General (Germany)

General (German pronunciation: [ɡenəˈʁaːl]) is the highest rank of the German Army and German Air Force. As a four-star rank it is the equivalent to the rank of admiral in the German Navy.

The rank is rated OF-9 in NATO. It is grade B8 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence.

General
HD H 64 General
LD B 64 General
Army and Air Force insignia
Country Germany
Service branchBundeswehr Logo Heer with lettering.svg German Army
Bundeswehr Logo Luftwaffe with lettering.svg German Air Force
RankFour-star
NATO rankOF-9
Non-NATO rankO-10
Formation1956
Next lower rankGeneralleutnant
Equivalent ranksAdmiral

Rank insignia

On the shoulder straps (Heer, Luftwaffe) there are four golden pips (stars) in golden oak leaves.

HA OS5 64 General
General
(field suit)
HA OS5 64 General a.D.
General
(retired)
LA 3S3 64 General
General
(flecktarn)
LA OS5 64 General
General
(field suit)
HD S Kragenspiegel Gen R
Gorget patch
(right)
HD S Kragenspiegel Gen L
Gorget patch
(left)
Bundeswehr sequence of ranks
junior rank:
Generalleutnant
Bundeswehr Logo Heer with lettering.svg Bundeswehr Logo Luftwaffe with lettering

(German officer rank)
General

senior rank:
no higher rank

Early history

By the 16th century, with the rise of standing armies, the German states had begun to appoint generals from the nobility to lead armies in battle.

A standard rank system was developed during the Thirty Years War, with the highest rank of General usually reserved for the ruling sovereign (e.g. the Kaiser or Elector) and the actual field commander holding the rank of Generalleutnant. Feldmarschall was a lower rank at that time, as was Generalwachtmeister.

By the 17th and 18th centuries, the rank of general was present in all the militaries of the German states, and saw its greatest usage by the militaries of Bavaria and Prussia. It was these two militaries that created the concept of the “general staff”, which was often manned entirely by members of the nobility. To be a general often implied membership in the noble class.

19th century

During the Napoleonic Wars, the ranks of German generals were established in four grades, beginning with Generalmajor, followed by Generalleutnant, General and Generalfeldmarschall. The standard uniforms and insignia, used for over a century, also developed during this period. The title of General (three stars) included the officer's branch of service, leading to the titles of General der Infanterie ("general of the infantry"), General der Kavallerie ("general of the cavalry") and General der Artillerie ("general of the artillery").

In 1854, Prussia introduced the rank of Generaloberst (supreme general, usually (mis)translated colonel-general) so that officers could be promoted further than General without becoming a Generalfeldmarschall, as this rank was usually bestowed only for extraordinary achievements during wartime service. Later, another special grade known as Generaloberst im Range eines Generalfeldmarschalls (supreme general in the rank of a field marshal) was first used in Bavaria to denote supreme generals who were given the authority of field marshals without the actual rank.

During the German Empire, the insignia of German generals was established as a heavy golden shoulder board with up to four pips (stars) denoting seniority as a general. The rank of Generalfeldmarschall displayed a crossed set of marshal's batons on the shoulder board. German generals also began wearing golden ornaments (Arabeske) on their collars, in contrast to the collar bars (Doppellitzen) worn by elite units, or the plain colored collars of the rest of the German military forces.

The grade of "supreme general in the rank of a field marshal" (Generaloberst im Range eines Generalfeldmarschalls) was introduced in the Prussian/Imperial army in 1871. It was bestowed on senior generals usually holding the appointment of an army inspector and therefore army commanders designate in the case of hostilities. The shoulder board rank was crossed batons with three pips. The rank of supreme general proper (with three pips only) was created in 1901. In the Prussian army, the rank of field marshal could be awarded only to active officers in wartime if they had won a battle or stormed a fortress. In times of peace, the rank was awarded as an honorary rank to friendly princes and as Charakter (honorary) to generals of merit when they retired — "general with the honorary rank of field marshal" (General mit dem Charakter eines Generalfeldmarschall) - which was cancelled in 1911. At the same time, the rank insignia for supreme general with the rank of field marshal was changed to four pips without batons.

World War II

Heer (en - Army)
Wehrmacht Generalsrangabzeichen
German Wehrmacht (Heer / Army) general officer shoulder straps in WW2.
SK KS Generäle LW
German Wehrmacht (Luftwaffe / Air Force) WW2 general officer shoulder and collar insignia in WW2.
Luftwaffe (en - Air Force)
  • 1 Reichsmarschall, Hermann Göring (1940)
  • 2 Generalfeldmarschall (OF10, five-star rank, shoulder strap from 4/1941);
  • 3 Generalfeldmarschall (OF10, five-star rank, shoulder strap to 4/1941);
  • 4 Generaloberst (OF9, four-star rank);
  • 5 General of the branch (OF8, three-star rank);
  • 6 Generalleutnant (OF7, two-star rank); and
  • 7 Generalmajor (OF6, one-star rank).

The German rank of General saw its widest usage during World War II. Due to the massive expansion of the German armed forces (Wehrmacht), a new “wave” of generals was promoted in the 1930s that would lead Germany into war.

Reichsmarschall

The post of the Reichsmarschall was the highest military ranking that a German could reach. The post was held solely by Hermann Göring. Göring also happened to serve as the head of the Luftwaffe and was responsible for handling Germany's war economy.

Generalfeldmarschall

In 1936, Hitler revived the rank of field marshal (pic. 1 and 2).

Generaloberst

The rank of Generaloberst (pic. 3), usually translated as "colonel general", but perhaps better as "supreme general". A Generaloberst was usually an army commander.

General of the branch

In WW2 the German three-star rank General of the branch (de: General der Waffengattung, or short General) (file Heer, fig. 4) was formally linked to the branch of the army Heer, or air force Luftwaffe (file Luftwaffe, fig. 5), in which the officer served, and (nominally) commanded: in addition to the long established General der Kavallerie, General der Artillerie and General der Infanterie, the Wehrmacht also had General der Panzertruppen (armoured troops), General der Gebirgstruppen (mountain troops), General der Pioniere (engineers), General der Fallschirmtruppen (parachute troops), General der Flieger (aviators), General der Flakartillerie (anti-aircraft), General der Nachrichtentruppen (communications troops) and General der Luftnachrichtentruppen (air communications troops). A General of the branch was usually a corps commander.

Generalleutnant

The German Generalleutnant (pic. 5) was usually a senior division commander.

Generalmajor

The German Generalmajor (pic. 6) was usually a junior division commander.

The staff corps of the Wehrmacht, medical, veterinary, judicial and chaplain, used special designations for their general officers, with Generalarzt, Generalveterinär, Generalrichter and Feldbischof being the equivalent of Generalmajor; Generalstabsarzt, Generalstabsveterinär and Generalstabsrichter the equivalent of Generalleutnant; and (the unique) Generaloberstabsarzt, Generaloberstabsveterinär and Generaloberstabsrichter the equivalent of General.

With the formation of the Luftwaffe, air force generals began to use the same general ranks as the German army. The shoulder insignia was identical to that used by the army, with the addition of special collar patches worn by Luftwaffe general officers. The supreme rank of Reichsmarschall (Reich Marshal) was created in 1940 for Hermann Göring.

Waffen-SS

SS Oberst-Gruppenführer
1
SS-Obergruppenführer
2
SS-Gruppenführer
3
SS-Brigadeführer
4

In 1941, the Waffen-SS began using general ranks in addition to standard SS ranks. An Oberst-Gruppenführer of the Waffen-SS, for example, would be titled Oberst-Gruppenführer und Generaloberst der Waffen-SS. The Ordnungspolizei (Orpo) also used similar police ranks. The Waffen-SS had no field marshals, but the rank of Reichsführer-SS held by Heinrich Himmler was considered to be the equivalent of a field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) during the war years.[1]

The Waffen-SS general ranks in WW2 were as follows

The senior colonel rank of SS-Oberführer has sometimes been considered to be a brigadier general equivalent; however, this is incorrect. The rank (in particular among the Waffen-SS) was not considered equivalent to a general officer, was not entitled to the grey lampasses and lapel facings of a general, and wore the shoulderboards of an army full-colonel or Oberst.[2][3]

Modern usage

After World War II, the West German Bundeswehr and the East German Nationale Volksarmee adopted the rank systems of their respective military blocs.

In the Bundeswehr, the rank of Brigadegeneral was inserted below the rank of Generalmajor. While the rank titles of Generalmajor, Generalleutnant and General were retained, each of those titles now denotes a higher rank than before (e.g. the Generalleutnant is now a three-star general).

Prior to the reunification of Germany, general officer rank designations in the German Democratic Republic were based on the Soviet model. Generalmajor was still the lowest general officer grade, followed by Generalleutnant, Generaloberst (now three stars instead of four) and Armeegeneral. In 1982, the GDR government established the rank of Marschall der DDR, although no one was ever promoted to this rank.

See also

Junior rank
Generalleutnant
Bundeswehr Logo Heer with lettering.svg Bundeswehr Logo Luftwaffe with lettering

(German officer rank)
General

Senior rank
None

Notes and references

  1. ^ McNab, Chris (2009), The SS, Amber Books Ltd., p. 30. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5
  2. ^ Yerger, Mark C. (1997). Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units and Leaders of the General SS, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., p. 235. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4
  3. ^ Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 1, R. James Bender Publishing, p. 521. ISBN 93-297-0037-3
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Financial statements prepared and presented by a company typically follow an external standard that specifically guides their preparation. These standards vary across the globe and are typically overseen by some combination of the private accounting profession in that specific nation and the various government regulators. Variations across countries may be considerable, making cross-country evaluation of financial data challenging.

Publicly traded companies typically are subject to the most rigorous standards. Small and midsized businesses often follow more simplified standards, plus any specific disclosures required by their specific lenders and shareholders. Some firms operate on the cash method of accounting which can often be simple and straight forward. Larger firms most often operate on an accrual basis. Accounting standards prescribe in considerable detail what accruals must be made, how the financial statements are to be presented, and what additional disclosures are required.

Some important elements that accounting standards cover include: identifying the exact entity which is reporting, discussing any "going concern" questions, specifying monetary units, and reporting time frames.

Admiral (Germany)

Admiral, short Adm, (en: Admiral) is the most senior flag officer rank in the German Navy. It is equivalent to General (Germany) in the German Army or German Air Force. In the Central Medical Services there is no equivalent. In the German Navy Admiral is, as in many navies, a four-star rank with a NATO code of OF-9. There is currently one admiral in the German Navy, Admiral Manfred Nielson, serving as Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformationin Norfolk, Virginia.

However, in other German speaking naval forces, e.g. Imperial German Navy, Reichsmarine, Kriegsmarine, Volksmarine, and the Austro-Hungarian K.u.K. Kriegsmarine, Admiral was an OF-8 three-star flag officer rank.

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Insignias of flotilla admirals

General der Panzertruppe

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General officer

A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank.

It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général.

The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction.

Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars or other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations.

Generalleutnant

Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (English: lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).

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Public Prosecutor General (Germany)

The Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice (German: Generalbundesanwalt or Generalbundesanwältin, lit.: "General Federal Attorney") is the federal prosecutor of Germany, representing the federal government at the Bundesgerichtshof, the federal court of justice. The office of the Public Prosecutor General is located in Karlsruhe. Besides its role in appellate cases, the Public Prosecutor General has primary jurisdiction in cases of crimes against the state (in particular terrorism, espionage and treason), and offences under the Völkerstrafgesetzbuch (genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes). The Public Prosecutor General also represents Germany in certain civil and administrative cases.

The Federal Minister of Justice proposes the Public Prosecutor General with the approval of the Bundesrat to the President of Germany for appointment.In 1977, then-Public Prosecutor General Siegfried Buback was assassinated by an extremist left-wing group, the Red Army Faction.

Vizeadmiral

Vizeadmiral, short VAdm in lists VADM, (en: Vice admiral) is a senior naval flag officer rank in the German Navy. It is equivalent to Generalleutnant in the Heer and Luftwaffe or to Admiraloberstabsarzt and/or Generaloberstabsarzt in the Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr.

In the German Navy Vizeadmiral is, as in many navies, a three-star rank with a NATO code of OF-8. However, in other German speaking naval forces, e.g. Kaiserliche Marine, Kriegsmarine, Volksmarine, and the Austro-Hungarian K.u.K. Kriegsmarine, Vizeadmiral was an OF-7 two-star flag officer rank.

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