Generalissimo

Generalissimo[1] is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.

Usage

The word generalissimo (Italian: Generalissimo), an Italian term, is the absolute superlative of generale ('general') thus meaning "the highest-ranking of all generals". The superlative suffix -issimo itself derives from Latin -issimus,[2][3][4][5][6] meaning "utmost, to the highest grade". Similar cognates in other languages include generalísimo in Spanish, generalíssimo in Portuguese, généralissime in French, and generalissimus in Latin.

Historically this rank was given to a military officer leading an entire army or the entire armed forces of a nation, usually only subordinate to the sovereign.[7] Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers and if a senior military officer becomes the head of state or head of government of a nation like Chiang Kai-Shek in China and later in Taiwan, and Francisco Franco in Spain.

The rank Generalissimus of the Soviet Union would have been a generalissimo but some sources pretend that Stalin refused to adopt the rank.[8][9] In fact the grade was accorded by the Presidium of the Supreme Sovyet which did not need the "approval" of Stalin and in the Soviet Union and all the Eastern countries Stalin was called "Generalissimus Stalin" [10] The rank of Generalissimo for Stalin was used also by the Western diplomacy [11]

List of generalissimos

Arolsen Klebeband 01 399 3
WallensteinAlbrecht von Waldstein, 1625, 1st Generalissimo
Person Service Country Era Notes
Chiang Kai-shek National Revolutionary Army Republic of China 1926 Appointed commander in chief of the Nationalist Army for the Northern Expedition.[12] In 1935 was appointed "general special class" (特級上將 Tèjí shàng jiàng).
Joseph Joffre French Army France 1914 His dignity (rank) was Marshal of France, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Army was généralissime.
Alexander Suvorov Russian Imperial Army Russian Empire 1799
Alexander Danilovich Menshikov Russian Imperial Army Russian Empire 1727–1728 [13]
Ferdinand Foch French Army France 1918 Généralissime was the title used to describe Ferdinand Foch's Allied Command, starting 26 March 1918. He actually held the rank of général de division, the dignity (rank) of Marshal of France and later the ranks of British Field Marshal and Marshal of Poland.[14]
Maurice Gamelin French Army France 1939 His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.
Maxime Weygand French Army France 1939 His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.
Francisco de Miranda Venezuelan Army Venezuela 1812
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Revolutionary Army of Mexico América Mexicana 1810– 1811 [15]
Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick Russian Imperial Army Russian Empire 1740–1741 [16]
José de San Martín Peruvian Army Peru 1821–1822 Generalísimo de las Armas del Perú
Francisco Franco Spanish Armed Forces Spain 1936–1975 generalísimo[17]
Emilio Aguinaldo Philippine Revolutionary Army Philippines 1898–1901 Generalissimo[18]
Ihsan Nuri Ararat Forces Kurdish Republic of Ararat 1927–1930 [19]
Crown Prince Charles John Royal Swedish Army Sweden 1810–1818 [20][Note 1]
Joseph Stalin Soviet Armed Forces Soviet Union 1945 Generalissimus of the Soviet Union[21] (declined)
Kim Il-sung Korean People's Army North Korea 1992 Taewonsu[22]
Kim Jong-il Korean People's Army North Korea 2012 Taewonsu (posthumously awarded)[23]
Rafael Trujillo Dominican Army Dominican Republic 1930 [24]
Sun Yat-sen National Revolutionary Army – Warlord Era (Northern Expedition) Republic of China 1921 Technically as da yuan shuai or "grand marshal of the army and navy"[25][26]
Albrecht von Wallenstein 30 Year's War Holy Roman Empire via the "Principal Decree of the Imperial Deputation"[27] 1625 [28]
John J. Pershing United States Army United States of America 1919 Promoted to General of the Armies of the United States on September 3, 1919.[29]
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough War of the Spanish Succession Dutch Republic 1702 Referred to as Generalissimo by the Dutch States General.[30]
Prince George of Denmark British Army Kingdom of Great Britain 1702–1708 Declared 'Generalissimo of all our Forces within Our Kingdom of England and Ireland and Elsewhere' by his wife Queen Anne[31][32]
James, Duke of York Third Anglo-Dutch War Kingdom of England 1673 'Generalissimo and Supreme Commander' over forces employed against the Dutch.[31]
Louis Dauphin of France War of the Spanish Succession France 1708 Commanded French Army[33]
William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Swedish Army Sweden 1720 [34]
George Washington Continental Army
United States Army
United States of America 1776 When chosen to be the Commander in Chief, was called by the Virginia Gazette the generalissimo of the American forces.[35] Promoted posthumously to General of the Armies of the United States on January 19, 1976 with date of rank of July 4, 1976.[36]
Deodoro da Fonseca Brazilian Army Brazil 1890
Hermann Göring Luftwaffe Nazi Germany 1940–1945 Promoted to the rank of Reichsmarschall on 19 July 1940. Stripped of rank on 30 April 1945.
Kalākaua Hawaiian Army Kingdom of Hawaii 1886–1891 King of Hawaii, was given titles of "Supreme Commander and Generalissimo of the Hawaiian Army".[37]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Napoleonic Marshal of France Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo, was elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Riksdag of the Estates and King Charles XIII in 1810. Given his exalted French military rank, the rank of generalissimus was likely granted him in order to give him precedence over "mere" Swedish field marshals. Once he became King of Sweden and Norway in 1818, the generalissimus rank became superfluous.

References

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Enlarged and Improved. Archibald Constable. 1823. p. 484.
  2. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary., French Larousse Étymologique.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  4. ^ "Define Generalissimo at Dictionary.com". Reference.com.
  5. ^ "Generalissimo – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster.
  6. ^ "Definition of generalissimo – Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionary of English.
  7. ^ Thomas Hobbes (1660), Chapter XVIII: Of the Rights of Sovereigns by institution, retrieved 16 August 2015
  8. ^ Service, Robert (2005). Stalin: A Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-674-01697-2.
  9. ^ S. M. Shtemenko. The General Staff in the War Years. Moskva 1985. Vietnamese version (vol. 2) . pp. 587–588.
  10. ^ Сборник законов СССР и Указов Президиума Верховного Совета СССР (1938 — июль 1956) / Сост.: М. И. Юмашев, Б. А. Жалейко. — М., 1956. — С. 202.
  11. ^ https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1945/nov/07/generalissimo-stalin
  12. ^ New York Times, Dec 04, 1926, pg.6.
  13. ^ "Menschikow und Stalin waren die einzigen Heerführer der russischen Geschichte, die sich "Generalissimus" nennen ließen." [Menshikov and Stalin were the only military leaders in Russian history who declared themselves "generalissimus".] Jena, Detlev (1996): Die russischen Zaren in Lebensbildern, Graz, p. 520.
  14. ^ John McGroarty :The Gray Man of Christ: Generalissimo Foch (1919) Los Angeles, Walter A Abbott
  15. ^ Comunica Miguel Hidalgo su proclamaci n como General simo de Am rica. Documentos Historicos de Mexico, 24 Oct 1810.
  16. ^ https://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/digital-collection/01.+Paintings/128240
  17. ^ Cover, TIME magazine, 18 Oct 1943
  18. ^ Whitefield, George. "Annual report of Major General George W. Davis, United States Army commanding Division of the Philippines from October 1, 1902 to July 26, 1903" (1903) [Textual record]. Archive.Org, ID: annualreportofma03unit, p. 188. Boston Public Library. OCLC 1039990497.
  19. ^ Bletch Chirguh, La Question Kurde: ses origines et ses causes, Le Caire, Impimerie Paul Barbey, 1930, front cover, IHSAN NOURI PACHA Généralissime des forces nationales Kurdes (in French)
  20. ^ (in Swedish) Ancienneté och Rang-Rulla öfver Krigsmagten år 1813
  21. ^ Joseph Stalin was appointed Generalissimus of the Soviet Union. See: Ivan Aleksandrovich Venediktov, Selskokhozyaystvennaya yentsiklopediya, Vol. 4, Gos. izd-vo selkhoz, 1956, p. 584. (in Russian)
  22. ^ The Daily Yomuiri, 29 September 2010, Kim Jong Un spotlighted / 'Heir apparent' promoted to general, makes DPRK media debut
  23. ^ The Australian, 15 February 2012, Late Kim Jong-il awarded highest honour by North
  24. ^ Stanley Walker, Generalissimo Rafael L. Trujillo (1955) Caribbean Library
  25. ^ Linda Pomerantz-Zhang (1992). Wu Tingfang (1842–1922): Reform and Modernization in Modern Chinese History. Hong Kong University Press. p. 255. ISBN 962209287X. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
  26. ^ Taylor, Jay (15 April 2009). The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the struggle for modern China. Harvard University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-674-05471-4. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  27. ^ A short history of Germany. Ernest Flagg Henderson, 1908
  28. ^ Tilly und Wallenstein – ein Vergleich zweier Heerführer. Harry Horstmann, 2010. (in German)
  29. ^ Public Law 66-45 of September 3, 1919 to revive the office of General of the Armies
  30. ^ Rapin de Thoyras (M., Paul) (1745). Nicholas Tindal (ed.). The History of England. Volume IV, part 1 (French original: Histoire d'Angleterre, 1724–27). J. and P. Knapton. p. 562. Retrieved 16 September 2018. The Earl of Athlone [Godard van Reede] was set on by the other Dutch Generals, to insist on his quality of Velt-Marshal, and to have the command with the Earl of Marlborough by turns. But, though he was now in high reputation by his late conduct, the States obliged him to yield this point to the Earl of Marlborough, whom they declared Generalissimo of all their forces, and sent orders to all their Generals and other Officers to obey him.
  31. ^ a b Roper, Michael (1998). The Records of the War Office and Related Departments, 1660-1964. Kew, Surrey: Public Record Office. p. 5.
  32. ^ Rapin de Thoyras (M., Paul) (1745). Nicholas Tindal (ed.). The History of England. Volume IV, part 1 (French original: Histoire d'Angleterre, 1724–27). J. and P. Knapton. p. 104. Retrieved 16 September 2018. The Prince was Duke of Cumberland, Lord High-Admiral of Great-Britain and Ireland, Generalissimo of all her Majesty's forces both by sea and land, and Warden of the Cinque-ports.
  33. ^ Rapin de Thoyras (M., Paul) (1745). Nicholas Tindal (ed.). The History of England. Volume IV, part 1 (French original: Histoire d'Angleterre, 1724–27). J. and P. Knapton. p. 68. Retrieved 16 September 2018. But an unexpected alteration was suddenly made, and the French King declared the Duke of Burgundy Generalissimo of his forces, appointing the Duke de Vendosme [sic: Vendôme] to serve under him; and he was to be accompanied by the Duke of Berry.
  34. ^ Pock, Johann Joseph (1724). Der politische, katholische Passagier, durchreisend alle hohe Höfe, Republiquen, Herrschafften und Länder der ganzen Welt. Brechenmacher. p. 832. Retrieved 16 September 2018. wurde 1720. von dem König in Schweden [...] zum Generalissimo der sämmtlichen Schwedischen Trouppen ernennet
  35. ^ Chadwick, Bruce (2005). George Washington's War: The Forging of a Revolutionary Leader and the American Presidency. Sourcebooks, Inc. p. 40. ISBN 9781402226106. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  36. ^ Public Law 94-479 of January 19, 1976 to provide for the appointment of George Washington to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States
  37. ^ Chapter XXII: Act Act To Organize The Military Forces Of The Kingdom. Laws of His Majesty Kalakaua, King of the Hawaiian Islands: Passed by the Legislative Assembly at Its Session of 1886. Honolulu: Black & Auld. 1886. pp. 37–41. OCLC 42350849.
1943 Cairo Declaration

The Cairo Declaration was the outcome of the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943. President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China were present. The declaration developed ideas from the 1941 Atlantic Charter, which was issued by the Allies of World War II to set goals for the post-war order. The Cairo Communiqué was broadcast through radio on December 1, 1943.The Cairo Declaration is cited in Clause Eight (8) of the Potsdam Declaration, which is referred to by the Japanese Instrument of Surrender.

A Fable

A Fable is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner. He spent more than a decade and tremendous effort on it, and aspired for it to be "the best work of my life and maybe of my time".

It won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, but critical reviews were mixed and it is considered one of Faulkner's lesser works. Historically, it can be seen as a precursor to Joseph Heller's Catch-22.

Alexander Suvorov

Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; 24 November [O.S. 13 November] 1729 or 1730 – 18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1800) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero. He was the Count of Rymnik, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Italy, and the last Generalissimo of the Russian Empire.

Suvorov was born in Moscow in 1729. He studied military history as a young boy and joined the Imperial Russian Army at the age of 17. During the Seven Years' War he was promoted to colonel in 1762 for his success on the battlefield. When war broke out with the Bar Confederation in 1768, Suvorov captured Kraków and defeated the Poles at Lanckorona and Stołowicze, bringing about the start of the Partitions of Poland. He was promoted to general and next fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Kozludzha. Becoming the General of the Infantry in 1786, he commanded in the Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won crushing victories at the Battle of Rymnik and Siege of Izmail. For his accomplishments, he was made a Count of both the Russian Empire and Holy Roman Empire. Suvorov put down a Polish uprising in 1794, defeating them at the Battle of Maciejowice and storming Warsaw.

While a close associate of Empress Catherine the Great, Suvorov often quarreled with her son and heir apparent Paul. After Catherine died of a stroke in 1796, Paul I was crowned Emperor and dismissed Suvorov for disregarding his orders. However, he was forced to reinstate Suvorov and make him a field marshal at the insistence of the coalition allies for the French Revolutionary Wars. Suvorov was given command of the Austro-Russian army, captured Milan, and drove the French out of Italy at the Battles of Cassano d'Adda, Trebbia, and Novi. Suvorov was made a Prince of Italy for his deeds. Afterwards he became surrounded in the Swiss Alps by the French after a Russian army he was supposed to unite with was routed before he could arrive. Suvorov led the strategic withdrawal of Russian troops while fighting off French forces four times the size of his and returned to Russia with minimal casualties, for which he became the fourth Generalissimo of Russia. He died in 1800 of illness in Saint Petersburg.

Suvorov is considered one of the greatest commanders in Russian and world history. He was awarded numerous medals, titles, and honors by Russia, as well as by other countries. Suvorov secured Russia's expanded borders and renewed military prestige and left a legacy of theories on warfare. He was famed for his military manual The Science of Victory and noted for several of his sayings. Several military academies, monuments, villages, museums, and orders are dedicated to him. He never lost a single major battle he had commanded.

Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek (; 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Generalissimo Chiang or Chiang Chungcheng and romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese politician and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death. He was recognized by much of the world as the head of the legitimate government of China until 1971, during which the United Nations passed Resolution 2758.

Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen. Chiang became the commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT following the Canton Coup in early 1926. Having neutralized the party's left wing, Chiang then led Sun's long-postponed Northern Expedition, conquering or reaching accommodations with China's many warlords.From 1928 to 1948, Chiang served as the chairman and generalissimo of the National Government of the Republic of China (ROC). Chiang was a nationalist, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement. Unable to maintain Sun's good relations with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Chiang tried to purge them in the 1927 Shanghai Massacre and repressed uprisings at Kwangtung ("Canton" region) and elsewhere.

At the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, which later became the Chinese theater of World War II, Marshal Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang and obliged him to establish a Second United Front with the CCP. After the defeat of the Japanese, the American-sponsored Marshall Mission, an attempt to negotiate a coalition government, failed in 1946. The Chinese Civil War resumed, with the CCP led by Mao Zedong defeating the KMT and declaring the People's Republic of China in 1949. Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics in a period known as the "White Terror". After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled Taiwan securely as President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975, just one year before Mao's death.Like Mao, Chiang is regarded as a controversial figure. Supporters credit him with playing a major part in the Allied victory of World War II and unifying the nation and a national figure of the Chinese resistance against Japan as well as his staunch anti-Soviet and anti-communist stance. Detractors and critics denounce him as a dictator at the front of an authoritarian autocracy who suppressed and purged opponents and critics and arbitrarily incarcerated those he deemed as opposing to the Kuomintang among others. Critics estimate that the Nationalist government was responsible for between 6 and 18.5 million deaths.

Da yuan shuai

Da yuan shuai (ta yuan shuai; Chinese: 大元帥; pinyin: dà yuán shuài; Wade–Giles: ta4 yüan2 shuai4) was a Chinese military rank, usually translated as grand marshal or generalissimo.

During the early Republic of China, the rank of "grand marshal of the army and navy" (陸海軍大元帥 lù hǎijūn dàyuánshuài) was assumed by Yuan Shikai in 1913, Sun Yat-sen in 1917 and Zhang Zuolin in 1927.The rank was replaced by the Nationalist Government with the "general special class" or "generalissimo" (特級上將 Tèjí shàng jiàng) and awarded to Chiang Kai-shek in 1935.

The rank of "grand marshal of the People's Republic of China" (中華人民共和國大元帥 Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó dàyuánshuài) was proposed after the establishment of the People's Republic (perhaps for Mao Zedong), but was never conferred.

Fenghua District

Fenghua (Chinese: 奉化; pinyin: Fènghuà; Wu: Fun-ho) is a district of the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The district and its administrative hinterlands has a population of over 480,000.

Fenghua is most famous for being the hometown of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek. Geographically, it is dominated by the Tiantai and Siming mountain ranges.

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (; Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko]; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as a dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. This period in Spanish history is commonly known as Francoist Spain.

During the 1924–1930 dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Franco was promoted general at age 33, the youngest in Europe. As a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic secular republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative CEDA lost by a narrow margin, and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in launching a coup the same year, but failed to take control of most of the country and precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco became his faction's only leader. Franco gained military support from various authoritarian regimes and groups, especially Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, while the Republican side included Spanish communists and anarchists, with support from the Soviet Union, Mexico and the international volunteers. In 1939, Franco won the war, which had claimed almost half a million lives. He established a military dictatorship and proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title Caudillo. In April 1937, Franco merged the fascist and traditionalist political parties in the rebel zone (FE de las JONS and Traditionalist Communion), as well as other conservative and monarchist elements, into a single party: the FET y de las JONS. At the same time, he outlawed all other political parties, and thus Spain became a one-party state.

Upon his rise to power, Franco implemented policies that repressed political opponents and dissenters, were as many as between 60,000 and 400,000 died through the use of forced labor and executions in the concentration camps his regime operated. During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy, but provided military support to the Axis in numerous ways. However, scholars consider Franco as conservative and authoritarian, rather than truly fascist. Historian Stanley G. Payne states, "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the Generalissimo to have been a core fascist."Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being openly totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism, and was allowed to join the UN. During the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures: his regime was assisted by the West, and it was asked to join NATO. After chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Franco presided over the Spanish miracle, abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization, delegating authority to liberal ministers. The Francoist dictatorship kept on gradually softening over time and in 1975, Franco died at the age of 82. He restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy.

Generalissimo (30 Rock)

"Generalissimo" is the tenth episode of the third season of the American television comedy series 30 Rock. It was written by executive producer Robert Carlock and directed by Todd Holland. The episode originally aired on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) in the United States on February 5, 2009. Guest stars in "Generalissimo" include Jon Hamm, Salma Hayek, Patrick Heusinger, Matt Lauer, Doug Mand, Greg Tuculescu, and Teresa Yenque.

In the episode, Liz Lemon (Tina Fey) begins receiving mail intended for her new neighbor, Dr. Drew Baird (Hamm), and after going through it she decides she would like to meet him. Meanwhile, Jack Donaghy (Alec Baldwin) resembles a Spanish-language soap opera villain, "The Generalissimo", which prompts the grandmother (Yenque) of Jack's girlfriend, Elisa (Hayek), to disapprove of their relationship. Back at 30 Rock, the new The Girlie Show with Tracy Jordan (TGS) interns (Heusinger, Tuculescu, and Mand) invite Tracy Jordan (Tracy Morgan) out for a night of partying.

"Generalissimo" received generally positive reviews. According to the Nielsen ratings system, it was watched by 6.4 million households during its original broadcast. Todd Holland received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Directing for a Comedy Series for "Generalissimo". This episode was submitted for consideration on the behalf of Baldwin for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series.

Generalissimo Francisco Franco is still dead

"Generalissimo Francisco Franco is still dead" is a catchphrase that originated in 1975 during the first season of NBC's Saturday Night (now called Saturday Night Live, or SNL) and which mocked the weeks-long media reports of the Spanish Caudillo's impending death. It was one of the first catchphrases from the series to enter the general lexicon.

Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Air Base

Generalisimo Francisco de Miranda Airbase (IATA: N/A, ICAO: SVFM), commonly called by its former name of La Carlota, is located in Caracas, Venezuela. The airport is named for Francisco de Miranda, a South American revolutionary.

On 27 November 1992, the airport was bombed during Hugo Chávez's attempted coup. It has been closed to public use since 2005 and is used only for military purposes and aeromedic flights (EMS).

In April 2019, the airport was the starting point of the 2019 Venezuela uprising.

Generalissimus of the Soviet Union

Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (Russian: Генералиссимус Советского Союза; Generalissimus Sovyétskovo Soyuza) was a proposed military rank created on 27 June 1945, following the tradition of the Imperial Russian Army (the rank in question was held 4 times. The first was held by the Russian Statesman Aleksei Shein and the last was held by Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Suvorov ). It was granted to Joseph Stalin following World War II; however, Stalin refused to officially approve the rank and died with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. It would have been the highest military rank in the Soviet Union. Yet in all the eastern countries Stalin used after 1945 to be called also Generalissimus Stalin.

HMS Fame (H78)

HMS Fame was an F-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy during the 1930s. Although assigned to the Home Fleet upon completion, the ship was attached to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1935–36 during the Abyssinia Crisis. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939, she spent time in Spanish waters, enforcing the arms blockade imposed by Britain and France on both sides of the conflict. Fame served in the Norwegian Campaign in 1940 before she was severely damaged when she ran aground in October. The ship was refloated several months later and spent a year and a half under repair. Fame was converted into an escort destroyer while under repair and was assigned to escort duties in the North Atlantic when the repairs were completed in mid-1942.

She sank two German submarines before she was transferred back to British coastal waters in May 1944 to protect the build-up for Operation Overlord. Together with two other destroyers, she sank another German submarine that month and was reassigned to escort duties off the west coast of Scotland in July, where she remained until the war ended in May 1945. Fame remained on active duty until mid-1947 when she was paid off. The ship was recommissioned a year later and was then sold to the Dominican Republic in 1949. She was scrapped in 1968.

Highest military ranks

In many nations the highest military ranks are classed as being equivalent to, or are officially described as, five-star ranks. However, a number of nations have used or proposed ranks such as generalissimo which are senior to their five-star equivalent ranks. This article summarises those ranks.

Joseph Stilwell

Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II. His caustic personality was reflected in the nickname "Vinegar Joe".

Distrust of his Allies and a lack of resources meant Stilwell was continually forced to improvise. He famously differed as to strategy, ground troops versus air power, with his subordinate, Claire Chennault, who had the ear of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. General George Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff, acknowledged he had given Stilwell "one of the most difficult" assignments of any theater commander.

Patrick J. Hurley

Patrick Jay Hurley (January 8, 1883, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory – July 30, 1963, Santa Fe, New Mexico) was a highly decorated American soldier with the rank of Major General, statesman, and diplomat. He was the United States Secretary of War from 1929 to 1933.

St. Valentine's Day (30 Rock)

"St. Valentine's Day" is the eleventh episode of the third season, and forty-seventh episode overall, of the American television comedy series 30 Rock. It was written by co-executive producer Jack Burditt and series' creator, executive producer and lead actress Tina Fey. The director of this episode was series producer Don Scardino. The episode originally aired on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) in the United States on February 12, 2009. Guest stars in "St. Valentine's Day" include Marylouise Burke, Jon Hamm, Salma Hayek, Zak Orth, Laila Robins, Maria Thayer, and Allie Trimm.

In the episode, Liz Lemon (Fey) insists that she and Dr. Drew Baird (Hamm) have their first official date on Valentine's Day, while Jack Donaghy (Alec Baldwin) prepares himself for an unconventional Valentine's Day spent at church with his girlfriend Elisa (Hayek). Finally, Tracy Jordan (Tracy Morgan) tries to help Kenneth Parcell (Jack McBrayer) win the affections of a new staffer (Thayer). This episode also continued a story arc involving Drew as a love interest for Liz, which began in the previous episode.

"St. Valentine's Day" has received generally positive reviews from television critics. According to the Nielsen Media Research, the episode was watched by 7.6 million households during its original broadcast, and received a 3.8 rating among viewers in the 18–49 demographic.

Taewonsu

Taewŏnsu (literally grand marshal, usually translated as generalissimo) is the highest possible military rank of North Korea and is intended to be an honorific title for Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. The rank is senior to that of wonsu (marshal). The title also exists in Chinese military history as dàyuánshuài (same Sino-Korean characters 大元帥), and was briefly taken by Sun Yat-Sen.

Ted Rall

Frederick Theodore Rall III (born August 26, 1963) is an American columnist, syndicated editorial cartoonist, and author. His political cartoons often appear in a multi-panel comic-strip format and frequently blend comic-strip and editorial-cartoon conventions. The cartoons appear in approximately 100 newspapers around the United States. He was president of the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists from 2008 to 2009.

Rall draws three editorial cartoons a week for syndication, draws illustrations on a freelance basis, writes a weekly syndicated column, and edits the Attitude series of alternative cartooning anthologies and spin-off collections by up-and-coming cartoonists. He writes and draws cartoons for the tech and politics news site founded by journalist Gina Smith, aNewDomain, and is the editor-in-chief of the satirical news website skewednews.net.

Rall also writes and draws cartoons for Sputnik International, a news website platform established by the Russian government-owned news agency Rossiya Segodnya.

He is an award-winning graphic novelist and the author of non-fiction books about domestic and international current affairs. He also travels to and writes about Central Asia, a region he believes to be pivotal to U.S. foreign policy concerns. In November 2001 he went to Afghanistan as a war correspondent for The Village Voice and KFI Radio in Los Angeles. He returned to Afghanistan in August 2010, traveling independently and unembedded throughout the country, filing daily "cartoon blogs" by satellite.

Yuan shuai

Yuan Shuai (元帥) was a Chinese military rank that corresponds to a marshal in other nations. It was given to distinguished generals during China's dynastic and republican periods. A higher level rank of da yuan shuai (大元帥), which corresponds to generalissimo, also existed.

Navies Armies Air forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the Army
Marshal of
the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Commodore Brigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
Commandant
Squadron leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade
or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenant Pilot officer
Officer cadet Officer cadet Flight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading seaman Corporal or
bombardier
Corporal
Seaman Private or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
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Ancient
Modern

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