Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (Russian: Генералиссимус Советского Союза; Generalissimus Sovyétskovo Soyuza) was a proposed military rank created on 27 June 1945, following the tradition of the Imperial Russian Army (the rank in question was held 4 times. The first was held by the Russian Stateman Aleksei Shein and the last was held by Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Suvorov ). It was granted to Joseph Stalin following World War II; however, Stalin refused to officially approve the rank and died with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. It would have been the highest military rank in the Soviet Union. Yet in all the eastern countries Stalin used after 1945 to be called also Generalissimus Stalin.
|Generalissimus of the Soviet Union|
Генералиссимус Советского Союза
Proposed uniform epaulette
|Service branch||Soviet Armed Forces|
|Non-NATO rank||Six-star rank|
|Next higher rank||None|
|Next lower rank|
This military rank was specifically created for Joseph Stalin. However, according to Stalin biographer Robert Service, Stalin regretted allowing himself the ostentatious military title, and asked Winston Churchill to continue to refer to him as a marshal instead. Stalin also rejected any kind of distinctions between his military rank and the other Soviet marshals, and kept using the original Marshal of the Soviet Union insignia and uniform like the other Soviet marshals.
The matter about Generalissimus of the Soviet Union was mentioned again after the war, when a draft of a decree about the Soviet military ranks was presented to Stalin. Then, General Andrey Khrulyov – director of the General Department of Logistics – was given the task to design the uniform of the Soviet Generalissimus for Stalin to use in the victory parade on 9 May 1947. The uniform was finished and presented to Stalin one week before the parade.
After examining it, Stalin again expressed dissatisfaction. Then he took hold of the decree about the Generalissimus rank and declared: "I will never sign this decree. The Soviet Red Army only has Marshal as its highest rank." Thereafter, the subject of new rank was never raised again.
Fabricated samples were rejected by Stalin, who considered them to be too luxurious and old-fashioned. Currently they are stored in the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic war located in Moscow at Poklonnaya Gora.
Below are proposed designs of the shoulder insignia of Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
|Sequence of ranks|
Marshal of the Soviet Union
(Маршал Советского Союза)
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union
(Генералиссимус Советского Союза)
|Higher rank: |
|Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union|
(Адмирал Флота Советского Союза)
The 16th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 26 June - 13 July 1930 in Moscow. The congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was attended by 1,268 voting delegates and 891 delegates with observer status. It elected the 16th Central Committee.
An exercise of devotion to Joseph Stalin, this is the last congress to be dominated by the original leadership of the Soviet Union.19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Nineteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held from 5 to 14 October 1952. It was the first party congress after World War II and the last under Joseph Stalin's leadership. It was attended by many dignitaries from foreign Communist parties, including Liu Shaoqi from China. At this Congress, Stalin gave the last public speech of his life. The 19th Central Committee was elected at the congress.Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union
An admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union (Russian: адмирал флота Cоветского Cоюза, translit. admiral flota Sovietskogo Soyuza), was the highest naval rank of the Soviet Union. It was comparable to NATO five-star rank (OF-10 level).Batumi Stalin Museum
Batumi Stalin Museum was a museum in Batumi, Georgia. It commemorated Joseph Stalin, who was active in socialist agitation among Batumi's refinery workers during 1901–1902. It closed in 2013, after suffering low visitation.Da yuan shuai
Da yuan shuai (ta yuan shuai; Chinese: 大元帥; pinyin: dà yuán shuài; Wade–Giles: ta4 yüan2 shuai4) was a Chinese military rank, usually translated as grand marshal or generalissimo.
During the early Republic of China, the rank of "grand marshal of the army and navy" (陸海軍大元帥 lù hǎijūn dàyuánshuài) was assumed by Yuan Shikai in 1913, Sun Yat-sen in 1917 and Zhang Zuolin in 1927.The rank was replaced by the Nationalist Government with the "general special class" or "generalissimo" (特級上將 Tèjí shàng jiàng) and awarded to Chiang Kai-shek in 1935.
The rank of "grand marshal of the People's Republic of China" (中華人民共和國大元帥 Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó dàyuánshuài) was proposed after the establishment of the People's Republic (perhaps for Mao Zedong), but was never conferred.Generalissimo
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.Highest military ranks
In many nations the highest military ranks are classed as being equivalent to, or are officially described as, five-star ranks. However, a number of nations have used or proposed ranks such as generalissimo which are senior to their five-star equivalent ranks. This article summarises those ranks.Konstantin Kuzakov
Konstantin Stepanovich Kuzakov (1911–1996) (Russian: Константин Степанович Кузаков) was a Soviet journalist and politician who claimed that he was an illegitimate child of Joseph Stalin. Konstantin's mother was Maria Kuzakova, who was Stalin's landlady during his 1911 exile in Solvychegodsk, with whom he had an affair. According to Simon Sebag-Montefiore his mother was still pregnant when Stalin left his exile.Konstantin was enrolled into Leningrad University, possibly with the discreet help of his father. In 1932, the NKVD forced him to sign a statement promising never to reveal the truth of his parentage.For a while, he taught philosophy at the Leningrad Military Mechanical Institute. Afterward, he got a job in the Central Committee's apparat in Moscow. He served as a colonel during World War II. In 1947, while working for Andrei Zhdanov, a very close ally of Stalin, he and his deputy were accused of being American spies. While he was never officially introduced to his possible father, Konstantin claimed that on one occasion while working in the Kremlin he said, "Stalin stopped and looked at me and I felt he wanted to tell me something. I wanted to rush to him, but something stopped me. He waved his pipe and moved on." Simon Sebag-Montefiore claimed that altought Stalin prevented his arrest, he was nonetheless dismissed from the Communist Party.After Stalin's death and the arrest of Lavrentiy Beria, he was restored in the Party and in Soviet "apparat", holding various positions associated with culture, a member of the collegium of Gosteleradio, chief of a department in the Ministry of Culture and other posts. He died in 1996.Leningrad affair
The Leningrad affair, or Leningrad case ("Ленинградское дело" in Russian, or "Leningradskoye delo"), was a series of criminal cases fabricated in the late 1940s–early 1950s by Joseph Stalin in order to accuse a number of prominent politicians and members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of treason and intention to create an anti-Soviet organisation based in Leningrad.Marshal of the Soviet Union
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Маршал Советского Союза; Russian pronunciation: [ˈmarʂəɫ sɐˈvʲɛtskəvə sɐˈjuzə]) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union.
The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991, and forty-one people held this rank. The equivalent naval rank was until 1955 Admiral of the fleet and from 1955 Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union. Both ranks were comparable to NATO rank codes OF-10, and to the five-star rank in anglophone armed forces.
While the supreme rank of Generalissimus of the Soviet Union, which would have been senior to Marshal of the Soviet Union, was proposed for Joseph Stalin after the Second World War, it was never officially approved.Marxism and Problems of Linguistics
"Marxism and Problems of Linguistics" (Russian:Марксизм и вопросы языкознания) is an article written by Joseph Stalin, most of which was first published on June 20, 1950 in the newspaper "Pravda" (attached at the end of "answers" came later, in July - August) and in the same year published as a pamphlet in large numbers.Military ranks of the Soviet Union
The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time the Imperial Russian Table of Ranks was abolished, as were the privileges of the pre-Soviet Russian nobility.
Immediately after the Revolution, personal military ranks were abandoned in favour of a system of positional ranks, which were acronyms of the full position names. For example, KomKor was an acronym of Corps Commander, KomDiv was an acronym of Division Commander, KomBrig stood for Brigade Commander, KomBat stood for Battalion Commander, and so forth. These acronyms have survived as informal position names to the present day.Personal ranks were reintroduced in 1935, and general officer ranks were restored in May 1940. The ranks were based on those of the Russian Empire, although they underwent some modifications. Modified Imperial-style rank insignia were reintroduced in 1943.
The Soviet ranks ceased to be used after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, although the military ranks and insignia of the modern Russian Federation and Ukraine have been largely adopted from the Soviet system.Moscow Declarations
The Moscow Declarations were four declarations signed during the Moscow Conference on October 30, 1943. The declarations are distinct from the Communique that was issued following the Moscow Conference of 1945. They were signed by the foreign secretaries of the Governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the Republic of China. Four declarations were signed at the conference: The Declaration of the Four Nations on General Security, the Declaration on Italy, the Declaration on Austria, and the Declarations on Atrocities.Operation North
Operation North (Russian: Операция "Север") was the code name assigned by the USSR Ministry of State Security to massive deportation of Jehovah's Witnesses and their families to Siberia in the Soviet Union on 1–2 April 1951.Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955
Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces in the period 1943–1955 were characterised by a number of changes in the armed forces of the Soviet Union, including the reintroduction of rank insignia badges and the adoption of a number of higher ranks.Stalin's poetry
Before he became a Bolshevik revolutionary and the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin was a promising poet.Stalin's residences
Over time Joseph Stalin resided in various places.
Stalin's house, Gori, birthplace
Tiflis Spiritual Seminary
Kureika house,Siberia, where Stalin spent his final exile in 1914-1916.
Stalin's apartment in Moscow KremlinTaewonsu
Taewŏnsu (literally grand marshal, usually translated as generalissimo) is the highest possible military rank of North Korea and is intended to be an honorific title for Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. The rank is senior to that of wonsu (marshal). The title also exists in Chinese military history as dàyuánshuài (same Sino-Korean characters 大元帥), and was briefly taken by Sun Yat-Sen.Yanks for Stalin
Yanks for Stalin (1999) is a 60-minute History Undercover series special documentary that aired on the History Channel. It chronicles the story of American white- and blue-collar workers who left the United States during the Great Depression to work in the Soviet Union to bolster Joseph Stalin's five-year plans.
Though the American white collar workers received special treatment there, the blue collar laborers often had to suffer the same deplorable conditions as Soviet workers. As one testified: "Men froze, hungered and suffered, but the construction work went on with a disregard for individuals and a mass heroism seldom paralleled in history."
The program examines both how the Soviets spun the facts and how American industry concealed the help it provided to the Soviet Union.