General Dynamics Electric Boat

General Dynamics Electric Boat[1] (GDEB) is a subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation. It has been the primary builder of submarines for the United States Navy for more than 100 years. The company's main facilities are a shipyard in Groton, Connecticut, a hull-fabrication and outfitting facility in Quonset Point, Rhode Island, and a design and engineering facility in New London, Connecticut.

Coordinates: 41°20′40″N 72°04′46″W / 41.344343°N 72.079526°W

General Dynamics Electric Boat
Subsidiary
IndustryShipbuilding
Founded1899
FounderIsaac Rice
Headquarters,
U.S.
Number of locations
Groton, Connecticut;
Quonset Point, Rhode Island; New London, Connecticut
Key people
Jeff Geiger
ParentGeneral Dynamics
Websitewww.gdeb.com

History

The company was founded in 1899 by Isaac Rice as the Electric Boat Company to build John Philip Holland's submersible ship designs, which were developed at Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Holland VI was the first submarine that this shipyard built, which became the USS Holland when it was commissioned into the United States Navy on April 11, 1900—the first submarine to be officially commissioned.[2] The success of Holland VI created a demand for follow-up models (A class or Plunger class) that began with the prototype submersible Fulton built at Electric Boat (EB). Some foreign navies were interested in John Holland's latest submarine designs, and so purchased the rights to build them under licensing contracts through EB; these included the United Kingdom's Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Imperial Russian Navy, and the Royal Netherlands Navy.

During the World War I era, the company and its subsidiaries (notably Elco) built 85 submarines via subcontractors and 722 submarine chasers for the US Navy, and 580 80-foot motor launches for the British Royal Navy.[3] After the war, the US Navy did not order another submarine until Cuttlefish in 1931.[4] During World War II, the company built 74 submarines, while Elco built nearly 400 PT boats,[5] and Electric Boat ranked 77th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[6] In 1952, Electric Boat was reorganized as General Dynamics Corporation under John Jay Hopkins. General Dynamics acquired Convair the following year, and the holding company assumed the "General Dynamics" name while the submarine-building operation reverted to the "Electric Boat" name.[7]

Electric Boat built the first nuclear submarine USS Nautilus which was launched in January 1954, and the first ballistic missile submarine USS George Washington in 1959. Submarines of the Ohio-, Los Angeles-, Seawolf-, and Virginia-classes were also constructed by Electric Boat. In 2002, EB conducted preservation work on Nautilus, preparing her for her berth at the US Navy Submarine Force Library and Museum in Groton, Connecticut where she now resides as a museum. Electric Boat's first submarine Holland was scrapped in 1932.

In the early 1980s, structural welding defects had been covered up by falsified inspection records, and this led to significant delays and expenses in the delivery of several submarines being built at EB shipyard. In some cases, the repairs resulted in practically dismantling and then rebuilding what had been a nearly completed submarine. The yard tried to pass the vast cost overruns directly on to the Navy, while Admiral Hyman G. Rickover demanded from Electric Boat's general manager P. Takis Veliotis that the yard make good on its "shoddy" workmanship.

The Navy eventually settled with General Dynamics in 1981, paying out $634 million of $843 million in Los Angeles-class submarine cost-overrun and reconstruction claims. As it happened, the Navy was also the yard's insurer, liable to compensate the company for losses and other mishaps. The concept of reimbursing General Dynamics under these conditions was initially considered "preposterous," in the words of Secretary of the Navy John Lehman, but the eventual, legal basis of General Dynamics' reimbursement claims to the Navy for the company's poor workmanship included insurance compensation.[8][9] Veliotis was subsequently indicted by a federal grand jury under racketeering and fraud charges in 1983 for demanding $1.3 million in kickbacks from a subcontractor. He escaped into exile and a life of luxury in his native Greece, where he remained a fugitive from U.S. justice.[10][11]

Electric Boat overhauls and undertakes repair work on fast attack class boats. The company built the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and Seawolf-class submarines, as well as others. In April 2014, EB was awarded a $17.8 billion contract with Naval Sea Systems Command for ten Block IV Virginia-class attack submarines. It is the largest single shipbuilding contract in the service's history. The company builds the submarine along with Huntington Ingalls Industries Newport News Shipbuilding. The boats of Block IV Virginias will cost less than Block III, as Electric Boat reduced the cost of the submarines by increasing efficiency in the construction process. The submarines of this type will build on the improvements to allow the boats to spend less time in the yard.[12]

Ships built

Cachalot class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Cuttlefish SS-171 diesel-electric 8 June 1934[13] Sold for breaking up, 12 February 1947[13]

Porpoise class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Shark SS-174 diesel-electric 25 January 1936[13] Probably sunk by Japanese destroyer Yamakaze east of Manado, 11 February 1942[14]
Tarpon SS-175 diesel-electric 12 March 1936[13] Sold for breaking up, 8 June 1957;[13] foundered off Cape Hatteras, 26 August 1957[14]
Perch SS-176 diesel-electric 19 November 1936[13] Scuttled in the Java Sea on 3 March 1942 after being damaged by Japanese destroyers[14]
Pickerel SS-177 diesel-electric 26 January 1937[13] Sunk by Japanese vessels north of Honshū on 3 April 1943[14]
Permit SS-178 diesel-electric 17 March 1937[13] Sold for scrap on 28 June 1958[13]

Salmon class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Salmon SS-182 composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric 15 March 1938[13] Constructive loss due to battle damage; broken up for scrap, 1946[13]
Seal SS-183 composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric 30 April 1938[13] Sold for scrap, 6 May 1957[13]
Skipjack SS-184 composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric 30 June 1938[13] Sunk in Operation Crossroads atomic bomb test, 25 July 1946; raised 2 September 1946; sunk as a target off southern California, 11 August 1948[13][14]

Sargo class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Sargo SS-188 composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric 7 February 1939[13] Sold for scrap, 19 May 1947[13]
Saury SS-189 composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric 3 April 1939[13] Sold for scrap, 19 May 1947[13]
Spearfish SS-190 composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric 19 July 1939[13] Sold for scrap, 19 May 1947[13]
Seadragon SS-194 diesel-electric 23 October 1939[13] Sold for scrap, 2 July 1948[13]
Sealion SS-195 diesel-electric 27 November 1939[13] Scuttled at Cavite on 25 December 1941 after being damaged by Japanese aircraft on 10 December 1941[14]

Tambor class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Tambor SS-198 diesel-electric 3 June 1940[13] Sold for scrap, 5 December 1959[13]
Tautog SS-199 diesel-electric 3 July 1940[13] Sold for scrap, 1 July 1960[13]
Thresher SS-200 diesel-electric 27 August 1940[13] Sold for scrap, 18 March 1948[13]
Gar SS-206 diesel-electric 14 April 1941[13] Sold for scrap, 11 December 1959[13]
Grampus SS-207 diesel-electric 23 May 1941[13] Possibly sunk by Japanese destroyers in Blackett Strait, 5 March 1943[14]
Grayback SS-208 diesel-electric 30 June 1941[13] Sunk by Japanese aircraft south of Okinawa, 27 February 1944[14]

Mackerel class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Mackerel SS-204 diesel-electric 31 March 1941[13] Sold for scrap, 24 April 1947[13]

Gato class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Gato SS-212 diesel-electric 31 December 1941[13] Sold for scrap, 25 July 1960[14]
Greenling SS-213 diesel-electric 21 January 1942[13] Sold for scrap, 21 June 1960[14]
Grouper SS-214 diesel-electric 12 February 1942[13] Sold for scrap, 11 August 1970[14]
Growler SS-215 diesel-electric 20 March 1942[13] Sunk by Japanese vessels west of the Philippines, 8 November 1944[14]
Grunion SS-216 diesel-electric 11 April 1942[13] Sunk off of Kiska around 30 July 1942, cause unknown[14]
Guardfish SS-217 diesel-electric 8 May 1942[13] Sunk as a target off Block Island, 10 October 1961[14]
Albacore SS-218 diesel-electric 1 June 1942[13] Probably mined off of northern Hokkaidō, 7 November 1944[14]
Amberjack SS-219 diesel-electric 19 June 1942[13] Sunk by Japanese torpedo boat Hiyodori and SC-18 off Rabaul, 16 February 1943[14]
Barb SS-220 diesel-electric 8 July 1942[13] Transferred to Italy on 13 December 1954[14]
Blackfish SS-221 diesel-electric 22 July 1942[13] Sold for scrap on 4 May 1959[14]
Bluefish SS-222 diesel-electric 24 May 1943[13] Sold for scrap, 8 June 1960[14]
Bonefish SS-223 diesel-electric 31 May 1943[13] Sunk by Japanese vessels in Toyama Wan, Honshū, 18 June 1945[14]
Cod SS-224 diesel-electric 21 June 1943[13] Museum ship at Cleveland, Ohio since 25 January 1975[14]
Cero SS-225 diesel-electric 4 July 1943[13] Sold for scrap, October 1970[14]
Corvina SS-226 diesel-electric 6 August 1943[13] Sunk by Japanese submarine I-176 south of Truk Lagoon, 16 November 1943[14]
Darter SS-227 diesel-electric 7 September 1943[13] Grounded in the Palawan Strait and scuttled on 24 October 1944[14]
Angler SS-240 diesel-electric 1 October 1943[13] Sold for scrap, 1 February 1974[14]
Bashaw SS-241 diesel-electric 25 October 1943[13] Sold for scrap, 1 July 1972[14]
Bluegill SS-242 diesel-electric 11 November 1943[13] Scuttled as a trainer off Hawaii, 3 December 1970[14]
Bream SS-243 diesel-electric 24 January 1944[13] Sunk as a target off California, 7 November 1969[14]
Cavalla SS-244 diesel-electric 29 February 1944[13] Museum ship at Galveston, Texas as of 21 January 1971[14]
Cobia SS-245 diesel-electric 29 March 1944[13] Memorial at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, 17 August 1970[14]
Croaker SS-246 diesel-electric 21 April 1944[13] Museum ship at Groton, Connecticut on 27 June 1976[14]
Dace SS-247 diesel-electric 23 July 1943[13] Converted to GUPPY IB and transferred to Italy,[13] 31 January 1955[14]
Dorado SS-248 diesel-electric 28 August 1943[13] Sunk, off Panama on 12 October 1943[14]
Flasher SS-249 diesel-electric 25 September 1943[13] Sold for scrap 8 June 1963, conning tower is a memorial at Groton, Connecticut[13]
Flier SS-250 diesel-electric 18 October 1943[13] Mined in the Balabac Strait, 13 August 1944[14]
Flounder SS-251 diesel-electric 29 November 1943[13] Decommissioned 2 February 1960[13]
Gabilan SS-252 diesel-electric 28 December 1943[13] Sold for scrap, 11 January 1960[13]
Gunnel SS-253 diesel-electric 20 August 1942[13] Sold for scrap, December 1959[13]
Gurnard SS-254 diesel-electric 18 September 1942[13] Sold for scrap, 29 October 1961[14]
Haddo SS-255 diesel-electric 9 October 1942[13] Sold for scrap, 4 May 1959[13]
Hake SS-256 diesel-electric 30 October 1942[13] Sold for scrap, 5 December 1972[13]
Harder SS-257 diesel-electric 2 December 1942[13] Sunk by enemy vessels off Dasol Bay, Luzon, 24 August 1944[14]|-
Hoe SS-258 diesel-electric 16 December 1942[13] Sold for scrap, 10 September 1960[13]
Jack SS-259 diesel-electric 6 January 1943[13] Transferred to Greece, 21 April 1958[14]
Lapon SS-260 diesel-electric 23 January 1943[13] Transferred to Greece, 10 August 1957[14]
Mingo SS-261 diesel-electric 12 February 1943[13] Transferred to Japan unmodified, 15 August 1955[13]
Muskallunge SS-262 diesel-electric 15 March 1943[13] Transferred to Brazil unmodified, 18 January 1957[13]
Paddle SS-263 diesel-electric 29 March 1943[13] Transferred to Brazil unmodified, 18 January 1957[13]
Pargo SS-264 diesel-electric 26 April 1943[13] Sold for scrap, 16 May 1961[13]

Balao class

Clamagore SS343 Balao June 1945 Museum in Charleston SC
Perch SS-313 diesel-electric 7 January 1944[13] Sold for scrap, 15 January 1973[13]

Nautilus class

Name Hull number Type Commissioned Status
Nautilus SSN-571 nuclear-electric 30 September 1954 Museum ship since 20 May 1982 as part of the Submarine Force Library and museum.

References

  1. ^ General Dynamics Electric Boat home page
  2. ^ The Turtle was used in combat during the American Revolutionary War, but it was never officially commissioned into the Navy.
  3. ^ Gardiner, p. 101, 132–133
  4. ^ Lenton, H. T. American Submarines (Doubleday, 1973), p.37; Friedman, Norman. U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History (United States Naval Institute Press, 2005), pp. 285–304.
  5. ^ Lenton, pp.5 & 62–102 passim.
  6. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  7. ^ "General Dynamics Corporation". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on 12 November 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2006.
  8. ^ Van Voorst, Bruce; Thomas Evans (24 December 1984). "Overrun Silent, Overrun Deep". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
  9. ^ Alexander, Charles P.; Christopher Redman; John E. Yang (8 April 1985). "General Dynamics Under Fire". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  10. ^ "The Fugitive Accuser". Time. 8 April 1985. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  11. ^ Biddle, Wayne. "Defense Contracts – News – Times Topics – The New York Times – Narrowed by 'VELIOTIS, P TAKIS'". Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  12. ^ "U.S. Navy Awards 'Largest Shipbuilding Contract' in Service History". Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm Friedman, Norman (1995). U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp. 285–304. ISBN 1-55750-263-3.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0-313-26202-0.
  • Gardiner, Robert, Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906–1921 Conway Maritime Press, 1985. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.

Further reading

  • The Defender: The Story of General Dynamics, by Roger Franklin. Published by Harper and Row 1986.
  • Brotherhood of Arms: General Dynamics and The Business of Defending America, by Jacob Goodwin. Published 1985. Random House.
  • The Legend of Electric Boat, Serving The Silent Service. Published by Write Stuff Syndicate, 1994 and 2007. Written by Jeffery L. Rodengen.
  • International Directory of Company Histories Volume 86 under General Dynamics/Electric Boat Corporation, July 2007; pp. 136–139. Published by St James Press/Thomson Gale Group.
  • Who Built Those Subs? Naval History Magazine, Oct. 1998 125th Anniversary issue, pp. 31–34. Written by Richard Knowles Morris PhD. Published by The United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Md. Copyrighted 1998.
  • The Klaxon, The U.S. Navy's official submarine force newsletter, April 1992. Published by the Nautilus Memorial Submarine Force Library and Museum in Groton/New London, CT.
  • "The Ups and Downs of Electric Boat" John D. Alden, United States Naval Institute, Proceedings Magazine, 1 July 1999, p. 64.
  • Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover, and General Dynamics, by Patrick Tyler. Published by Harper & Row 1986.

External links

Benjamin Franklin-class submarine

The Benjamin Franklin-class submarine was a group of US ballistic missile submarines that were in Navy service from the 1960s–2000s. The class was an evolutionary development from the earlier James Madison class of fleet ballistic missile submarine. Having quieter machinery and other improvements, it is considered a separate class. A subset of this class is the re-engineered 640 class starting with USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654) The primary difference was that they were built under the new SUBSAFE rules after the loss of the USS Thresher, earlier boats of the class had to be retrofitted to meet SUBSAFE requirements. The Benjamin Franklin class, together with the George Washington, Ethan Allen, Lafayette, and James Madison classes, composed the "41 for Freedom" that was the Navy's primary contribution to the nuclear deterrent force through the late 1980s. This class and the James Madison class are combined with the Lafayettes in some references.

Ethan Allen-class submarine

The Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine was an evolutionary development from the George Washington class. The Ethan Allen, together with the George Washington, Lafayette, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin classes comprised the "41 for Freedom" that were the Navy's main contribution to the nuclear deterrent force through the late 1980s.

Groton, Connecticut

Groton is a town in New London County, Connecticut located on the Thames River. It is the home of General Dynamics Electric Boat, which is the major contractor for submarine work for the United States Navy. The Naval Submarine Base New London is located in Groton, and the pharmaceutical company Pfizer is also a major employer. Avery Point in Groton is home to a regional campus of the University of Connecticut. The population was 40,115 at the 2010 census.

Huntington Ingalls Industries

Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) is an American Fortune 500 shipbuilding company formed on March 31, 2011 as a spin-off of Northrop Grumman. It is the largest military shipbuilder in the United States, with its main shipyard located in Newport News.Mike Petters is currently the president and CEO of Huntington Ingalls Industries (formerly president of the Newport News shipyard and president of the Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding).HII is the sole designer, builder, and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in the United States. It is one of two nuclear-powered submarine builders (the other being General Dynamics Electric Boat). 70% of the current, active U.S. Navy surface fleet has been built by HII's former units.

James Madison-class submarine

The James Madison class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the Lafayette class of fleet ballistic missile submarine. They were identical to the Lafayettes except for being initially designed to carry the Polaris A-3 missile instead of the earlier A-2. This class, together with the George Washington, Ethan Allen, Lafayette, and Benjamin Franklin classes, composed the "41 for Freedom" that was the Navy's primary contribution to the nuclear deterrent force through the late 1980s. This class and the Benjamin Franklin class are combined with the Lafayettes in some references.

Lafayette-class submarine

The Lafayette class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine, slightly larger and generally improved. This class, together with the George Washington, Ethan Allen, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin classes, composed the "41 for Freedom," the Navy's primary contribution to the nuclear deterrent force through the late 1980s. The James Madison and Benjamin Franklin classes are combined with the Lafayettes in some references.

List of Los Angeles-class submarines

This is a complete list of Los Angeles-class submarines.

There are;

31 x Flight I,

8 x Flight II with VLS

23 x Flight III 688i (Improved),for a total of 62.

Seawolf-class submarine

The Seawolf class is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (SSN) in service with the United States Navy. The class was the intended successor to the Los Angeles class, and design work began in 1983. A fleet of 29 submarines was to be built over a ten-year period, but that was reduced to 12 submarines. The end of the Cold War and budget constraints led to the cancellation of any further additions to the fleet in 1995, leaving the Seawolf class limited to just three boats. This, in turn, led to the design of the smaller Virginia class. The Seawolf class cost about $3 billion per unit ($3.5 billion for USS Jimmy Carter), making it the most expensive SSN submarine and second most expensive submarine ever, after the French SSBN Triomphant class.

Shippingport (ARDM-4)

Shippingport (ARDM-4) is an ARDM-4-class United States Navy Medium Auxiliary Repair Dry Dock. She is one of the Navy's two medium auxiliary repair dry docks, and was the first floating dry dock built for the US Navy since World War II. Laid down in 1977, delivered and placed in service on 4 January 1979, she is still in service at the Naval Submarine Support Facility at Naval Submarine Base New London, in Groton, Connecticut.

With a displacement of 5400 tons, this floating dry dock had a lifting capacity of 7800 tons. Shippingport has two 25 ton portal gantry cranes on tracks, one running along the top deck of each hull side superstructure. She is a government owned, private contractor operated, restored and certified drydock used to execute submarine repairs.In October 2010, while Shippingport (ARDM-4) was nearing the end of her overhaul at BAE Systems Ship Repair at Norfolk, Virginia, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) announced that General Dynamics Electric Boat was awarded an additional $6.5 million to its contract for ship forces duties during Shippingport's naval service craft overhaul (SCO) and recertification. In September 2012, after being out of service for almost four years, Shippingport completed her SCO and year-long recertification. The SCO included structural modifications to enable a lifting capacity to support a Virginia-class (SSN) nuclear attack submarine. In November 2013, General Dynamics Electric Boat announced it was awarded an additional $7.1 million contract by Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) for further repairs and preservation of floating dry dock Shippingport (ARDM-4), with the work to be completed by September 2014.

USS La Jolla

USS La Jolla (SSN-701), a Los Angeles-class submarine, is named for La Jolla, California. The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut on 10 December 1973 and her keel was laid down on 16 October 1976. She was launched on 11 August 1979 sponsored by Mrs. Jean Bryant Wilson, wife of Congressman Bob Wilson, and commissioned on 24 October 1981, with Captain James R. Lang in command.

During the sea trials for La Jolla, an incident occurred where there was a loss of ship control and subsequent depth excursion at the hands of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover.In late 1982, about 30 miles out of San Francisco, La Jolla, while at periscope depth, collided with the submarine USS Permit, operating on the surface. La Jolla suffered minor rudder damage, while putting a 10-by-3-foot (3.05 m × 0.91 m) scrape in the paint on Permit's keel.

La Jolla was the first to successfully test fire a Tomahawk cruise missile while submerged at the Pacific Missile Test Center on 29 April 1983. Her commanding officer at the time was Cdr. Garnet C. "Skip" Beard, who was later promoted to Navy Captain (O6). Capt. Beard appeared in the movie Crimson Tide, and was listed in the credits as a consultant to that film.

The first West Pacific (West-Pac) cruise was between August 1984 and February 1985, in which La Jolla visited ports in Olongapo Philippines, Hong Kong, Chinhae Korea, and Yokosuka, Japan. All crew members participating in the second half of the 1984–85 West-Pac cruise received the Navy Expeditionary Medal for operations in the Sea of Japan.

On 11 February 1998, about 9 miles out of Chinhae, South Korea, La Jolla accidentally ran into and sank a 27-ton fishing trawler. The five crewmembers of the trawler were rescued by the crew of La Jolla.In 2000, La Jolla was modified to carry a Dry Deck Shelter (DDS).

On 23 August 2004, La Jolla returned to Pearl Harbor after a six-month deployment in the Pacific Ocean. She conducted port visits in Korea, Japan, Singapore, Saipan, and Guam, and participated in five international exercises, including Pacific Reach 2004.

On 30 October 2009 while the sub was undergoing repair at Pearl Harbor, the ship's skipper, Commander Doug Sampson, was relieved of duty by Submarine Squadron 1 Commodore Captain Stanley Robertson. Robertson cited a "loss of confidence in his [Sampson's] ability to command" and that "La Jolla's in-port planning, operations and administrations, which fell short of high Navy standards" as reasons for the relief. Sampson was replaced by Commander Erik Burian, former commanding officer of USS Los Angeles (SSN-688).La Jolla will be decommissioned and converted to a Moored Training Ship (MTS) in August 2017. The submarine began the conversion to MTS in February 2015. The conversion is expected to take 32 months according to the commanding officer. During that time, the submarine will be cut into three pieces, and a portion of the hull will be taken out. Three new hull sections from General Dynamics Electric Boat will be added to accommodate the sub's new mission. A newly fabricated hull section will be welded in place, and the new space will contain training spaces, office spaces, and an emergency safeguard system. The future MTS-701 will be permanently moored at Nuclear Power Training Unit (NTPU) at Naval Support Activity Charleston in South Carolina.

USS Mississippi (SSN-782)

USS Mississippi (SSN-782) is a Virginia-class submarine of the United States Navy, named for the state of Mississippi. The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut on 14 August 2003. Mississippi's keel was laid down on 9 June 2010.Mississippi was christened on 3 December 2011 at General Dynamics Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut. Allison Stiller, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy, is the ship's sponsor. The submarine was commissioned at a ceremony on 2 June 2012 in Pascagoula, Mississippi. SSN-782 was delivered 12 months ahead of schedule and $60 million below planned cost.On 25 November 2014, Mississippi arrived at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, where the ship is permanently assigned to Submarine Squadron 1 of the United States Pacific Fleet.

USS Missouri (SSN-780)

USS Missouri (SSN-780) is the seventh Virginia-class attack submarine and the fourth ship in the United States Navy named in honor of the U.S. state of Missouri. She was completed, and delivered, nine months early and under budget.

USS Montana (SSN-794)

Montana will be a Virginia-class submarine, honoring the U.S. State of Montana. Approximately 10% of Montana citizens have served in the Armed Forces. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced its name on 3 September 2015 at a ceremony hosted in Billings, Montana with U.S. Senator Jon Tester (D-MT). She will be only the second commissioned warship bearing the name "Montana".A contract modification for USS Oregon (SSN-793), Montana (SSN-794), and USS Hyman G. Rickover (SSN-795) was initially awarded to General Dynamics Electric Boat for $594.7 million in April 2012. On 23 December 2014, they were awarded an additional $121.8 million contract modification to buy long lead-time material for the three Virginia-class submarines. The U.S. Navy awarded General Dynamics Electric Boat the contract to construct 10 Block IV Virginia-class submarines for $17.6 billion on 28 April 2014. Vermont commenced in May 2014 with the 10th boat scheduled for delivery in 2023.Construction of Montana began in May 2015 at Huntington Ingalls Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia. Contract completion date is expected to be in May 2020.

USS Oregon (SSN-793)

Oregon will be a Virginia-class submarine, commemorating the history between the U.S. state of Oregon and the United States Navy. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced its name on October 10, 2014 at a ceremony hosted at the Battleship Oregon Memorial in Portland's Tom McCall Waterfront Park.Oregon's keel was laid down on 8 July 2017, in a ceremony held at the Quonset Point Facility of General Dynamics Electric Boat in North Kingstown, Rhode Island, with sponsor Mrs. Dana L. Richardson, wife of the Chief of Naval Operations, ADM John Richardson, in attendance.A contract modification for Oregon SSN-793, Montana SSN-794, and Hyman G. Rickover (SSN-795) was initially awarded to General Dynamics Electric Boat for $594.7 million in April 2012. On December 23, 2014 they were awarded an additional $121.8 million contract modification to buy long lead-time material for the three Virginia-class submarines. The U.S. Navy awarded General Dynamics Electric Boat the contract to construct 10 Block IV Virginia-class submarines for $17.6 billion on April 28, 2014. Vermont commenced in May 2014 with the tenth ship scheduled for delivery in 2023.

USS S-20 (SS-125)

USS S-20 (SS-125) was a first-group (S-1 or "Holland") S-class submarine of the United States Navy. Her keel was laid down on 15 August 1918 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation's Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts. She was launched on 9 June 1920 sponsored by Miss Anne Claggett Zell, and commissioned on 22 November 1922 with Lieutenant John A. Brownell in command.

S-20 was rebuilt in 1924, with a larger bow (similar to that of the V-1 class) to improve seakeeping and blisters on the upper hull to hold more fuel, but this modification was not repeated on any other members of the class. She was also used as an experimental engine test vessel, with a new high-speed geared-drive 600-horsepower (450 kW) MAN diesel replacing her starboard engine in 1931.In 1932, this new engine was replaced by a prototype diesel-electric plant. This was a MAN-type 635-horsepower (474 kW) 16-cylinder engine running at even higher speed, driving an electrical generator, built by General Dynamics Electric Boat and designated 16VM1. Electricity produced by the generator was used to drive a high-speed electric motor geared to the shaft; there was no direct connection between the diesel engine and the shaft. Diesel-electric propulsion was then adopted for many U.S. submarines through World War II, starting with the 1932 Porpoise class; other navies did not follow suit until after the war.

USS Vermont (SSN-792)

Vermont will be a Virginia-class submarine, commemorating the history between the U.S. state of Vermont and the United States Navy. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced her name on September 18, 2014.The U.S. Navy awarded General Dynamics Electric Boat the contract to construct ten Block IV Virginia-class submarines for $17.6 billion on April 28, 2014. Construction on Vermont commenced in May 2014 with the tenth ship scheduled for delivery in 2023.On October 20, 2018, Vermont was christened with a bottle of Vermont sparkling apple wine during a ceremony held at the Electric Boat facility in Groton, Connecticut. Former deputy assistant secretary of the Navy Gloria Valdez served as the ship's sponsor. Phil Scott, Governor of Vermont, and United States Congressman Peter Welch were on hand for the occasion.

Underwater speed record

In 1968 there was an incident when a Soviet November-class submarine tracked an American carrier group traveling at 31 knots (57 km/h). This led the United States Navy to develop the Los Angeles-class submarines, whose reported speed is 30–32 knots (56–59 km/h).

There are established reports and manufacturer's claims that would indicate two (or perhaps more) submarines are capable of speeds exceeding 30 knots (56 km/h). In 1965, USS Albacore reported a speed of 33 knots (61 km/h), but this was not an official record. The Akula (Russian: shark)-class vessel is reportedly capable of travelling submerged at 35 knots (65 km/h), its predecessor, the Alfa class, could attain short speed bursts of 40–45 knots (74–83 km/h) while submerged. There are claims that the Russian titanium submarine K-162 reached 44.7 knots (83 km/h) on sea trials, fully submerged, in 1969. However, due to the rather secretive nature of these vessels, confirmations of these numbers are not present.

The British Spearfish torpedo designed to counter high-speed Russian submarines, such as the Alfa-class submarine, is reputed to have a speed in excess of 70 knots (130 km/h). The Russian rocket-powered supercavitating torpedo VA-111 Shkval is reportedly capable of speed in excess of 200 knots (370 km/h). German press reports of an underwater anti-torpedo missile named Barracuda that allegedly reaches 430 knots (800 km/h). The United States Navy has contracted with the General Dynamics Electric Boat Division to support development of the Underwater Express, an undersea transport capable of controllable speeds up to 100 knots (185 km/h) through supercavitation.

Victory Yard

The Victory Yard was a temporary expansion of the General Dynamics Electric Boat facility in Groton, Connecticut to dramatically increase submarine construction during World War II.

Virginia-class submarine

The Virginia class, also known as the SSN-774 class, is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (hull classification symbol SSN) in service with the United States Navy. The Virginia-class attack submarine is the U.S. Navy’s newest undersea warfare platform and incorporates the latest in stealth, intelligence gathering and weapons systems technology. Attack submarines are designed to seek and destroy enemy submarines and surface ships as well as project power ashore with Tomahawk cruise missiles and Special Operation Forces, carry out Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions; support carrier battle group operations; and engage in naval mine warfare.

Virginia-class submarines are designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral (shallow coastal water) missions. They are replacing older Los Angeles-class submarines, many of which have already been decommissioned. The Seawolf-class attack submarine was originally intended to succeed the Los Angeles class, but production was canceled after only three submarines were produced due to budgeting restraints at the end of the Cold War, and the final submarine was manufactured in 1995. Virginia-class submarines will be acquired through 2043, and are expected to remain in service past 2060. Based on recent updates to the designs, some of the Virginia-class submarines are expected to still be in service in 2070.

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