General Dutch Fascist League

The General Dutch Fascist League (in Dutch Algemeene Nederlandsche Fascisten Bond, ANFB) was a Dutch fascist party. It was founded on 29 June 1932 and dissolved in 1934. The leader of ANFB was Jan Baars, a merchant from Amsterdam.

History

ANFB won 17,157 votes in the general elections of 1933, 0.46% of the total. This was insufficient for a seat in parliament.

ANFB then entered into a 'corporative concentration' with the followers of Alfred Haighton and the National Union. Jan Baars did not get on with Carel Gerretson (the leader of National Union), therefore Baars quit ANFB. Consequently, ANFB floundered without its leader and disappeared.[1]

Ideology

The party sought to create a volksfascisme, although they failed to fully define this aim and were considered closer to Benito Mussolini than Adolf Hitler despite their rhetoric.

References

  1. ^ Rees, Philip (1990). Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 18. ISBN 0-13-089301-3.

Further reading

Payne, Stanley G. (2001). A History of Fascism 1914-1945. London: Roultedge. p. 302.

1933 Dutch general election

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 26 April 1933. The Roman Catholic State Party remained the largest party in the House of Representatives, winning 28 of the 100 seats.

Alfred Haighton

Coenraad Alfred Augustus Haighton (26 October 1896 – 13 April 1943) was a millionaire businessman and the leader of the Netherlands' first fascist movement.

Arnold Meijer

Arnoldus Jozephus Meijer (5 May 1905 – 17 June 1965) was a Dutch fascist politician.

Meijer was born in Haarlemmermeer. Brought up a devout Roman Catholic and educated in a number of seminaries he soon became influenced by Wouter Lutkie, a Catholic priest and fascist. After a brief stopover in the Roman Catholic State Party, which he found far too moderate, Meijer began to write for the authoritarian De Rijkseenheid and the General Dutch Fascist League's De Fascist. He soon joined the League and, having inherited money from his father, launched his own journal Zwart Front. Rising to a position of influence in the League, he quarreled with leader Jan Baars and in 1934 split from the group, taking a number of followers with him. Before long he had revived the Zwart Front name for his new movement and even visited Benito Mussolini with Lutkie to gain the fascist leader's approval.The Front failed to make much impact in elections, notably managing only 0.2% of the vote in the 1939 general election (although Meijer managed a 21.4% vote share in Oisterwijk). As a result, Meijer's faction was absorbed into the new National Front in 1940. This movement was banned on 13 December 1941 by the Nazis, largely due to their Catholicism. Despite the ban Meijer was allowed to simply retire from politics. He was arrested on October the 27th of 1944 and was imprisoned in the former SS concentration camp in Vught until on May the 7th 1945 he escaped to Belgium. That same year he published a book about the treatment of former collaborators, Pruisische practijken in herrijzend Nederland!. He returned to the Netherlands in 1946 to face a five-year jail sentence.He was released from prison in 1948 and returned to politics, writing for the Aristo journal which was sympathetic to Lutkie. He did not however resume his earlier involvement in party politics. He died, aged 60, in Oisterwijk.

Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.

It contains entries for what the author regards as "the 500 major figures on the radical right, extreme right, and revolutionary right from 1890 to the present" (publisher's blurb).

It was published, as a 418-page hardcover, in New York by Simon & Schuster in 1990 (ISBN 0-13-089301-3).

In the introduction Rees discusses his criterion for inclusion in the book. He describes the extreme right as "opposed to parliamentary forms of democratic representation and hostile to pluralism."(xvii)

Among those it covers are Argentinian nationalists, Mexican sinarquistas, American nativist demagogues, Brazilian Integralists, German National Socialists, Portuguese National Syndicalists, Spanish Falangists, and Belgian Rexists.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

Black Front (Netherlands)

The Black Front (Dutch: Zwart Front) was a Dutch fascist movement active before the Second World War.

The Front grew out of the southern section of the General Dutch Fascist League, with regional organiser Arnold Meijer quarrelling with leader Jan Baars and leading his followers out in 1934. The Black Front emerged and soon took over a number of smaller movements, while also gaining some support among the poorer parts of society. Although similar to its parent movement, the Black Front emphasised a more Catholic line in tune with Meijer's own religious beliefs. Taking its cue in part from Italian fascism, it adopted that movement's black-shirted uniform while adding a unique emblem featuring a sword between a pair of ram horns.However, the group struggled to gain support from the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB); it was renamed the National Front in 1940. The National Front was ultimately banned by the Germans on 14 December 1941, along with all other Dutch political parties except for the NSB. The majority of its members switched to the NSB, although Meijer, disillusioned, left politics altogether.

Carel Gerretson

Doctor Frederik Carel Gerretson (born Kralingen, 9 February 1884 – died Utrecht, 27 October 1958) was a Dutch writer, essayist, historian, and politician.

Dutch Fascist Union

The Dutch Fascist Union (in Dutch: Nederlandsche Fascisten Unie, abbreviated as NFU) was a short-lived Fascist organization in the Netherlands. NFU emerged on February 26, 1933, following a split from the General Dutch Fascist League (ANFB). Leading figures were Karel Eduard van Charante and Tony W. Hooykaas.

NFU contested the 1933 parliamentary election. The group mustered 1771 votes. In Hague the party got 0.19%, in Amsterdam 0.03%, in Haarlem 0.09%, in Utrecht 0.18% and in Zwolle 0.28%.[1]

NFU published De Aanval.

Jan Baars

Joannes Antonius Baars (Amsterdam, 30 June 1903 – Andijk, 22 April 1989) was a leading Dutch fascist during the 1930s.

During the 1920s Baars emerged as part of the group associated with De Bezem, a fascist journal aimed at the poor. The magazine split in 1930 and Baars supported Alfred Haighton over H.A. Sinclair de Rochemont, joining Haighton's Fascistische Jongeren Bond. The two quarrelled in 1932 however and the rabble-rousing Baars soon set up his own movement, the General Dutch Fascist League (ANFB). The stated purpose of this new group was to unite the various strands of fascism within the Netherlands under a single umbrella.Baars gained some support amongst the poor as his coarse, down-to-earth style of rhetoric could easily be identified with by people who spoke in the same manner. This group joined Haighton's movement and the National Union in 1933 to form a 'corporative concentration', although Baars, who was a market trader by profession, had little time for Carel Gerretson, the university professor who led the new group. He stood down from the ANFB as a consequence in 1934 and that group soon fell apart. After a brief involvement in opposing Anton Mussert and the NSB, Baars quit politics in 1936 and returned to market trading. Having previously criticized Adolf Hitler's treatment of the Jews, Baars played no role in collaboration and was even active in the Dutch resistance.

List of political parties in the Netherlands

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since 1897, and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

The National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (Dutch Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij (Dutch pronunciation: [naːʃoːˈnaːlsoːʃaːˈlɪstisə ˈneːdərlɑntsə ˈʔɑrbɛidərspɑrˌtɛi]) or NSNAP (Dutch pronunciation: [ɛnɛsɛnaːˈpeː])) was a minor Dutch national socialist party founded in 1931 and led by Ernst Herman van Rappard. Seeking to copy the fascism of others, notably Adolf Hitler, the group failed to achieve success and was accused by rivals such as the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and the General Dutch Fascist League of being too moderate for a fascist movement.The group looked to the National Socialist German Workers Party for its inspiration, setting up its own Storm Trooper battalion in imitation of the Sturmabteilung and its own Holland Youth like the Hitler Youth, as well as copying the black swastika in a white circle on a red background as its emblem. Unlike its far right counterparts, who claimed to endorse Dutch patriotism, the NSNAP sought full incorporation of the Netherlands into the Third Reich, a policy which won it little support as the 998 votes which the party captured in the 1937 election demonstrated. Unlike the NSB, the NSNAP focused on anti-semitism, and denounced the NSB as a Jewish-dominated, pseudo-National Socialist organisation.Van Rappard was unable to hold the party together and before long three separate group were claiming the NSNAP name, one under Major Cornelis Jacobus Aart Kruyt and the other under Albert van Waterland (who had dropped his real surname of de Joode as it meant 'the Jew'). This factionalism in what was already a small party ensured that Alfred Rosenberg, who had considered the possibility of supporting the group with German money, lost interest and so the three NSNAPs faded from significance.The NSNAP did not gain from the German invasion of 1940 as the German authorities chose Anton Mussert of the rival NSB as their main beneficiary and Major Kruyt's version of the party merged into Mussert's movement in late 1940. The NSNAP finally disappeared altogether on December 14, 1941 when Arthur Seyss-Inquart banned all parties except the NSB. With van Rappard on active service with the Waffen-SS most of the remaining NSNAP members accepted the decision and switched their support to Mussert.

National Union (Netherlands)

The National Union (Dutch: Nationale Unie) was a Dutch fascist political party active during the 1920s and 1930s.

The Union was set up in 1925 by Carel Gerretson and Robert Frédéric Groeninx van Zoelen initially as a study group with the intention of arresting the factionalism that was gripping the Dutch far right at the time. The Union set itself the task of improving unity and entered into negotiations with a number of groups, notably the General Dutch Fascist League. Ultimately it came together with this group and the followers of Alfred Haighton to form the 'corporative concentration' in 1933. This however proved short-lived and when it broke down the following year the National Union largely fizzled out.

Fascism and Nazism in the Netherlands to 1945
Political parties and groups
People
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