General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries. With a few exceptions, from 1929 until the union's dissolution the holder of the office was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union,[2] because the post controlled both the CPSU and the Soviet government.[3] Joseph Stalin elevated the office to overall command of the Communist Party and by extension the whole Soviet Union.[4] Nikita Khrushchev renamed the post First Secretary in 1953; the change was reverted in 1966.

The office grew out of less powerful secretarial positions within the party: Technical Secretary (1917–1918), Chairman of the Secretariat (1918–1919), Responsible Secretary (1919–1922) (when Lenin was leader of the party of Bolsheviks).

General Secretary of Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПСС
КПСС
Emblem of the Communist Party
RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (close-up)
Last officeholder
Mikhail Gorbachev

10 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Central Committee of the Communist Party
StyleMr. General Secretary
StatusParty leader
Member ofPolitburo
Secretariat
ResidenceKremlin Senate[1]
SeatKremlin, Moscow
AppointerCentral Committee
Constituting instrumentParty statutes
Formation
  • Technical Secretary:
    April 1917
  • General Secretary:
    3 April 1922
First holderElena Stasova
as Technical Secretary
Yakov Sverdlov
as Chairman of the Secretariat
Nikolay Krestinsky
as Responsible Secretary
Joseph Stalin
as General Secretary
Final holderMikhail Gorbachev
as General Secretary
Vladimir Ivashko
as acting General Secretary
Abolished29 August 1991
DeputyDeputy General Secretary of the Communist Party

History

In its first two incarnations the office performed mostly secretarial work. The post of Responsible Secretary was then established in 1919 to perform administrative work.[5] In 1922, the office of General Secretary followed as a purely administrative and disciplinary position, whose role was to do no more than determine party membership composition. Stalin, its first incumbent, used the principles of democratic centralism to transform his office into that of party leader, and later leader of the Soviet Union.[4]

In 1934, the 17th Party Congress refrained from formally re-electing Stalin as General Secretary. However, Stalin was re-elected into all other positions and remained leader of the party without diminishment.[6]

In the 1950s, Stalin increasingly withdrew from Secretariat business, leaving the supervision of the body to Georgy Malenkov, possibly to test him as a potential successor.[7] In October 1952, at the 19th Party Congress, Stalin restructured the party's leadership. His request, voiced through Malenkov, to be relieved of his duties in the party secretariat due to his age, was rejected by the party congress, as delegates were unsure about Stalin's intentions.[8] In the end, the congress formally abolished Stalin's office of General Secretary, though Stalin remained one of the party secretaries and maintained ultimate control of the Party.[9][10] When Stalin died on 5 March 1953, Malenkov was the most important member of the Secretariat, which also included Nikita Khrushchev, among others. Under a short-lived troika of Malenkov, Beria, and Molotov, Malenkov became Chairman of the Council of Ministers but was forced to resign from the Secretariat nine days later on 14 March, leaving Khrushchev in effective control of the body.[11] Khrushchev was elected to the new office of First Secretary at the Central Committee plenum on 14 September of the same year. Originally conceived as a collective leadership, Khrushchev removed his rivals from power in both 1955 and (especially) 1957 and reinforced the supremacy of the First Secretary.[12]

In 1964, opposition within the Politburo and the Central Committee led to Khrushchev's removal as First Secretary. Leonid Brezhnev succeeded Khrushchev to the post as part of another collective leadership, together with Premier Alexei Kosygin and others.[13] The office was renamed General Secretary in 1966.[14] The collective leadership was able to limit the powers of the General Secretary during the Brezhnev Era.[15] Brezhnev's influence grew throughout the 1970s as he was able to retain support by avoiding any radical reforms.[16] Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko ruled the country in the same way as Brezhnev had.[17] Mikhail Gorbachev ruled the Soviet Union as General Secretary until 1990, when the Communist Party lost its monopoly of power over the political system. The office of President of the Soviet Union was established so that Gorbachev still retained his role as leader of the Soviet Union.[18] Following the failed August coup of 1991, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary.[19] He was succeeded by his deputy, Vladimir Ivashko, who only served for five days as Acting General Secretary before Boris Yeltsin, the President of Russia, suspended all activity in the Communist Party.[20] Following the party's ban, the Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union (UCP–CPSU) was established by Oleg Shenin in 1993. The UCP–CPSU works as a framework for reviving and restoring the CPSU. The organisation has members in all the former Soviet republics.[21]

List of officeholders

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office Notes
Technical Secretary of the Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) (1917–1918)
Elena Stasova
(1873–1966)[22]
Stasova2 April 1917 – 1918 As Technical Secretary, Stasova and her staff of four women were responsible for maintaining correspondence with provincial party cells, assigning work, keeping financial records, distributing Party funds,[23] formulating party structure policy and appointing new personnel.[24]
Chairman of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (1918–1919)
Yakov Sverdlov
(1885–1919)[25]
Old Russia - Yakov Sverdlov 1918-1 1918 – 16 March 1919 Sverdlov remained in office until his death on 16 March 1919. During his tenure he was mainly responsible for technical rather than political matters.[26]
Elena Stasova
(1873–1966)[22]
Stasova2 March 1919 – December 1919 When her office was dissolved, Stasova was not considered a serious competitor for the post of Responsible Secretary, the successor office to the Chairman of the Secretariat.[27]
Responsible Secretary of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (1919–1922)
Nikolay Krestinsky
(1883–1938)[28]
Nikolai Krestinsky December 1919 – March 1921 The office of Responsible Secretary functioned like a secretary, a somewhat menial position given that Krestinsky was also a member of the Party's Politburo, Orgburo and Secretariat. Nevertheless, Krestinsky never tried to create an independent power base as Joseph Stalin later did during his time as General Secretary.[5]
Vyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)[29]
Molotov.bra 16 March 1921 – 3 April 1922 Was elected Responsible Secretary at the 10th Party Congress held in March 1921. The Congress decided that the office of Responsible Secretary should have a presence at Politburo plenums. As a result, Molotov became a candidate member of the Politburo.[30]
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (1922–1952)
Joseph Stalin
(1878–1953)[31]
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 3 April 1922 – 16 October 1952 Stalin used the office of General Secretary to create a strong power base for himself. At the 17th Party Congress in 1934, Stalin was not formally re-elected as General Secretary[32] and the office was rarely mentioned after that[33] but Stalin retained his positions and all of his power. The office was formally abolished at the 19th Party Congress on 16 October 1952, but Stalin remained secretary and retained ultimate power.[10] At 30 years 7 months, Stalin was by far the longest-serving General Secretary, serving for almost half of the USSR's entire existence.
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953–1966)
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894–1971)[34]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0628-0015-035, Nikita S. Chruschtschow 14 September 1953 – 14 October 1964 Khrushchev reestablished the office on 14 September 1953 under the name First Secretary. In 1957 he was nearly removed from office by the Anti-Party Group. Georgy Malenkov, a leading member of the Anti-Party Group, worried that the powers of the First Secretary were virtually unlimited.[35] Khrushchev was removed as leader on 14 October 1964, and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev.[14]
Leonid Brezhnev
(1906–1982) [36]
1977 CPA 4774(Cutted) 14 October 1964 – 8 April 1966 Brezhnev was part of a collective leadership with Premier Alexei Kosygin and others.[13] The office of First Secretary was renamed General Secretary at the 23rd Party Congress.[15]
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1966–1991)
Leonid Brezhnev
(1906–1982) [36]
1977 CPA 4774(Cutted) 8 April 1966 – 10 November 1982 Brezhnev's powers and functions as the General Secretary were limited by the collective leadership.[16] By the 1970s Brezhnev's influence exceeded that of Kosygin as he was able to retain this support by avoiding any radical reforms.
Yuri Andropov
(1914–1984)[37]
Yuri Andropov - Soviet Life, August 1983 12 November 1982 – 9 February 1984 He emerged as Brezhnev's most likely successor as the chairman of the committee in charge of managing Brezhnev's funeral.[38] Andropov ruled the country in the same way Brezhnev had before he died.[17]
Konstantin Chernenko
(1911–1985)[36]
Черненко Константин Устинович, партийный билет (cropped) 13 February 1984 – 10 March 1985 Chernenko was 72 years old when elected to the post of General Secretary and in rapidly failing health.[39] Like Andropov, Chernenko ruled the country in the same way Brezhnev had.[17]
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931–)[40]
RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (crop) 11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991 The 1990 Congress of People's Deputies removed Article 6 from the 1977 Soviet Constitution. Thus, the Communist Party lost its position as the "leading and guiding force of the Soviet society" and the powers of the General Secretary were drastically curtailed. Throughout the rest of his tenure Gorbachev ruled through the office of President of the Soviet Union.[18] He resigned from his party office on 24 August 1991 in the aftermath of the August Coup.[19]
Vladimir Ivashko
(Acting)
(1932–1994)[41]
24 August 1991 – 29 August 1991 He was elected Deputy General Secretary at the 28th Party Congress. Ivashko became acting General Secretary following Gorbachev's resignation, but by then the Party was politically impotent and on 29 August 1991, it was banned.[20]

Notes

  1. ^ "ГЛАВНЫЙ КОРПУС КРЕМЛЯ". The VVM Library. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  2. ^ Armstrong 1986, p. 93.
  3. ^ Armstrong 1986, p. 98.
  4. ^ a b Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 142–146.
  5. ^ a b Fainsod & Hough 1979, p. 126.
  6. ^ "Secretariat, Orgburo, Politburo and Presidium of the CC of the CPSU in 1919–1990 – Izvestia of the CC of the CPSU" (in Russian). 7 November 1990. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  7. ^ Z. Medvedev & R. Medvedev 2006, p. 40.
  8. ^ Z. Medvedev & R. Medvedev 2006, p. 40-41.
  9. ^ Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939 - 1953, p. 345.
  10. ^ a b Brown 2009, pp. 231–232.
  11. ^ Ra'anan 2006, pp. 29–31.
  12. ^ Ra'anan 2006, p. 58.
  13. ^ a b Brown 2009, p. 403.
  14. ^ a b Service 2009, p. 378.
  15. ^ a b McCauley 1997, p. 48.
  16. ^ a b Baylis 1989, pp. 98–99 & 104.
  17. ^ a b c Baylis 1989, p. 98.
  18. ^ a b Kort 2010, p. 394.
  19. ^ a b Radetsky 2007, p. 219.
  20. ^ a b McCauley 1997, p. 105.
  21. ^ Backes & Moreau 2008, p. 415.
  22. ^ a b McCauley 1997, p. 117.
  23. ^ Clements 1997, p. 140.
  24. ^ Fairfax 1999, p. 36.
  25. ^ Williamson 2007, p. 42.
  26. ^ Zemtsov 2001, p. 132.
  27. ^ Noonan 2001, p. 183.
  28. ^ Rogovin 2001, p. 38.
  29. ^ Phillips 2001, p. 20.
  30. ^ Grill 2002, p. 72.
  31. ^ Brown 2009, p. 59.
  32. ^ Rappaport 1999, pp. 95–96.
  33. ^ Ulam 2007, p. 734.
  34. ^ Taubman 2003, p. 258.
  35. ^ Ra'anan 2006, p. 69.
  36. ^ a b c Chubarov 2003, p. 60.
  37. ^ Vasil'eva 1994, pp. 218.
  38. ^ White 2000, p. 211.
  39. ^ Service 2009, pp. 433–435.
  40. ^ Service 2009, p. 435.
  41. ^ McCauley 1998, p. 314.

See also

Sources

1942 in the Soviet Union

The following lists events that happened during 1942 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

1967 October Revolution Parade

The 1967 October Revolution Parade is the parade on Moscow's Red Square devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, 7 November 1967. As 1967 being the 50th anniversary parade it would feature troops dressed up as historical units from the Russian civil war era. It would also feature the first Color guard on parade from the honor guard. Cavalry units from the Revolution era also rode through Red Square. Commanding the parade is First Deputy Commander of the Moscow Military District, Colonel General Evgeny Ivanovski. Inspecting the parade and also giving his first jubilee address is Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev was on Lenin's Mausoleum in attendance. Major General Nikolai Nazarov was the conductor of the Moscow Military District massed bands which performed on that historic event. The General Secretary of East Germany's Socialist Unity Party Walter Ulbricht was also in attendance. The massed bands marched off to the tune of "My Beloved Motherland" at the end of the mobile column.

Nationwide, the events were aired live on monochrome on Soviet Central Television. Moscow TV viewers saw the first color broadcasts during that parade for the first time on Programme 1 and Moscow Program 3.

1974 October Revolution Parade

The 1974 October Revolution Parade was a parade on Red Square dedicated to the 57th anniversary of the October Revolution on November 7th 1974. It was inspected by the Minister of Defense and Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko who also made a speech to the Soviet People on Red Square on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum. The Parade Commander is the Commander of the Moscow Garrison Colonel General Vladimir Govorov. Also on Lenin's Mausoleum is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev and the President Nikolai Podgorny. This Parade is the last to feature heavy nuclear missiles such as Ballistic Missiles. Due to the rain that took place that day the parade of workers and athletes after the parade finale was cancelled.Although the demonstrations on Red Square was Cancelled the demonstrations on Palace Square in Leningrad continued following the parade there.

1975 October Revolution Parade

The 1975 October Revolution Parade was a parade on Red Square dedicated to the 58th anniversary of the October Revolution on November 7th 1975. Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko gave his last speech on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum, before he died the following April. Commanding the parade was the head of the Moscow Military District Colonel General Vladimir Govorov. Providing the music for his final parade, was conducted by Major General Nikolai Nazarov of the combined massed bands of the Moscow Garrison. A scaled down display of military technologies was also present. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev and Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin were present at the parade.

A color guard unit marched past there for the 1st time since 1967, but with the Victory Banner at the lead.

1977 October Revolution Parade

The 1977 October Revolution Parade was a military parade that took place in Red Square in Moscow on 7 November 1977 to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution. The annual parade marks the protest of the Bolsheviks against the Tsarist Government. Marshal Dmitry Ustinov delivered his second holiday address to the nation on this day, right after the parade inspection that had presided over by him and led by the commander of the Moscow Garrison Colonel General Vladimir Govorov. Music was performed by the Combined Orchestra of the Moscow Garrison conducted by Colonel Nikolai Mikhailov. As per tradition, 14 other Soviet Cities (including Leningrad) held their parades on this day.

The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev and Prime minister Alexei Kosygin attended the parade.The big highlight was the T-72 tank was first publicly seen at this parade. The parade as well featured a full return to the iconic armor columns and missiles in the second half of the military portion of the parade. This parade also included the updated anthem of the U.S.S.R.

1987 October Revolution Parade

The 1987 October Revolution Parade was a parade on Red Square to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917. It took place in Moscow on November 7, 1987. Marshal of the Soviet Union and the Minister of Defence Dmitry Yazov inspected the parade. Commanding the parade was the commander of the Moscow Garrison Vladimir Arkhipov.

Music was performed by the head of Moscow Garrison's central band, Major General Nikolai Mikhailov. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev and other members of the Politburo were on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum in Red Square.

1989 October Revolution Parade

The 1989 October Revolution Parade was a parade that took place in Red Square in Moscow on 7 November 1989 to commemorate the 72th anniversary of the socialist revolution in the Russian Empire in 1917. Mikhail Gorbachev the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Nikolai Ryzhkov the Premier of the Soviet Union was on Lenin's Mausoleum watching the parade. This would be the last time that Gorbachev would be at the parade in the capacity of General Secretary. General of the Army and Minister of Defence Dmitry Yazov made his 3rd holiday address to the nation after he inspected the troops. It is one of the last traditional soviet parades in the USSR's existence. Col. Gen. Nikolai Vasilyevich Kalinin the head of the Moscow Military District was the 1989 parade commander. After the parade the Central band of the honor guard performed during a Military band show on Red square.

1989 Sino-Soviet Summit

The four-day Sino-Soviet Summit was held in Beijing from May 15–18, 1989. This would be the first formal meeting between the Soviet Communist leader and the Chinese Communist leader since the Sino-Soviet split in the 1950s. The last Soviet leader to visit China was Nikita Khrushchev in September 1959. Both Deng Xiaoping, the paramount leader of China, and Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, proclaimed that the summit was the beginning of normalized state-to-state relations. The meeting between Mikhail Gorbachev and then General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), Zhao Ziyang, was hailed as the “natural restoration" of party-to-party relations.

1991 in the Soviet Union

The following lists events that happened during 1991 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The Soviet Union had a transitional government in 1991, during the fall of communism. Every republic in the union had growing nationalism until Christmas of 1991 when Mikhail Gorbachev, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and President of the Soviet Union, abandoned the Union at the time of its dissolution. The dissolution created huge changes in politics and territorial claims. NATO scaled back its presence following the dissolution.

Albert Chernenko

Albert Konstantinovich Chernenko (Russian: Альбе́рт Константи́нович Черне́нко; January 6, 1935 – April 11, 2009) was a Russian philosopher, best known for his innovations in the field of social and legal philosophy. He was the son of Konstantin Chernenko, the fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

During the rule of the Soviet Union, Chernenko created the theory of "historical causality," which asserts that the multilevel nature of cause-effect relationships plays a significant part in historical processes. This was an essential step in the development of the Soviets' understanding of historical events. According to Chernenko, causality in history has three levels of self-development: "general" (the building of a concrete formation), "special" (historical conditions), and "individual" (actions of historic figures).In the early 1990s, he developed the idea of "legal technology," in which the methodology of social engineering is used to design social processes and to reform a social system. The purpose of legal technology, according to Chernenko, is the creation of a rational and effective legal system in light of the multilevel nature of causality and system-substantial understanding of the right. In this sense as the social phenomenon has the right not only external (the social environment), but also internal potential of inconsistent "self-development", that allows to consider the legal phenomena in a context sociocultural determinations (at a macrolevel) and self-determinations (microlevel).

Communist Party of Social Justice

The Communist Party of Social Justice (CPSU; Russian: Коммунистическая партия социальной справедливости) is a communist party in Russia established and registered in 2012 which favours the construction of a socialist state. The party was created with the participation of the leader of the Democratic Party of Russia and politician Andrey Bogdanov.In the 2013 elections in Volgograd, the party received 5.04% (9055 votes) breaking the five-percent threshold and received one seat in the city Parliament.In 2014, Bognadov became party leader, succeeding Yuri Morozov in this post. Andrei Brezhnev, grandson of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev, was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the party. In this year's election, Brezhnev was the candidate for the Parliament of Crimea and Sevastopol, but the party did not win any seats.The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF) has accused the party of being a creation of the Kremlin and United Russia to siphon votes away from the KPRF.

David Devdariani

David Devdariani (Georgian: დავით დევდარიანი) (November 17, 1927 – June 13, 2006) was a Professor of Jurisprudence and Head of Law Faculty at Georgian Technical University. He was the son of the famous Georgian revolutionary Gaioz Devdariani who was executed during the Great Purge in 1938 by orders of Joseph Stalin. David was born in Tbilisi, Georgia and attended the Russian gymnasium in Ukraine. In 1950, just before applying for university studies in Tbilisi, he was arrested by MVD (former NKVD) for being “the son of the enemy of the people” (Russian: "сын врага народа") and charged with Article 58 of counter-revolutionary activities. In KGB operated jail Devdariani suffered a great ordeal of which effects lasted throughout his life.While imprisoned Devdariani began a dissident activities for Independence of Georgia from USSR. In 1956 after condemnation of Stalinism in USSR, Devdariani was released by the orders of Nikita Khrushchev (General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union). Soon after his release Devdariani enrolled in the Tbilisi State University and graduated with honours from the Faculty of Law. In the 1970s, he became the Head of the Faculty of Law and Jurisprudence at Georgian Polytechnic University and lived with his sister Medea Devdariani. During the pro-independence movement in Tbilisi in 1989, Devdariani was involved in various demonstrations and activities for the support of Georgian independence. In 1992-1993, he began petitioning and working for the peaceful conflict settlement in Georgia’s breakaway region of Abkhazia. Devdariani wrote numerous appeals and letters to the United Nations, heads of G8 and introduced his reform proposal of United Nations Security Council to Kofi Annan. Devdariani published numerous books and articles on Law, United Nations reforms and Conflictology. In 2001, Devdariani was awarded Order of Honor (Honor Medal is awarded to Georgian citizens who actively participated in the revival of Georgia and devoted themselves to noble deeds) by the President of Georgia Edward Shevardnadze for his contributions for the study of Jurisprudence and raising the awareness about the tragedy in Abkhazia. In 2005, he published the book: "The Oath Book of the 21st Century," which contained propositions and recommendations for the reformation of UN and the peaceful settlements of Post-Soviet conflicts. David Devdariani died in Tbilisi on June 13, 2006 from cancer.

Kurt Furgler

Kurt Furgler (24 June 1924 – 23 July 2008) was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council (1972–1986).

He was elected to the Federal Council of Switzerland on 8 December 1971 and handed over office on 31 December 1986. He was affiliated to the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland.

During his office time he held the following departments:

Federal Department of Justice and Police (1972–1982)

Federal Department of Economic Affairs (1983–1986)He was President of the Confederation three times in 1977, 1981 and 1985.

Kurt Furgler was born and raised in St. Gallen, Switzerland. He studied Jurisprudence in Fribourg, Zurich and Geneva, and was an avid handball player during his youth. In 1948, he obtained his license to practice law in St. Gallen. As a conservative centrist in the Federal Council of Switzerland, he advocated equal rights for women, and initiated economic reforms and modernized immigration and Swiss family law.During his presidency, he argued for the European integration of Switzerland, and in 1982, signed the Luxembourg Declaration, which called for a closer cooperation between the European Union and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Dr. Furgler demanded a strong central government but failed to establish a Swiss federal police due to strong opposition from the left and confederated forces of the right.In November 1985, he asserted his significant representative role in international relations when he welcomed the American president Ronald Reagan, with first lady Nancy Reagan, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Michail Gorbatschow for the first round of the arms control summit in Geneva.Kurt Furgler resigned unexpectedly in 1986, but continued to serve in a number of committees, including the Club of Rome, InterAction Council and the International Olympic Committee.

Myron Rush

Myron Rush (January 1, 1922 – January 8, 2018) was an American academic. He was a professor of government at Cornell University, and "one of world’s foremost Kremlinologists."Rush obtained his bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago after attending Woodrow Wilson Junior College and served in the United States Army Air Forces, then returned to Chicago for his doctorate. Subsequently, Rush worked for the Central Intelligence Agency and the RAND Corporation before joining the Cornell University faculty in 1965. Rush retired in 1992.Rush was noted for discovering that Nikita Khrushchev was making a push to be General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, following Joseph Stalin's death in 1953.

President of the Soviet Union

The President of the Soviet Union (Russian: Президент Советского Союза, Prezident Sovetskogo Soyuza), officially called President of the USSR (Russian: Президент СССР) or President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Президент Союза Советских Социалистических Республик), was the head of state of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991. Mikhail Gorbachev was the only person to occupy the office. Gorbachev was also General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union between March 1985 and August 1991. He derived an increasingly greater share of his power from his position as president until he finally resigned as General Secretary after the 1991 coup d'état attempt.

Vasily Lazarev

Vasily Grigoryevich Lazarev (Russian: Васи́лий Григо́рьевич Ла́зарев; February 23, 1928 – December 31, 1990) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 12 spaceflight as well as the abortive Soyuz 18a launch in April 5, 1975.

He was injured by the high acceleration of the abort and landing and was initially denied his spaceflight bonus pay, having to appeal directly to Leonid Brezhnev to receive it. Brezhnev was at the time the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Lazarev held a degree in medicine and the rank of colonel in the Soviet Air Force. He remained in the space programme until failing a physical in 1981. He never fully recovered from the injuries sustained on Soyuz 18a and died on the last day of 1990 at only 62.

He was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, the title Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR and the Order of Lenin.

Vladimir Ivashko

Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: Влади́мир Анто́нович Ива́шко; Ukrainian: Володимир Антонович Івашко, Volodymyr Ivashko) (28 October 1932 – 13 November 1994), was a Soviet Ukrainian politician, briefly acting as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during the period from 24 August 1991 to 29 August 1991. On 24 August Mikhail Gorbachev resigned, and on 29 August the CPSU was suspended by the Supreme Soviet. Before becoming General Secretary he had been voted Gorbachev's Deputy General Secretary within the Party on 12 July 1990, a newly created position as a result of the 28th Congress of the Communist Party

The Communist Party in between Gorbachev's resignation and its suspension was politically impotent. By the time of the 28th Congress in July 1990, the party was largely regarded as being unable to lead the country and had, in fifteen republics, split into opposing factions favouring either independent republics or the continuation of the Soviet Union. Stripped of its leading role in society, the party lost its authority to lead the nation or the cohesion that kept the party united. Actual political power lay in the positions of President of the Soviet Union (held by Gorbachev) and President of the Russian SFSR (held by Boris Yeltsin). During the August coup he did not make public statements but on behalf of the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee distributed letters to local party organizations calling on them to uphold the CPSU.

Mikhail Gorbachev brought in his ally Ivashko in to replace the long-serving Volodymyr Shcherbytsky as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian SSR on 28 September 1989. Ivashko led the Communists to victory in the first relatively free parliamentary election held in the Ukrainian SSR, which took place from 4 March to 18 March 1990, the Communists winning 331 seats to the 'Democratic Bloc's' 111 seats. Ivashko was elected by the communist majority to the post of the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR on 4 June 1990. Since the abandonment by the Communists of their `leading role` in early 1990 this position now superseded that of First Secretary of the Communist Party as most powerful position in the Ukraine.

He resigned his position as First Secretary on 22 June 1990 following opposition demonstrations against his occupation of both the First Secretary post and Chairmanship of the Rada. However, on 9 July 1990 he too resigned as Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR after declining to be recalled to Kiev during the 28th Congress of the Communist Party in Moscow, and a few days later successfully secured the position of Deputy General Secretary of the CPSU.

Ivashko retired in 1992 and died on 13 November 1994, at the age of 62 after an undetermined "long illness".

Washington Summit

The Washington Summit of 1987 was a Cold War-era meeting between United States president Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev that took place December 8–10. Reagan and Gorbachev discussed regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Central America, and Southern Africa, arms control issues for chemical weapons as well as conventional weapons, the status of START negotiations, and human rights. A notable accomplishment of the Washington Summit was the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.

Yevgeny Samoteykin

Yevgeny Matveyevich Samoteykin (Russian: Евгений Матвеевич Самотейкин); October 18, 1928, – July 20, 2014) was a Soviet diplomat.From 1952, Samoteykin worked in the central apparatus of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in Soviet diplomatic missions abroad. From 1964 he was a personal assistant to the First (later, General) secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee.On 24 April 1983 he was appointed as Ambassador of the Soviet Union to Australia, with concurrent accreditation to Nauru, Fiji and Vanuatu, and held the post until 22 August 1990.

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