General (Australia)

General (abbreviated GEN) is the second-highest rank, and the highest active rank, of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of general; it is also considered a four-star rank.

Prior to 1958, Australian generals (and field marshals) were only appointed in exceptional circumstances. In 1958, the position, which is currently called Chief of the Defence Force, was created, and since 1966, the rank of general has been held when an army officer is appointed to that position.

General is a higher rank than lieutenant general, but is lower than field marshal. General is the equivalent of admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air chief marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force.

A general's insignia is St Edward's Crown above a star of the Order of the Bath (or 'pip') above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.[1][note 1]

General
Australian Army OF-9
The GEN insignia of Crown of St Edward above a star of the Order of the Bath above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.
CountryAustralia
Service branch Australian Army
AbbreviationGEN
RankFour-star
NATO rankOF-9
Non-NATO rankO-10
Formation1917
Next higher rankField marshal
Next lower rankLieutenant general
Equivalent ranks

Australian generals

The following have held the rank of general in the Australian Army:

Name Year
promoted
Born Died Notes
William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood
GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, CIE, DSO
1917 1865 1951 Appointed a general in the Australian Imperial Force in 1917, and made honorary field marshal in the Australian Army in 1925.[note 2]
Sir Harry Chauvel GCMG, KCB 1929 1865 1945 Chief of the General Staff (1923–30) and Inspector-in-Chief Volunteer Defence Corps (1940–45)
Sir John Monash GCMG, KCB, VD 1929 1865 1931 Australian Corps (1918)
Sir Brudenell White KCB, KCMG, KCVO, DSO 1940 1876 1940 Chief of the General Staff (1920–23, 1940)
Sir Thomas Blamey GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED 1941 1884 1951 Promoted field marshal in 1951. Deputy Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command (1941–1942), General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Australian Military Forces (1942–45) and Commander of Allied Land Forces, South West Pacific Area (1942–45)
Sir John Wilton KBE, CB, DSO 1968 1910 1981 Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1966–70)
Sir Frank Hassett AC, KBE, CB, DSO, LVO 1975 1918 2008 Chief of the Defence Force Staff (1976–77)
Sir Arthur MacDonald KBE, CB 1977 1919 1995 Chief of the Defence Force Staff (1977–79)
Sir Phillip Bennett AC, KBE, DSO 1984 1928 Chief of the Defence Force (1984–87) and Governor of Tasmania (1987–95)
Peter Gration AC, OBE 1987 1932 Chief of the Defence Force (1987–93)
John Baker AC, DSM 1995 1936 2007 Chief of the Defence Force (1995–98)
Sir Peter Cosgrove AK, CVO, MC 2002 1947 Chief of the Defence Force (2002–05) and Governor-General of Australia (2014–19)
David Hurley AC, DSC 2011 1953 Chief of the Defence Force (2011–14) and Governor of New South Wales (2014–19)
Angus Campbell AO, DSC 2018 Chief of the Defence Force (2018–)

In addition, John Northcott held the honorary rank of general while acting as Governor-General of Australia in 1951 and 1956.[2]

The following Australians have held the rank of general in the British Army:

Name Year promoted Born Died Notes
Sir John Hackett GCB, CBE, DSO & Bar, MC 1966 1910 1997 Deputy Chief of the Imperial General Staff (1963–66) and Commander-in-Chief of the British Army of the Rhine (1966–68)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian Army insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
  2. ^ When Birdwood was promoted to field marshal in the British Army in 1925, he was given the honorary rank of field marshal in the Australian Army. He is one of only three Australian field marshals.

References

  1. ^ "Chapter 4: Badges and Emblems" (PDF). Army Dress Manual. Canberra, ACT: Australian Army. 6 June 2014. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2015.
  2. ^ Coates, Henry John (2000). "Northcott, Sir John (1890–1966)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
1950 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1950 in Australia.

1962 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1962 in Australia.

Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria–Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria during the First World War (1914–1918).

By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, the major European powers were divided between the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance. The Entente was made up of France, the United Kingdom and Russia. The Triple Alliance was originally composed of Germany, Austria–Hungary and Italy, which remained neutral in 1914.

As the war progressed, each coalition added new members. Japan joined the Entente in 1914. After proclaiming its neutrality at the beginning of the war, Italy also joined the Entente in 1915. The United States joined as an "associated power" rather than an official ally. "Associated members" included Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Montenegro, and Romania.

Brigadier general

Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) or brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).

In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank.

The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a "brigadier general", or simply a "brigadier", would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade (which translates as "brigade general") was first used in the French revolutionary armies.

In the first quarter of the 20th century, British and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; in the 1920s this practice changed to the use of brigadier, which was not classed as a general officer.

Some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general (See also Japan & Taiwan for details.). Some of these armies then use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks.Mexico uses the ranks of both General brigadier and General de brigada.

General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.The term general is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank.

It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général.

The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction.

Today, the title of general is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However, different countries use different systems of stars or other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations.

Judge Advocate General

A Judge Advocate General is a principal judicial officer for a military branch or the armed forces at large, typically the most senior judge advocate.

Relevant articles include:

Judge Advocate General's Corps, a military branch of service concerned with military law

Judge Advocate General (Australia)

Judge Advocate General (Canada)

Defence Judge Advocate Corps (Denmark)

Judge Advocate General (India)

Military Advocate General (Israel)

Judge Advocate General Branch (Pakistan)

Judge Advocate General (Sri Lanka)

Judge Advocate General (United Kingdom)

Judge Advocate General's Corps (United States) which is the judicial arm of any of the United States armed forces:

Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Army

Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Navy

U.S. Marine Corps Judge Advocate Division

Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Air Force

U.S. Coast Guard Legal Division

Judge Advocate General (Australia)

The Judge Advocate General (JAG) of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is an office created by the Defence Force Discipline Act (1982), held by a judge or former judge of a Federal Court or a State Supreme Court. The appointment of JAG is made by the Governor-General-in-Council. The JAG may make procedural rules for tribunals that operate within the Air Force, Army, and Navy, provide the final legal review of proceedings within the ADF, participate in the appointment of Judge Advocates, Defence Force Magistrates, Presidents and members of courts martial, and legal officers for various purposes, and reporting upon the operation of laws relating to the discipline of the ADF.The current Judge Advocate General is Rear Admiral the Hon. Justice Michael Slattery, appointed with effect from 30 July 2014.

The JAG is assisted by three Deputy Judge Advocates General (DJAG), one for each Service:

DJAG – Navy

DJAG – Army

DJAG – Air Force

Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.

In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal. A lieutenant general commands an army corps, made up of typically three army divisions, and consisting of around 60,000–70,000 soldiers (U.S.).

The seeming incongruity that a lieutenant general outranks a major general (whereas a major outranks a lieutenant) is due to the derivation of the latter rank from sergeant major general, which was also subordinate to lieutenant general. In some countries (e.g. France and Italy), the ranks of corps general or lieutenant colonel general are used instead of lieutenant general, in an attempt to solve this apparent anomaly – these ranks are often translated into English as lieutenant general.However, some countries of Latin America such as Brazil and Chile use divisional general as the equivalent of lieutenant general. In addition, because no brigadier general rank is used in Japan, lieutenant general is the rank of divisional commander. Therefore, it corresponds to divisional general of these countries. In a number of smaller states which employ NATO and western style military organizational structures, because of the limited number of soldiers in their armies, the rank of lieutenant general is the highest army rank in use. In Latvia, Lithuania and Singapore, the chief of defence is a lieutenant general, and in the Irish Defence Forces and Israel Defense Forces, the Chief of Staff holds this rank.

Lieutenant general (Australia)

Lieutenant general (abbreviated LTGEN and pronounced 'lef-tenant general') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army. It was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general, and is considered a three-star rank.

The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Joint Capabilities. The Chief of Capability Development Group, disestablished in 2016, also carried three-star rank.

Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force. The insignia for a lieutenant general is the Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.

List of diplomatic missions of France

This is a list of diplomatic missions of France, excluding honorary consulates. France's permanent representation abroad began in the reign of Francis I, when in 1522 he sent a delegation to the Swiss. Despite its reduced presence following decolonization, France still has substantial influence throughout the world. France has one of the world's largest diplomatic networks and is a member of more multilateral organisations than any other country.

List of diplomatic missions of India

This is a list of diplomatic missions of India. India has a large diplomatic network, reflecting its links in the world and particularly in neighbouring regions: Central Asia, the Middle East, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the rest of the Indian subcontinent. There are also far-flung missions in the Caribbean and the Pacific, locations of historical Indian diaspora communities.

As a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Indian diplomatic missions in the capitals of other Commonwealth members are known as High Commissions. In other cities of Commonwealth countries, India calls some of its consular missions "Assistant High Commissions", although those in the cities of Birmingham and Edinburgh in the United Kingdom and the city of Hambantota in Sri Lanka are known as "Consulates-General".

List of diplomatic missions of Iraq

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Iraq. Iraq maintains a network of diplomatic missions abroad. While the country has re-opened its missions in Washington, London, Tehran and the capitals of other states it was previously hostile to, Iraq does not have diplomatic relations with Israel.

List of diplomatic missions of Romania

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Romania, excluding honorary consulates. Romania has an extensive and a large diplomatic network. The date diplomatic relations were established is given after the country name.

List of diplomatic missions of Spain

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Spain, excluding honorary consulates. The Kingdom of Spain has a large global diplomatic presence.

List of diplomatic missions of Ukraine

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Ukraine, excluding honorary consulates.

List of diplomatic missions of the Republic of Ireland

Ireland has diplomatic relations with 161 other governments. Ireland has numerous embassies and consulates abroad. IDA Ireland, Ireland's investment and trade promotion agency, also has a network of representatives abroad. Honorary consulates are not listed below.

Major general (Australia)

Major general (abbreviated MAJGEN) is a senior rank of the Australian Army, and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of major general. It is the third-highest active rank of the Australian Army (the rank of field marshal not being held by any currently serving officer), and is considered to be equivalent to a two-star rank. A major general commands a division or the equivalent.

Major general is a higher rank than brigadier, but lower than lieutenant general. Major general is the equivalent of rear admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air vice marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force.The insignia for a major general is the star (or 'pip') of the Order of the Bath (despite membership of the Order no longer being awarded to Australians), above a crossed Mameluke sword and baton.

Mongolian passport

A Mongolian passport is a document which authorises and facilitates travel and other activities in Mongolia or by Mongolian citizens.

In medieval times, the Mongol Empire issued passports (gerege) to officials and emissaries. This authorised them to claim facilities for travel throughout the empire using the yam (Örtöö) system of relay stations which provided food and remounts.Nowadays, all Mongolian citizens are required to register and apply for a civil passport (now called a civil ID card, Mongolian: Иргэний үнэмлэх) within 30 days of reaching the age of 16. This is a form of identity document for these often nomadic people.

Foreign travel passports are issued to citizens of Mongolia for international travel. New Mongolian passports are issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in Ulaanbaatar or at Mongolian Embassies worldwide.

Postmaster-General's Department

In Australia, the Postmaster-General's Department (PMG) was an Australian Government department, established at Australia's Federation in 1901, whose responsibilities included the provision of postal and telegraphic services throughout Australia. It was abolished in December 1975, and in its place two separate legal entities were established: Telecom (which later became Telstra) and Australia Post.

Australia-United States Rank Code Officer Cadet O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7
*
O-8
**
O-9
***
O-10
****
O-11
*****
Royal Australian Navy MIDN ASLT SBLT LEUT LCDR CMDR CAPT CDRE RADM VADM ADML AF
Australian Army OCDT 2LT LT CAPT MAJ LTCOL COL BRIG MAJGEN LTGEN GEN FM
Royal Australian Air Force OFFCDT PLTOFF FLGOFF FLTLT SQNLDR WGCDR GPCAPT AIRCDRE AVM AIRMSHL ACM MRAAF

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