permanent delegations before international organizations, such as the European Union.[25]

More recently, Catalonia has embarked upon an expansion process of its international representation by opening a number of delegations worldwide. As of 2017, these exceeded 40.[26][27] Most of these offices are located in major world cities like London, New York City, Los Angeles, Paris, Tokyo and others. Each office has specific duties assigned by their ministry or department agency. Generally, the functions of these are the representation of specific interests of the Government of Catalonia, trade and foreign investment, Catalan culture and language support, tourist promotion and international cooperation activities.[27][28]

There are no specific Catalan political institutions in Northern Catalonia, other than the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. However, since 5 September 2003, there has been a Casa de la Generalitat in Perpignan, which aims to promote the Catalan culture and facilitate exchanges between each side of the FrancoSpanish border.[29]

Under application of article 155 of the Constitution following the constitutional crisis of 2017 Catalonia only had 1 delegation abroad, after the rest were closed, this delegation was the one of Brussels, Belgium. The Catalan Government elected after 21th December election is in process to restore the closed delegations.

This is the list of the current delegations of the Generalitat of Catalonia abroad:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Statistical Bulletin of public administrations, P.32 Archived 26 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ http://aplicacions.economia.gencat.cat/wpres/AppPHP/2017/pdf/VOL_L_EID.pdf
  3. ^ Government of Catalonia. "Identificació de la Generalitat en diferents idiomes" [Official translation instruction] (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  4. ^ European Commission (30 April 2005). "Commission Decision of 20 October 2004 concerning the aid scheme implemented by the Kingdom of Spain for the airline Intermediación Aérea SL". p. L 110/57.
  5. ^ UNESCO Executive Board (26 March 1999). "Framework Agreement concerning the Universal Forum of Cultures – Barcelona 2004" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Statistical Institute of Catalonia, '''Generalitat de Catalunya. Budget. 2006-2010, by chapters'''". Idescat.cat. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
  7. ^ Ponce de León, Rodrigo (27 October 2017). "Rajoy cesa a Puigdemont y su Govern y convoca elecciones para el 21 de diciembre". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  8. ^ https://politica.elpais.com/politica/2017/10/30/actualidad/1509367642_165219.html
  9. ^ http://www.ccma.cat/324/el-comunicat-del-govern-legitim-de-la-generalitat-de-catalunya-des-de-belgica/noticia/2818554/
  10. ^ Carr, Raymond. Modern Spain: 1975-1980. Oxford University Press, 1980, p.xvi.
  11. ^ "Real Decreto 1777/2010" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado.
  12. ^ "BOE.es - Documento BOE-A-2016-276". www.boe.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  13. ^ "SOCIALISTS, LEFTISTS RECONSTITUTE THREE PARTY COALITION, OUTLINE NEW CATALAN GOVERNMENT". 2010-12-16. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
  14. ^ "Comitè Nacional". Partit Demòcrata (in Catalan). Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  15. ^ "Transparència". Partit Demòcrata (in Catalan). Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  16. ^ Real Decreto 942/2017, de 27 de octubre, por el que se dispone, en virtud de las medidas autorizadas con fecha 27 de octubre de 2017 por el Pleno del Senado respecto de la Generalitat de Cataluña en aplicación del artículo 155 de la Constitución, el cese del M.H. Sr. Presidente de la Generalitat de Cataluña, don Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó. Boletin Oficial del Estado núm. 261, de 28 de octubre de 2017, páginas 103562 a 103563
  17. ^ "BOE.es - Documento BOE-A-2016-277". www.boe.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-12-16. Retrieved 2006-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-12-30. Retrieved 2006-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ García Cantero, Gabriel (2013). Is It Possible for a Minor Code of the Nineteenth Century to Serve as a Model in the Twenty-First Century. The Scope and Structure of Civil Codes. Springer. p. 372.
  21. ^ de Gispert i Català, Núria (2003). The codification of Catalan civil law. Regional Private Laws and Codification in Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 164–171.
  22. ^ http://www.sindicgreugescat.org
  23. ^ http://www.mdeie.gouv.qc.ca/index.php?id=4201
  24. ^ "Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 71 - Senate Office of International Relations".
  25. ^ http://www.copca.cat/infoglueDeliverLive/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=247&languageId=1&contentId=-1
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2009-08-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2009-08-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2009-08-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2009-08-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

References

External links

Media related to Generalitat de Catalunya at Wikimedia Commons

Barcelona Metro line 13

Line 13 is the name of a proposed service in the Barcelona Metro network which would join La Morera (neighborhood) in Badalona, a municipality of Barcelonès to the north of Barcelona, with the hilly area around Can Ruti Hospital. The line, which will be a short hybrid light rail-metro addition to the main subway lines which will cover a poorly communicated area, similar to L11, was announced in 2002 by Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan government). It was also made public the line will be displayed in maps using a tonality of pink (Pantone 232C).

In the future Morera, L13 will join L2, and will not be too far from the new terminus of L1, which are currently being extended into this area of Badalona, in what will be Badalona Centre. The chosen colour for L13 is intended to suggest a mixture of the L1 and L2 colours. As of 2007, Generalitat de Catalunya hasn't stated when construction will start.

C-17 highway (Spain)

C-17 or Eix del Congost is a primary highway in Catalonia, Spain. According to the 2004's new coding for primary highways managed by the Generalitat de Catalunya, the first number (C-17) indicates that is a south-northbound highway, whereas the second number (C-17) indicates that is the seventh westernmost.The highway starts at the city of Barcelona and heads mainly northbound towards the towns of Mollet del Vallès, Granollers, Vic and Ripoll. Its path follows the valleys of Congost and upper Ter rivers.

From Mollet del Vallès to Vic, the road is already upgraded to freeway. The Vic-Ripoll section is currently in process of being upgraded.

C-31 highway (Spain)

C-31 or Eix Costaner is a Catalonia's primary highway. It is the result of merging several sections of previously existing roads, autopistas and autovías after the 2004's renaming of primary highways managed by the Generalitat de Catalunya. According to this new denomination, the first number (C-31) indicates that is a southwest-northeast highway (parallel to the Mediterranean Sea coastline), while the second number (C-31) indicates that is the closest to the Mediterranean Sea.The whole path for this highway is split in several points and has some gaps in its path, i.e. has "missed sections". This is due to either the sections are not constructed yet or either they are managed by the Spanish government and hence not renamed yet.

All sections suffer from heavy traffic and are often jammed, specially on working days' mornings and on summer months.

Creu de Sant Jordi

The Creu de Sant Jordi (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈkɾɛw ðə ˈsaɲ ˈʒɔɾði], in English 'St George's Cross') is one of the highest civil distinctions awarded in Catalonia (Spain), surpassed only in protocol by the Gold Medal of the Generalitat de Catalunya. It was established by the Generalitat de Catalunya autonomous government by virtue of the Decret 457/1981 de 18 de desembre in 1981. The medal was designed by goldsmith Joaquim Capdevila.

FGC 254 Series

The 254 Series is a meter gauge freight diesel locomotive built for Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC).

Three locomotives were built in 1990 by Meinfesa, at the same time as the RENFE Class 319.2 with which it shares a similar external appearance, as well as both having GM-EMD engines and transmissions.

The locomotive is used for potash and salt trains, and occasional special historical passenger trains, on the Llobregat–Anoia Line.

Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya

Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan pronunciation: [ˌfɛrukəˈrilz ðə lə ʒənəɾəliˈtad də kətəˈluɲə], "Catalan Government Railways"), or FGC, is a railway company which operates several unconnected lines in Catalonia, Spain.

The lines operated include metro and commuter lines in and around the city of Barcelona, tourist mountain railways, and rural railway lines. They include 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) of 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge route, 140 kilometres (87 mi) of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge route, 42 kilometres (26 mi) of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge route, and 89 kilometres (55 mi) of broad gauge route, making the FGC one of the few railway companies to operate on four different gauges.Whilst most lines are conventional adhesion railways, the FGC also operates two rack railways and four funicular railways.

Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira

Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira (Catalan pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛb ʎuˈis kəˈɾɔd ruˈβiɾə]), was born 17 May 1952 in Cambrils, Spain) was the Vice-president of the Catalan Regional Government from 2006 to 2010. From 1996 to 2008 he was the leader of ERC Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (Republican Left of Catalonia).

ERC campaigns for Catalonia's independence from Spain and, secondarily, extend it to other Catalan influence regions, the whole Catalan linguistic domain.

He was one of the two Vice Presidents of the Catalan autonomous government formed after the 2006 Catalan regional election. He now serves as vice president of the Ramon Llull Foundation. In the previous 2003 cabinet, he was First Minister (Catalan: conseller en cap) of the Generalitat de Catalunya. After his, at times, controversial style, eventually the other partners in the cabinet forced him to resign after his action culminated in a secret meeting with representatives of the Basque separatist group ETA, which was leaked to the press; this was followed by general political pressure asking for his resignation.

Josep Bargalló

Josep Bargalló i Valls (born 3 October 1958) is a Catalan teacher, politician and the current Minister of Education of Catalonia.

Born in 1958 in Torredembarra, Bargalló studied philology at the University of Barcelona before becoming a teacher. He was a member of the municipal council in Torredembarra from 1995 to 2003. He was a member of the Parliament of Catalonia from April 1992 to September 2003 when he retired from politics. However, in December 2003 he was appointed Minister of Education of Catalonia and in February 2004 he was promoted to Chief Advisor/First Minister of Catalonia. Bargalló and other Republican Left of Catalonia ministers were sacked from the Catalan government in May 2006.

Bargalló was re-elected to the Parliament of Catalonia in December 2006 but resigned in January 2007 after being appointed director of the Institut Ramon Llull, a position he held until December 2010. He was also director of the Fundació Ramon Llull from 2008 to 2010. Bargalló returned to politics in June 2018 when he was appointed Minister of Education of Catalonia for a second time.

Josep Huguet

Josep Huguet i Biosca (born 8 March 1951) was Minister of Trade, Tourism and Consumer Affairs of the Generalitat de Catalunya from 20 October 2004 until 12 May 2006 and Minister of Innovation, Universities and Enterprise of the Generalitat de Catalunya from 29 November 2006 to 29 December 2010.

List of Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya lines

This is a comprehensive list of all the lines operated by the Catalan government-owned Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya rail company, ordered by type.

List of Presidents of the Government of Catalonia

This List of Presidents of the Government of Catalonia was created in 2003 by Josep M. Solé i Sabaté, in his work Historia de la Generalitat de Catalunya i dels seus presidents. The procedure to set up this list is the following: for the period 1359–1714, previous to the creation of the modern Generalitat of Catalonia, Solé i Sabaté considered "president of the Generalitat" the most eminent ecclesiastic deputy of the Deputation of the General of Catalonia (Catalan: Diputació del General de Catalunya), also known as Generalitat during the early modern ages, a body of the Catalan Courts dissolved in 1716 and reinstated for two years in 1874. From April 1931 on, the list includes the elected Presidents of the Government of Catalonia as well as the proclaimed exiled presidents during the Francoist dictatorship. The functions of the President of the Government of Catalonia have varied considerably over history, in parallel with the attributions of the Generalitat itself.

List of primary highways in Catalonia

The network of primary highways (freeways or not) in Catalonia, Spain, can be divided into two groups: highways managed by the Spanish Government and highways managed by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia's Government).

The first group are itineraries included in the Red de Interés General del Estado (Spanish highways network), which generally either serve as long-distance connectors beyond the Catalonia's field or either have a special strategical importance. They are mainly autopistas (Catalan: autopistes) or autovías (Catalan: autovies) but some regular roads can also be found (most of them are in process or in prospect of being upgraded to autovía).

The second group are itineraries mainly used for Catalonia's internal transport. However, some of these highways (such as C-31, C-32 or C-58) are main communication paths and suffer from heavy traffic.

Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya

The Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya is a historic palace in Barcelona, Catalonia. It houses the offices of the Presidency of the Generalitat de Catalunya. It is one of the few buildings of medieval origin in Europe that still functions as a seat of government and houses the institution that originally built it.

The palace is located in the district of Ciutat Vella in Barcelona. It is bounded by the Carrer del Bisbe, Carrer de Sant Sever and Carrer de Sant Honorat. Its principal façade gives onto the Plaça de Sant Jaume, across from the City Hall of Barcelona.

The original building was purchased in 1400 by then-president Alfons de Tous. It was located on the Carrer de Sant Honorat, in the former Jewish Quarter, or Call. The first extension (in the year 1416) faced the street and was carried out by Bishop Marc Safont, who also built the chapel of St. George, in 1434.

In 1596, Pere Blai designed the current principal façade on the Plaça de Sant Jaume, in the Renaissance style. This is the first grand façade of this architectural style in Catalonia. Thereafter, several other houses were purchased and integrated into the palace.

President of the Government of Catalonia

The President of the Government of Catalonia (Catalan: President de la Generalitat de Catalunya, IPA: [pɾəziˈðen də lə ʒənəɾəliˈtad də kətəˈluɲə]) is one of the bodies that the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia stipulates as part of the Generalitat de Catalunya, others being the Parliament, the government, the Consell de Garanties Estatutàries and the Síndic de Greuges. The president also serves as head of government of Catalonia, leading the executive branch of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Catalan government.

As of 15 May 2018, Quim Torra took on the title and powers of the President of the Government of Catalonia; after winning with a simple majority of 66 votes to 65 votes against and 4 abstentions the previous day in Parliament.

Seal of the Generalitat de Catalunya

The Seal of the Generalitat de Catalunya is the symbol that represents the Generalitat de Catalunya institutions and related organs.

It was designed by Bartomeu Llongueras during the Second Spanish Republic. Traditionally, the St George's Cross had been used as the Generalitat's seal.

After Spain's transition to democracy and the restoration of Catalonia's self-government, it was reinstated, albeit in a slightly modified version, in order to avoid confusion when placing the seal upside down (described by statute in 1981, decree 7/1981).

In some situations, a bicolour version is preferred, instead of the traditional tricolour one.

Statistical Institute of Catalonia

The Statistical Institute of Catalonia (in Catalan: Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, usually referred to by its acronym IDESCAT) is the official body responsible for collecting and publishing statistics in the autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain. The institute comes under the Department of the Economy and Finances of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia).

Its offices are on Via Laietana, Barcelona.

Televisió de Catalunya

Televisió de Catalunya (Catalan pronunciation: [tələβiziˈo ðə kətəˈluɲə], known by the acronym TVC) is the public broadcasting network of Catalonia, one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain.

It is part of the Corporació Catalana de Mitjans Audiovisuals, a public corporation created by the Generalitat de Catalunya by a Founding Act in 1983. Slightly more than half of its revenue (52%) comes from public funding through the Generalitat de Catalunya, while the remaining 48% is raised through advertising, sponsorship and merchandise and original productions' sales. It is officially composed by six channels: TV3, TV3 HD, 33/Super3, 3/24, Esport 3 and TV3CAT.

While the main language of all these channels is Catalan, Spanish is usually neither sub-titled nor dubbed, as it is generally accepted that all Catalan speakers are by default also Spanish speakers. Some programmes such as Polònia and APM use Spanish extensively, largely for effect. In the Aran Valley, there are programs in Aranese.

TVC headquarters are located in Sant Joan Despí, near Barcelona.

TramVallès

TramVallès, Tramvallès or Tramvia del Vallès is a proposed tram or light rail network in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Its name stems from the region of Vallès, which spans two counties north of the Catalan capital. The region is densely populated, includes the Autonomous University of Barcelona and current public transport services are insufficient for commuters. Following expressions of citizen support, the Generalitat de Catalunya, the governing body of Catalonia, approved the project in 2010. Tramvallès would serve the following municipalities: Montcada i Reixac, Ripollet, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Badia del Vallès, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barberà del Vallès, Sabadell and Terrassa.

Vallvidrera Funicular

The Vallvidrera Funicular (both Catalan and Spanish:Funicular de Vallvidrera) is a 736.6-metre-long (2,417 ft) funicular railway in the Barcelona district of Sarrià-Sant Gervasi, in Catalonia, Spain. It connects Peu del Funicular station on the Barcelona–Vallès Line with the residential neighborhood of Vallvidrera, in the Collserola mountain range.

Opened on 24 October 1906 (1906-10-24), the funicular has played a key role in the development of Vallvidrera and is the main public transport access to this neighborhood. Although initially privately owned by Ferrocarril de Sarriá a Barcelona (FSB), it was transferred to the Catalan government together with the Barcelona–Vallès Line after FSB's economic collapse. Thus, since 7 October 1979 (1979-10-07), the funicular has been operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC). In 1998, it was entirely rebuilt and upgraded to an automated guideway transit (AGT) system, including the introduction of new rolling stock.

The funicular is integrated as part of the Vallès Metro high-frequency commuter rail scheme. It runs at a basic interval of 6 minutes on weekdays, less frequently on weekends and public holidays, with a journey time of 2 minutes and 50 seconds (without considering any intermediate stops). Besides, it is entirely within fare zone 1 of the Autoritat del Transport Metropolità (ATM) fare-integrated public transport system for the Barcelona metropolitan area.

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