General Archive of the Indies

The Archivo General de Indias (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾˈtʃiβo xeneˈɾal de ˈindjas], "General Archive of the Indies"), housed in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, Spain, the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was designed by Juan de Herrera. This structure and its contents were registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site together with the adjoining Seville Cathedral and the Alcázar of Seville.

General Archive of the Indies
Native name
Spanish: Archivo General de Indias
Archivo de Indias 002
The Archivo de Indias, Seville
LocationSeville, Andalusia, Spain
Coordinates37°23′02″N 5°59′31″W / 37.384°N 5.992°WCoordinates: 37°23′02″N 5°59′31″W / 37.384°N 5.992°W
Built16th century
ArchitectJuan de Herrera
Juan de Mijares
Architectural style(s)Renaissance
Official name: Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville
TypeCultural
Criteriai, ii, iii, vi
Designated1987 (118th session)
Reference no.383
RegionEurope
General Archive of the Indies is located in Seville
General Archive of the Indies
Location in Seville

Structure

The origin of the structure dates to 1572 when Philip II commissioned the building from Juan de Herrera, the architect of the Escorial to house the Consulado de mercaderes of Seville. Until then, the merchants of Seville had been in the habit of retreating to the cool recesses of the cathedral to transact business.

The building encloses a large central patio with ranges of two storeys, the windows set in slightly sunken panels between flat pilasters. Plain square tablets float in the space above each window. The building is surmounted by a balustrade, with rusticated obelisks standing at the corners. There is no sculptural decoration, only the discreetly contrasting tonalities of stone and stucco, and the light shadows cast by the slight relief of the pilasters against their piers, by the cornices, and by the cornice strips that cap each window.

The building was begun in 1584 by Juan de Mijares, using Herrera's plans, and was ready for occupation in 1598, according to an inscription on the north façade. Work on completing the structure proceeded through the 17th century, directed until 1629 by the archbishop Juan de Zumárraga and finished by Pedro Sanchez Falconete.

Researchers who wish to examine the archive's sources use another building located across the street.

Contents

ArchivoIndias patio interior
View of the main courtyard.

In 1785, by decree of Charles III the archives of the Council of the Indies were to be housed here, in order to bring together under a single roof all the documentation regarding the overseas empire, which until that time had been dispersed among various archives, as Simancas, Cádiz and Seville.[1] Responsibility for the project was delegated to José de Gálvez y Gallardo, Secretary for the Indies, who depended on the historian Juan Bautista Muñoz for the plan's execution. Two basic motivations underlay the project; in addition to the lack of space in the Archivo General de Simancas, the central archive of the Spanish Crown, there was also the expectation, in the spirit of the Enlightenment, that Spanish historians would take up the history of Spain's colonial empire. It was decided that, for the time being, documents evolved after 1760 would remain with their primary institutions.

The first cartloads of the documents arrived in October 1785. Some restructuring of the Casa Lonja to accommodate the materials was required, and a grand marble staircase was added in 1787, to designs of Lucas Cintara.

The archives are rich with autograph material from the first of the Conquistadores to the end of the 19th century. Here are Miguel de Cervantes' request for an official post, the Bull of Demarcation Inter caetera of Pope Alexander VI that divided the world between Spain and Portugal, the journal of Christopher Columbus, maps and plans of the colonial American cities, in addition to the ordinary archives that reveal the month-to-month workings of the whole vast colonial machinery, which have been mined by many historians in the last two centuries.

Today the Archivo General de Indias houses some nine kilometers of shelving, in 43,000 volumes and some 80 million pages, which were produced by the colonial administration:

Fountain.
ArchivoIndias pasillo
View of a corridor with a cannon.
  • Consejo de Indias, 16th–19th centuries
  • Casa de la Contratación, 16th–18th centuries
  • Consulados de Sevilla y Cádiz, 16th–19th centuries
  • Secretarías de Estado y Despacho Universal de Indias, de Estado, Gracia y Justicia, Hacienda y Guerra, 18th–19th centuries
  • Secretaría del Juzgado de Arribadas de Cádiz, 18th–19th centuries
  • Comisaría Interventora de la Hacienda Pública de Cádiz, Dirección General de la Renta de Correos, 18th–19th centuries
  • Sala de Ultramar del Tribunal de Cuentas, 19th century
  • Real Compañía de la Habana, 18th–19th centuries

The structure underwent a thorough restoration in 2002–2004, without interrupting its function as a research library. As of 2005, its 15 million pages are in the process of being digitized. The digitized sources are accessible online [2]

External links

References

  1. ^ Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra, How to Write the History of the New World: Histories, Epistemologies, and Identities in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2001, p. 170.
  2. ^ "Portal de Archivos Españoles". pares.mcu.es. 18 May 2018.
1582 Cagayan battles

The 1582 Cagayan battles were a series of clashes between the Spanish Empire colonizers of the Philippines led by Captain Juan Pablo de Carrión, and Wokou (possibly Japanese pirates) headed by Tay Fusa. These battles, which took place in the vicinity of the Cagayan River, finally resulted in a Spanish victoryA B.

This event is a recorded battle between European regular soldiers against samurai warriors. This unique event pitted musketeers, pikemen and Spanish rodeleros against mostly Japanese and Chinese pirates, mostly formed by rōnin, soldiers, fishermen and merchants (both legitimate and smugglers). Spanish sources record the name of their leader as Tay Fusa, Tayfusu or Tayfuzzy. This does not correspond to a Japanese name, but could refer to a medieval chieftain (大夫), called Dàfū in Chinese or Taifu in Japanese. The pirates had 18 Sampans which are flat bottomed Chinese fishing wooden boat. The word "sampan" comes from the original Hokkien term for the boats, 三板 (sam pan), literally meaning "three planks"

Alcázar of Seville

The Alcázar of Seville (pronounced [alˈkaθaɾ]; Spanish: Reales Alcázares de Sevilla or "Royal Alcazars of Seville") is a royal palace in Seville, Spain, built for the Christian king Peter of Castile. It was built by Castilian Christians on the site of an Abbadid Muslim residential fortress destroyed after the Christian conquest of Seville. The palace, a preeminent example of Mudéjar architecture in the Iberian Peninsula, is renowned as one of the most beautiful. The upper levels of the Alcázar are still used by the royal family as their official residence in Seville, and are administered by the Patrimonio Nacional. It is the oldest royal palace still in use in Europe, and was registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, along with the adjoining Seville Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies.

Aqueduct of Segovia

The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more accurately, the aqueduct bridge) is a Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain. It is one of the best-preserved elevated Roman aqueducts and the foremost symbol of Segovia, as evidenced by its presence on the city's coat of arms.

Erasmus Prize

The Erasmus Prize is an annual prize awarded by the board of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation to individuals or institutions that have made exceptional contributions to culture, society, or social science in Europe and the rest of the world. It is one of Europe's most distinguished recognitions. The prize is named after Desiderius Erasmus, the Dutch Renaissance humanist.

France Vinton Scholes

France Vinton Scholes (1897–1979) was an American scholar and historian noted for his research on the history of New Spain, especially Spanish Yucatan and Southwestern United States.Much of his research was conducted in the General Archive of the Indies in Seville, Spain, where he was sent in 1935 by the Carnegie Institute of Washington, DC, as part of a larger study on the Yucatan which was led by Alfred Kidder. In 1940, the study on Yucatan lost financial support from the Carnegie Institute and much of the literature and research was transferred over to the Library of Congress of the United States in the city of Washington.He served for over sixty years in academia specializing in the field of historical research. He studied at Harvard University. He lectured at Radcliffe College; at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Colorado College. After working for the Carnegie Institute, he taught at the University of New Mexico. Scholes published more than fifty publications on the history of New Mexico in the seventeenth century; Mayan and Mesoamerica society during the Spanish colonization and conquest of Mexico, during the same period.He died in Albuquerque, New Mexico on February 11, 1979.

Giralda

The Giralda (Spanish: La Giralda [la xiˈɾalda]) is the bell tower of Seville Cathedral in Seville, Spain. It was originally built as the minaret for the Great Mosque of Seville in al-Andalus, Moorish Spain, during the reign of the Almohad dynasty, with a Renaissance-style top subsequently added by the Catholics after the expulsion of the Muslims from the area. The Giralda was registered in 1987 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, along with the Alcázar and the General Archive of the Indies. The tower is 104.1 m (342 ft) in height and remains one of the most important symbols of the city, as it has been since the Middle Ages.

Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda

Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda (c. 1536 – after 1575, dates uncertain) was a Spanish shipwreck survivor who lived among the Indians of Florida for 17 years. His ca. 1575 memoir, Memoria de las cosas y costa y indios de la Florida, is one of the most valuable contemporary accounts of American Indian life from that period. The manuscript can be found in the General Archive of the Indies. In all, he produced five documents describing the peoples of native Florida.

Lacandola Documents

The term "Lacandola Documents" is used by Philippine Historiographers to describe the section of the Spanish Archives in Manila which are dedicated to the genealogical records (cuadernos de linaje) of the "Manila aristocracy" from the period immediately following European colonial contact. As of 2001, only one bundle of twelve folders (containing eleven distinct sets of documents) remains in the archive, the rest having been lost, misplaced, or destroyed by various events such as the Japanese Occupation of Manila during World War II. The surviving bundle is labeled "Decendientes de Don Carlos Lacandola" (Descendants of Don Carlos Lakandula), and scholars use the term "Lacandola Documents" as an informal shortcut.Scholars specializing in the noble houses of Rajah Matanda, Rajah Sulayman, and Lakandula mostly use these documents in conjunction with the Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies) in Seville, Spain in studying the genealogies of these "noble houses." Other primary sources frequently referred to by historiographers are the Silsila or Tarsilas of Sulu, Maguindanao, and Brunei, and local records (usually Catholic parish registers) of towns where descendants of the three houses may have moved.

Les Ferreres Aqueduct

The Ferreres Aqueduct (Catalan: Aqüeducte de les Ferreres [əkwəˈðuktə ðə ləs fəˈrɛɾəs]), also known as the Pont del Diable ([ˈpɔn(d) dəl diˈabːlə]; English: "Devil's Bridge"), is an ancient bridge, part of the Roman aqueduct built to supply water to the ancient city of Tarraco, today Tarragona in Catalonia, Spain. The bridge is located 4 kilometers north of the city and it is part of the Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco (listed as a UNESCO's World Heritage Site since 2000).

List of cultural icons of Spain

This List of cultural icons of Spain is a list of links to potential cultural icons of Spain.

Llotja

Llotja (Eastern Catalan: [ˈʎɔdʒə], plural llotjes); in Aragonese: loncha; in Spanish: lonja; is a Spanish term for important buildings used for commercial purpose during the Middle Ages and Early Modern Ages.

Many of them, were used during the Medieval Ages for fishing and livestock markets or by brokers who used to make intermediaries.

Others, the so-called Casa de Contratación de Indias, were establishments destined to the control of the commercial activity, the transit of people and expeditions between Spain and the Americas. They registered all of the merchandise that circulated between Spain and the Americas and intervened in commercial trials.

National Archives of Spain

The National Archives of Spain is a national system of Archives and State Centers maintained by the Archive (Archivo) department of the Spanish Ministry of Culture.

National archives

National archives are the archives of a country. The concept evolved in various nations at the dawn of modernity based on the impact of nationalism upon bureaucratic processes of paperwork retention.

Ophir

Ophir (; Hebrew: אוֹפִיר, Modern: Ofir, Tiberian: ʼÔp̄îr) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth. King Solomon received a cargo from Ophir every three years,{1 Kings 10:22} which consisted of gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Quito School

The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".

Seville

Seville (; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 as of 2016, and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. The Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville is also the hottest major metropolitan area in the geographical Southwestern Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above 35 °C (95 °F).

Seville was founded as the Roman city of Gilipolis. It later became known as Ishbiliyya after the Muslim conquest in 712. During the Muslim rule in Spain, Seville came under the jurisdiction of the Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the independent Taifa of Seville; later it was ruled by the Muslim Almoravids and the Almohads until finally being incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand III in 1248. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan departed from Seville for the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic decline as silting in the Guadalquivir forced the trade monopoly to relocate to the nearby port of Cádiz.

The 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo '92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.

Seville Cathedral

The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See (Spanish: Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville (Andalusia, Spain). It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, along with the adjoining Alcázar palace complex and the General Archive of the Indies. "See" refers to the episcopal see, i.e., the bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. It is the third-largest church in the world (its size remains a matter of debate) as well as the largest Gothic church.After its completion in the early 16th century, Seville Cathedral supplanted Hagia Sophia as the largest cathedral in the world, a title the Byzantine church had held for nearly a thousand years. The total area occupied by the building is 23,500 square metres (253,000 sq ft). The Gothic section alone has a length of 126 metres (413 ft), a width of 76 metres (249 ft) and its maximum height in the center of the transept is 42 metres (138 ft). The total height of the Giralda tower from the ground to the weather vane is 104.5 metres (343 ft). Since the world's two largest churches (the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida and St. Peter's Basilica) are not the seats of bishops, Seville Cathedral is still the largest cathedral in the world.Seville Cathedral was the site of the baptism of Infant Juan of Aragon in 1478, only son of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Its royal chapel holds the remains of the city's conqueror Ferdinand III of Castile, his son and heir Alfonso the Wise and their descendant king Peter the Cruel. The funerary monuments for cardinals Juan de Cervantes and Pedro González de Mendoza are located among its chapels. Christopher Columbus and his son Diego are also buried in the cathedral.The Archbishop's Palace is located on the northeastern side of the cathedral.

Sights and landmarks of Seville

There are numerous sights and landmarks of Seville. The most important sights are the Alcázar, the Seville Cathedral, and the Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies), which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Treaty of Tordesillas

The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ tuɾðeˈziʎɐʃ], Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed at Tordesillas in Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already Portuguese) and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola).

The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494, and by Portugal, 5 September 1494. The other side of the world was divided a few decades later by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529, which specified the antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at the General Archive of the Indies in Spain and at the Torre do Tombo National Archive in Portugal.This treaty would be observed fairly well by Spain and Portugal, despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World; however, it omitted all of the other European powers. Those countries generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation.

The treaty was included by UNESCO in 2007 in its Memory of the World Programme.

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