Gdańsk

Gdańsk (/ɡəˈdɑːnsk, ɡəˈdænsk/,[2] Polish: [ɡdaj̃sk] (listen); German: Danzig [ˈdantsɪç] (listen)) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 464,254, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the capital of Kashubia. It is Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.[3]

The city is located on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay (of the Baltic Sea), in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population approaching 1.4 million.

Gdańsk is the capital of Gdańsk Pomerania and the largest city of Kashubia. With its origins as a Polish stronghold erected in the 980s by Mieszko I of Poland, the city's history is complex, with periods of Polish rule, periods of Prussian or German rule, and periods of autonomy or self-rule as a "free city". In the early-modern age Gdańsk was a royal city of Poland. It was considered the wealthiest and the largest city of Poland, prior to the 18th century rapid growth of Warsaw. Between the world wars, the Free City of Danzig, having a majority of German population, was in a customs union with Poland and was situated between German East Prussia and the so-called Polish Corridor.

Gdańsk lies at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, which drains 60 percent of Poland and connects Gdańsk with the Polish capital, Warsaw. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is also a notable industrial center. In the late Middle Ages it was an important seaport and shipbuilding town and, in the 14th and 15th centuries, a member of the Hanseatic League.

In the interwar period, owing to its multi-ethnic make-up and history, Gdańsk lay in a disputed region between Poland and the Weimar Republic, which later became Nazi Germany. The city's ambiguous political status was exploited, furthering tension between the two countries, which would ultimately culminate in the Invasion of Poland and the first clash of the Second World War just outside the city limits. In the 1980s it would become the birthplace of the Solidarity movement, which played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule in Poland and helped precipitate the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Gdańsk is home to the University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, the National Museum, the Gdańsk Shakespeare Theatre, the Museum of the Second World War, Polish Baltic Philharmonic and the European Solidarity Centre. The city also hosts St. Dominic's Fair, which dates back to 1260, and is regarded as one of the biggest trade and cultural events in Europe.[4]. The city is host to the The European Jamboree welcoming Scouts and Guides from across Europe in the summer of 2020[5]

Gdańsk
Calle Dlugie Pobrzeze, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 06
Corte Artus, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 03
Gdansk Kosciol mariacki5
Gran Armería, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 08
7629vik Gdańsk, fontanna Neptuna. Foto Barbara Maliszewska
Politech gda elektrotech automat
Gdansk diabelski mlyn 1
Motto(s): 
Nec Temere, Nec Timide
(Neither rashly, nor timidly)
Gdańsk is located in Pomeranian Voivodeship
Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Location of Gdansk in Poland
Gdańsk is located in Poland
Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Gdańsk (Poland)
Coordinates: 54°22′N 18°38′E / 54.367°N 18.633°ECoordinates: 54°22′N 18°38′E / 54.367°N 18.633°E
Country Poland
Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship
Countycity county
Established10th century
City rights1263
Government
 • MayorAleksandra Dulkiewicz (PO)
Area
 • City262 km2 (101 sq mi)
Population
(30 June 2018)
 • City464,829 Increase (6th) [1]
 • Metro
1,080,700
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
80-008 to 80–958
Area code(s)+48 58
Car platesGD
Websitegdansk.pl

Names

The city's name is thought to originate from the Gdania River,[6] the original name of the Motława branch on which the city is situated. The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert's death in AD 997 as urbs Gyddanyzc[7] and later was written as Kdanzk in 1148, Gdanzc in 1188, Danceke[8] in 1228, Gdansk in 1236,[9] Danzc in 1263, Danczk in 1311,[10] Danczik in 1399,[7][11] Danczig in 1414, Gdąnsk in 1656. In Polish the modern name of the city is pronounced [ɡdaɲsk] (listen). In English (where the diacritic over the "n" is frequently omitted) the usual pronunciation is /ɡəˈdænsk/ or /ɡəˈdɑːnsk/. The German name, "Danzig", is pronounced as [ˈdantsɪç] (listen).

The city's Latin name may be given as either Gedania, Gedanum or Dantiscum; the variety of Latin names reflects the mixed influence of the city's Polish, German and Kashubian heritage. Other former spellings of the name include Dantzig, Dantsic and Dantzic.

Ceremonial names

On special occasions the city is also referred to as "The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk" (Polish Królewskie Polskie Miasto Gdańsk, Latin Regia Civitas Polonica Gedanensis, Kashubian Królewsczi Polsczi Gard Gduńsk).[12][13][14] In the Kashubian language the city is called Gduńsk. Kashubians also use the name "Our Capital City Gduńsk" (Nasz Stoleczny Gard Gduńsk) or "The Kashubian Capital City Gduńsk" (Stoleczny Kaszëbsczi Gard Gduńsk).

History

Early Poland

635498 Gdansk Żuraw 01
The medieval port crane, over the river Motława

The first written record thought to refer to Gdańsk is the vita of Saint Adalbert. Written in 999, it describes how in 997 Saint Adalbert of Prague baptised the inhabitants of urbs Gyddannyzc, "which separated the great realm of the duke [i.e. Boleslaw the Brave of Poland] from the sea."[15] No further written sources exist for the 10th and 11th centuries.[15] Based on the date in Adalbert's vita, the city celebrated its millennial anniversary in 1997.[16]

Archaeological evidence for the origins of the town was retrieved mostly after World War II had laid 90 percent of the city center in ruins, enabling excavations.[17] The oldest seventeen settlement levels were dated to between 980 and 1308.[16] It is generally thought that Mieszko I of Poland erected a stronghold on the site in the 980s, thereby connecting the Polish state ruled by the Piast dynasty with the trade routes of the Baltic Sea.[18] Traces of buildings and housing from 10th century have been found in archaeological excavations of the city[19].

Pomeranian Poland

Hala Targowa w Gdańsku podziemia
Excavated remains of 12th century buildings in Gdańsk

The site was ruled as a duchy of Poland by the Samborides. It consisted of a settlement at the modern Long Market, settlements of craftsmen along the Old Ditch, German merchant settlements around St Nicholas's church and the old Piast stronghold.[20] In 1186, a Cistercian monastery was set up in nearby Oliwa, which is now within the city limits. In 1215, the ducal stronghold became the centre of a Pomerelian splinter duchy. At that time the area of the later city included various villages. From at least 1224/25 a German market settlement with merchants from Lübeck existed in the area of today's Long Market.[21] In 1224/25, merchants from Lübeck were invited as "hospites" (immigrants with specific privileges) but were soon (in 1238) forced to leave by Swantopolk II of the Samborides during a war between Swantopolk and the Teutonic Knights, during which Lübeck supported the latter. Migration of merchants to the town resumed in 1257.[22] Significant German influence did not reappear until the 14th century, after the takeover of the city by the Teutonic Knights.[23] At latest in 1263 Pomerelian duke, Swantopolk II. granted city rights under Lübeck law to the emerging market settlement.[21] It was an autonomy charter similar to that of Lübeck, which was also the primary origin of many settlers.[20] In a document of 1271 the Pomerelian duke Mestwin II. addressed the Lübeck merchants settled in the city as his loyal citizens from Germany.[24][25]

In 1300, the town had an estimated population of 2,000.[26] While overall the town was not a very important trade centre at that time, it had some relevance in the trade with Eastern Europe.[26] Low on funds, the Samborides lent the settlement to Brandenburg, although they planned to take the city back and give it to Poland. Poland threatened to intervene, and Brandenburg left the town. Subsequently, the city was taken by Danish princes in 1301. The Teutonic Knights were hired by the Polish nobles to drive out the Danes.

Teutonic Knights

Gdanskmemorial
Monument to defenders of Polish Gdańsk also commemorates the victims of the 1308 massacre carried out by the Teutonic Knights

In 1308, the town was taken by Brandenburg and the Teutonic Knights restored order. Subsequently, the Knights took over control of the town. Primary sources record a massacre carried out by the Teutonic Knights on the local population,[27] of 10,000 people, but the exact number killed is subject of dispute in modern scholarship.[28] Some authors accept the number given in the original sources,[29] while others consider 10,000 to have been a medieval exaggeration, although scholarly consensus is that a massacre of some magnitude did take place.[28] The events were used by the Polish crown to condemn the Teutonic Knights in a subsequent papal lawsuit.[28][30]

The knights colonised the area, replacing local Kashubians and Poles with German settlers.[29] In 1308, they founded Osiek Hakelwerk near the town, initially as a Slavic fishing settlement.[27] In 1340, the Teutonic Knights built a large fortress, which became the seat of the knights' Komtur.[31] In 1346 they changed the Town Law of the city, which then consisted only of the Rechtstadt, to Kulm law.[32] In 1358, Danzig joined the Hanseatic League, and became an active member in 1361.[33] It maintained relations with the trade centers Bruges, Novgorod, Lisboa and Sevilla.[33] Around 1377, the Old Town was equipped with city rights as well.[34] In 1380, the New Town was founded as the third, independent settlement.[27]

After a series of Polish-Teutonic Wars, in the Treaty of Kalisz (1343) the Order had to acknowledge that it would hold Pomerelia as a fief from the Polish Crown. Although it left the legal basis of the Order's possession of the province in some doubt, the city thrived as a result of increased exports of grain (especially wheat), timber, potash, tar, and other goods of forestry from Prussia and Poland via the Vistula River trading routes, although after its capture, the Teutonic Knights tried to actively reduce the economic significance of the town. While under the control of the Teutonic Order German migration increased. The Order's religious networks helped to develop Danzig's literary culture.[35] A new war broke out in 1409, culminating in the Battle of Grunwald (1410), and the city came under the control of the Kingdom of Poland. A year later, with the First Peace of Thorn, it returned to the Teutonic Order.[36]

Kingdom of Poland

Allegory of Gdańsk trade
Apotheosis of Gdańsk by Izaak van den Blocke. The Vistula-borne trade of goods in Poland was the main source of prosperity during the city's Golden Age.

In 1440, the city participated in the foundation of the Prussian Confederation which was an organisation opposed to the rule of the Teutonic Knights. This led to the Thirteen Years' War against the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia (1454–1466). On 25 May 1457 the city gained its rights and independence as an autonomous city.[37][38]

On 15 May 1457, Casimir IV of Poland granted the town the Great Privilege, after he had been invited by the town's council and had already stayed in town for five weeks.[39] With the Great Privilege, the town was granted full autonomy and protection by the King of Poland.[40] The privilege removed tariffs and taxes on trade within Poland, Lithuania and Ruthenia (present day Belarus and Ukraine) and conferred on the town independent jurisdiction, legislation and administration of her territory, as well as the right to mint its own coin.[39] Furthermore, the privilege united Old Town, Osiek and Main Town, and legalised the demolition of New Town, which had sided with the Teutonic Knights.[39] By 1457, New Town was demolished completely, no buildings remained.[27]

Gaining free and privileged access to Polish markets, the seaport prospered while simultaneously trading with the other Hanseatic cities. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) with the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia the warfare between the latter and the Polish crown ended permanently. After the Union of Lublin between Poland and Lithuania in 1569 the city continued to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (cf. Danzig Law). Being the largest and one of the most influential cities of Poland, it enjoyed voting rights during the royal election period in Poland.

Gdańsk Zielona Brama
Green Gate, inspired by the Antwerp City Hall,[41] was built to serve as the formal residence of the Polish monarchs.[42]

In 1569 a Mennonite Church was founded here.

In the 1575 election of a king to the Polish throne, Danzig supported Maximilian II against Stephen Báthory. It was the latter who eventually became monarch but the city, encouraged by the secret support of Denmark and Emperor Maximilian, shut its gates against Stephen. After the Siege of Danzig (1577), lasting six months, the city's army of 5,000 mercenaries was utterly defeated in a field battle on 16 December 1577. However, since Stephen's armies were unable to take the city by force, a compromise was reached: Stephen Báthory confirmed the city's special status and her Danzig Law privileges granted by earlier Polish kings. The city recognised him as ruler of Poland and paid the enormous sum of 200,000 guldens in gold as payoff ("apology").

Around 1640, Johannes Hevelius established his astronomical observatory in the Old Town. Polish King John III Sobieski regularly visited Hevelius numerous times.

Beside a majority of German-speakers, [43] whose elites sometimes distinguished their German dialect as Pomerelian,[44] the city was home to a large number of Polish-speaking Poles, Jewish Poles, Latvian speaking Kursenieki, Flemings and Dutch. In addition, a number of Scots took refuge or migrated to and received citizenship in the city. During the Protestant Reformation, most German-speaking inhabitants adopted Lutheranism. Due to the special status of the city and significance within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city inhabitants largely became bi-cultural sharing both Polish and German culture and were strongly attached to the traditions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[45]

The city suffered a last great plague and a slow economic decline due to the wars of the 18th century. As a stronghold of Stanisław Leszczyński's supporters during the War of the Polish Succession, it was taken by the Russians after the Siege of Danzig in 1734.

The Danzig Research Society (in German Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Danzig) founded in 1743 was one of the first of its kind.

Prussia and Germany

Danzig Lange Bruecke c1850
Friedrich Eduard Meyerheim's painting of the waterfront (1850)
Danzig Partie am Krahnthor (1890-1900)
Colorized photo, c. 1900, showing prewar roof of the Krantor (Brama Żuraw).

Danzig was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793,[46] in the Second Partition of Poland. An attempt of student uprising against Prussia led by Gottfried Benjamin Bartholdi was crushed quickly by the authorities in 1797.[47][48][49] During the era of Napoleon the city became a free city in the period extending from 1807 to 1814.

In 1815, after France's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, it again became part of Prussia[46] and became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Danzig within the province of West Prussia. The city's longest serving president was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from 1841, through the revolutions of 1848, until 1863. With the unification of Germany under Prussian hegemony, the city became part of Imperial Germany (the German Empire) in 1871, and remained so until 1919, after Germany's defeat in World War I.

Inter-war years and World War II

DAN-62-Bank von Danzig-100 Gulden (1931, specimen)
A 100 Danzig gulden banknote issued by the Bank of Danzig in 1931.

When Poland regained its independence after World War I with access to the sea as promised by the Allies on the basis of Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" (point 13 called for "an independent Polish state", "which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea"), the Poles hoped the city's harbour would also become part of Poland.

However, in the end - since Germans formed a majority in the city, with Poles being a minority (in the 1923 census 7,896 people out of 335,921 gave Polish, Kashubian or Masurian as their native language)[50] - the city was not placed under Polish sovereignty. Instead, in accordance with the terms of the Versailles Treaty, it became the Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig), an independent quasi-state under the auspices of the League of Nations with its external affairs largely under Polish control, without however any public vote to legitimize Germany's loss of the city. Poland's rights also included free use of the harbour, a Polish post office, a Polish garrison in Westerplatte district, and customs union with Poland. This led to a considerable tension between the city and the Republic of Poland. The Free City had its own constitution, national anthem, parliament (Volkstag), and government (Senat). It issued its own stamps as well as its currency, the Danzig gulden.

In the early 1930s the local Nazi Party capitalised on pro-German sentiments and in 1933 garnered 50% of vote in the parliament. Thereafter, the Nazis under Gauleiter Albert Forster achieved dominance in the city government, which was still nominally overseen by the League of Nations' High Commissioner. The German government officially demanded the return of Danzig to Germany along with an extraterritorial (meaning under German jurisdiction) highway through the area of the Polish Corridor for land-based access from the rest of Germany. Hitler used the issue of the status of the city as a pretext for attacking Poland and on May 1939, during a high level meeting of German military officials explained to them: "It is not Danzig that is at stake. For us it is a matter of expanding our Lebensraum in the east", adding that there will be no repeat of the Czech situation, and Germany will attack Poland at first opportunity, after isolating the country from its Western Allies.[51][52][53][54][55] After the German proposals to solve the three main issues peacefully were refused and the sixteen point proposal has been undermined by the British Government (Navy Minister Cooper), German-Polish relations rapidly deteriorated. Germany attacked Poland on 1 September after having signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union (this includes the Secret Part with the upcoming treatment of the Baltic States) in late August and after postponing the attack three times due to needed time for diplomatic, peaceful solutions.

The German attack began in Danzig, with a bombardment of Polish positions at Westerplatte by the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, and the landing of German infantry on the peninsula. Outnumbered Polish defenders at Westerplatte resisted for seven days before running out of ammunition. Meanwhile, after a fierce day-long fight (1 September 1939), defenders of the Polish Post office were tried and executed then buried on the spot in the Danzig quarter of Zaspa in October 1939. In 1998 a German court overturned their conviction and sentence.

Arrested defendants of the Polish Post Office in Gdansk
Captured Polish defenders of the Polish Post Office in Danzig shortly before their trial and execution by the Wehrmacht

The city was officially annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. About 50 percent of members of the Jewish Community of Danzig had left the city within a year after a Pogrom in October 1937,[56] after the Kristallnacht riots in November 1938 the community decided to organize its emigration[57] and in March 1939 a first transport to Palestine started.[58] By September 1939 barely 1,700 mostly elderly Jews remained. In early 1941, just 600 Jews were still living in Danzig, most of whom were later murdered in the Holocaust.[56][59] Out of the 2,938 Jewish community in the city 1,227 were able to escape from the Nazis before the outbreak of war.[60] Nazi secret police had been observing Polish minority communities in the city since 1936, compiling information, which in 1939 served to prepare lists of Poles to be captured in Operation Tannenberg. On the first day of the war, approximately 1,500 ethnic Poles were arrested, some because of their participation in social and economic life, others because they were activists and members of various Polish organisations. On 2 September 1939, 150 of them were deported to the Sicherheitsdienst camp Stutthof some 30 miles (48 km) from Danzig, and murdered.[61] Many Poles living in Danzig were deported to Stutthof or executed in the Piaśnica forest.

In 1941, Hitler ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union, eventually causing the fortunes of war to turn against Germany. As the Soviet Army advanced in 1944, German populations in Central and Eastern Europe took flight, resulting in the beginning of a great population shift. After the final Soviet offensives began in January 1945, hundreds of thousands of German refugees converged on Danzig, many of whom had fled on foot from East Prussia, some tried to escape through the city's port in a large-scale evacuation involving hundreds of German cargo and passenger ships. Some of the ships were sunk by the Soviets, including the Wilhelm Gustloff after an evacuation was attempted at neighbouring Gdynia. In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed.

The city also endured heavy Allied and Soviet air raids. Those who survived and could not escape had to face the Soviet Army, which captured the heavily damaged city on 30 March 1945,[62] followed by large-scale rape[63] and looting.[64][65] In line with the decisions made by the Allies at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, the city was annexed by Poland. The remaining German residents of the city who had survived the war fled or were forcibly expelled from their home city to postwar Germany, and the city was repopulated by ethnic Poles; up to 18 percent (1948) of them had been deported by the Soviets in two major waves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, i.e. from the eastern portion of pre-war Poland.[66]

Contemporary times

Gran Armería, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 12
Example of Dutch-style buildings rebuilt after the war: The Old Arsenal by Anthony van Obberghen, Jan Strakowski and Abraham van den Blocke, 1602–1605.[67]

Parts of the historic old city of Gdańsk, which had suffered large-scale destruction during the war, were rebuilt during the 1950s and 1960s. The reconstruction was not tied to the city's pre-war appearance, but instead was politically motivated as a means of culturally cleansing and destroying all traces of German influence from the city.[68][69][70] Any traces of German tradition were ignored, suppressed, or regarded as "Prussian barbarism" only worthy of demolition,[71][72] while Flemish/Dutch, Italian and French influences were used to replace the historically accurate Germanic architecture which the city was built upon since the 14th century.[73]

Gdańsk Arkońska Business Park A3, A4 i A5
Gdańsk Arkońska Business Park

Boosted by heavy investment in the development of its port and three major shipyards for Soviet ambitions in the Baltic region, Gdańsk became the major shipping and industrial center of the Communist People's Republic of Poland.

In December 1970, Gdańsk was the scene of anti-regime demonstrations, which led to the downfall of Poland's communist leader Władysław Gomułka. During the demonstrations in Gdańsk and Gdynia, military as well as the police opened fire on the demonstrators causing several dozen deaths. Ten years later, in August, 1980, Gdańsk Shipyard was the birthplace of the Solidarity trade union movement. In September 1981, in order to deter Solidarity, Soviet Union launched Exercise Zapad-81, the largest military exercise in human history, during which amphibious landings were conducted near Gdansk. Meanwhile, the Solidarity held its first national congress in Hala Olivia, Gdansk when more than 800 deputies participated. Its opposition to the Communist regime led to the end of Communist Party rule in 1989, and sparked a series of protests that overthrew the Communist regimes of the former Soviet bloc. Solidarity's leader, Lech Wałęsa, became President of Poland in 1990. In 2014 the European Solidarity Centre, a museum and library devoted to the history of the movement, opened in Gdańsk.[74]

Gdańsk native Donald Tusk became Prime Minister of Poland in 2007, and President of the European Council in 2014.[75] Today Gdańsk is a major shipping port and tourist destination.

In January 2019, the Mayor of Gdansk, Paweł Adamowicz, was assassinated by a man who had just been released from prison for violent crimes; the man claimed after stabbing the mayor in the abdomen, near the heart that the mayor's political party had been responsible for imprisoning him. Though Adamowicz was able to undergo a multi-hour surgery to try to treat his wounds, he died the next day.[76][77]

Geography

Climate

Gdansk
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
29
 
 
1
−4
 
 
23
 
 
2
−3
 
 
28
 
 
6
−1
 
 
31
 
 
11
3
 
 
55
 
 
17
8
 
 
68
 
 
20
11
 
 
68
 
 
22
14
 
 
69
 
 
22
13
 
 
64
 
 
18
10
 
 
49
 
 
13
6
 
 
46
 
 
6
1
 
 
39
 
 
3
−2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

Gdańsk has a climate with both oceanic and continental influences. According to some categorizations, it has an oceanic climate (Cfb)[78], while others classify it as belonging to the continental climate zone (Dfb)[79]. It actually depends on whether the mean reference temperature for the coldest winter month is set at −3 °C (27 °F) or 0 °C (32 °F). Gdańsk's dry winters and the precipitation maximum in summer are indicators of continentality. However seasonal extremes are less pronounced than those in inland Poland.

The city has moderately cold and cloudy winters with mean temperature in January and February near or below 0 °C (32 °F) and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from −1.0 to 17.2 °C (30 to 63 °F) and average monthly rainfall varies 17.9 to 66.7 millimetres (1 to 3 in) per month with a rather low annual total of 507.3 millimetres (20 in). In general, it is damp, variable, and mild.

The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times with temperature reaching as high as 30 to 35 °C (86 to 95 °F) at least once per year with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. Gdańsk averages 1,700 hours of sunshine per year. July and August are the warmest months. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp, and foggy in November. Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as −15 °C (5 °F).

Economy

The industrial sections of the city are dominated by shipbuilding, petrochemical & chemical industries, and food processing. The share of high-tech sectors such as electronics, telecommunications, IT engineering, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals is on the rise. Amber processing is also an important part of the local economy, as the majority of the world's amber deposits lie along the Baltic coast. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, including Gdańsk, is also a major tourist destination in the summer, as millions of Poles and other European tourists flock to the beaches of the Baltic coastline. Major companies in Gdańsk:

Main sights

2012-08-30 pano gdansk sm2
View of Gdańsk's Main Town from the Motława River (2012)
Puerta Alta, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 02
The Highland Gate marks the beginning of the Royal Route

Architecture

The city has some buildings surviving from the time of the Hanseatic League. Most tourist attractions are located along or near Ulica Długa (Long Street) and Długi Targ (Long Market), a pedestrian thoroughfare surrounded by buildings reconstructed in historical (primarily during the 17th century) style and flanked at both ends by elaborate city gates. This part of the city is sometimes referred to as the Royal Route, since it was once the former path of processions for visiting Kings of Poland.

Ayuntamiento Principal, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 02
Long Lane filled with picturesque tenements is part of the Royal Route
Monumento Neptuno, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 01
Neptune's Fountain in the centre of the Long Market, a masterpiece by architect Abraham van den Blocke, 1617.[81][82]
Gdansk Royal Chapel
Royal Chapel of the Polish King – John III Sobieski was built in baroque style between 1678–1681 by Tylman van Gameren.[83]
Danzig Marienkirche Profil (2011)
St. Mary's Church – the second largest brick church in the world

Walking from end to end, sites encountered on or near the Royal Route include:

Gdańsk has a number of historical churches:

  • St. Bridget
  • St. Catherine
  • St. John
  • St. Mary (Bazylika Mariacka), a municipal church built during the 15th century, is the largest brick church in the world.
  • St. Nicholas
  • St. James
  • St. Joseph
  • St. Peter and Paul
  • St. Barbara
  • Corpus Christi

The city's 17th-century fortifications represent one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated on 16 September 1994 and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

Other main sights in the historical city centre include:

  • Royal Chapel of the Polish King John III Sobieski
  • Żuraw – medieval port crane
  • Gradowa Hill
  • Granaries on the Ołowianka and Granary Islands
  • Great Armoury
  • John III Sobieski Monument
  • Old Town Hall
  • Jan Heweliusz Monument
  • Great Mill (1350)
  • Small Mill
  • House of Research Society
  • Polish Post Office, site of the 1939 battle
  • brick gothic town gates, i.e. Mariacka Gate, Straganiarska Gate, Cow Gate

Main sights outside the historical city centre include:

Museums

Entertainment

Transport

SA136-019, Gdańsk Brętowo, 2015-09-25 (Muri WG 2015-34)
Pesa Atribo of the PKP Fast Urban Railways (SKM) in Gdańsk

In 2011–2015 the Warsaw-Gdańsk-Gdynia railway route underwent a major upgrading costing $3 billion, partly funded by the European Investment Bank, including track replacement, realignment of curves and relocation of sections of track to allow speeds up to 200 km/h (124 mph), modernization of stations, and installation of the most modern ETCS signalling system, which was completed in June 2015. In December 2014 new Alstom Pendolino high-speed trains were put into service between Gdańsk, Warsaw and Kraków reducing the rail travel time from Gdańsk to Warsaw to 2 hours 58 minutes,[86][87] further reduced in December 2015 to 2 hours 39 minutes.[88]

Gdańsk is the starting point of the EuroVelo 9 cycling route which continues southward through Poland, then into the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovenia before ending at the Adriatic Sea in Pula, Croatia.

Gdańsk (DerHexer) 2010-07-12 016

Gdańsk main railway station (built 1896–1900)

Gdansk tramwaj 1052 2

Gdańsk tram – Pesa Jazz Duo

New Solaris Urbino 12, Gdańsk

Gdańsk bus - Solaris Urbino 12

Expressway S6 Tricity PL ubt

S6 expressway Tricity

Sports

There are many popular professional sports teams in the Gdańsk and Tricity area. Amateur sports are played by thousands of Gdańsk citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university).

The city's professional football club is Lechia Gdańsk. Founded in 1945, they play in the Ekstraklasa, Poland's top division. Their home stadium, Stadion Energa Gdańsk, was one of the four Polish stadiums to host the UEFA Euro 2012 competition. Other notable clubs include rugby club Lechia Gdańsk (12 times Polish Champion) and motorcycle speedway club Wybrzeże Gdańsk.

The city's Hala Olivia was a venue for the official 2009 EuroBasket.[89]

Politics and local government

Contemporary Gdańsk is the capital of the province called Pomeranian Voivodeship and is one of the major centers of economic and administrative life in Poland. Many important agencies of the state and local government levels have their main offices here: the Provincial Administration Office, the Provincial Government, the Ministerial Agency of the State Treasury, the Agency for Consumer and Competition Protection, the National Insurance regional office, the Court of Appeals, and the High Administrative Court.

Regional centre

Gdańsk Voivodeship was extended in 1999 to include most of former Słupsk Voivodeship, the western part of Elbląg Voivodeship and Chojnice County from Bydgoszcz Voivodeship to form the new Pomeranian Voivodeship. The area of the region was thus extended from 7,394 to 18,293 square kilometres (2,855 to 7,063 sq mi) and the population rose from 1,333,800 (1980) to 2,198,000 (2000). By 1998, Tricity constituted an absolute majority of the population; almost half of the inhabitants of the new region live in the centre.

Municipal government

Legislative power in Gdańsk is vested in a unicameral Gdańsk City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 34 members. Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.

City Council in 2002–2006[90]
City Council in 2006–2010[91]
City Council in 2010–2014[92]
Gdansk City Council in 2014 2018
Gdansk City Council in 2014-2018
City Council in 2014–2018[93]

Districts

Gdańsk is divided into 34 administrative divisions: 6 dzielnicas and 28 osiedles. Gdańsk dzielnicas include: Chełm, Piecki-Migowo, Przymorze Wielkie, Śródmieście, Wrzeszcz Dolny, Wrzeszcz Górny.

Osiedles: Aniołki, Brętowo, Brzeźno, Jasień, Kokoszki, Krakowiec-Górki Zachodnie, Letnica, Matarnia, Młyniska, Nowy Port, Oliwa, Olszynka, Orunia-Św. Wojciech-Lipce, Osowa, Przeróbka, Przymorze Małe, Rudniki, Siedlce, Sobieszewo Island, Stogi, Strzyża, Suchanino, Ujeścisko-Łostowice, VII Dwór, Wzgórze Mickiewicza, Zaspa-Młyniec, Zaspa-Rozstaje, Żabianka-Wejhera-Jelitkowo-Tysiąclecia.

Education and science

Gmach glowny politechnika
Gdańsk University of Technology
MUG Hospital Bldg 1
Gdańsk Medical University

There are 15 higher schools including 3 universities. In 2001 there were 60,436 students, including 10,439 graduates.

Scientific and regional organizations

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Gdańsk is twinned with:[98]

Partnerships and cooperation

Gallery

Gdańsk hotel Hilton

Gdańsk Hilton Hotel

Gdansk tourist pictures 2009 0034

Długi Targ Street, Old Town

2010-07-08-gdansk-by-RalfR-067

Mariacka Street

Gdańsk Główne Miasto - Długa Street (131)

Długa Street

Gdańsk, Długa 35

Lion's Castle Tenement House

John III Sobieski Monument in Gdańsk 2669

John III Sobieski Monument in Gdańsk

Gdańsk - Neptune's Fountain

Gdańsk – Neptune's Fountain

Gdańsk - Townhouses

Gdańsk – Townhouses

Westerplatte-Denkmal Danzig 2010

Westerplatte – Monument nearby Gdańsk

SM Gdańsk Ratusz Staromiejski (0) ID 635538

Old Town Hall

Gdansk Wielki Mlyn2014

Great Mill (left) and Millers' Guild House (right)

Danzig Johanniskirche

Church of St. John

2010-07-11-gdansk-by-RaBoe-039

Rybackie Pobrzeże

Danzig, Altes Müllergewerkshaus

Millers' Guild House

SM Gdańsk Kościół św Barbary (1) ID 635439

Saint Barbara church

Pl-gdansk-baszta-labedz-zamek2006

Swan Tower

635495 Gdańsk Wieża Więzienna 03

Gaol Tower

Danziger Bibliothek der Polnischen Akademie

Gdańsk Library of Polish Academy of Sciences

Gdańsk, pomnik Jana Heweliusza

Jan Heweliusz Monument

Port of Gdansk from mainmast of Fryderyk Chopin

Port of Gdańsk from mainmast of Fryderyk Chopin

UG - WPiA ubt.jpeg

Gdańsk University – Faculty of Law and Administration

Przymorze-obroncow wybrzeza nowe bloki

Modern blocks in Obrońców Wybrzeża Street

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1939250,000—    
1946117,894−52.8%
1950194,633+65.1%
1960286,940+47.4%
1970365,600+27.4%
1980456,707+24.9%
1987469,053+2.7%
1990465,143−0.8%
1995463,019−0.5%
2000462,995−0.0%
2005458,093−1.1%
2010460,509+0.5%
2012460,427−0.0%
2014461,489+0.2%
2017464,254+0.6%

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 10 November 2018. Data for territorial unit 2261000.
  2. ^ "the definition of gdansk". Dictionary.com.
  3. ^ "Poland – largest cities (per geographical entity)". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on December 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  4. ^ "Millions at Gdansk's St. Dominic's Fair". www.pap.pl. Article copied to polska.pl. 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  5. ^ "European Jamboree 2020".
  6. ^ From the history of Gdańsk city name, as explained at Gdańsk Guide
  7. ^ a b Tighe, Carl (1990). Gdańsk: national identity in the Polish-German borderlands. Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745303468. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  8. ^ Gumowski, Marian (1966). Handbuch der polnischen Siegelkunde (in German). Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  9. ^ Also in 1454, 1468, 1484, and 1590
  10. ^ Also in 1399, 1410, and 1414–1438
  11. ^ Also in 1410, 1414
  12. ^ Gdańsk, in: Kazimierz Rymut, Nazwy Miast Polski, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1987
  13. ^ Hubert Gurnowicz, Gdańsk, in: Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1978
  14. ^ Baedeker's Northern Germany, Karl Baedeker Publishing, Leipzig 1904
  15. ^ a b Loew, Peter Oliver: Danzig. Biographie einer Stadt, Munich 2011, p. 24.
  16. ^ a b Wazny, Tomasz; Paner, Henryk; Golebiewski, Andrzej; Koscinski, Bogdan: Early medieval Gdansk/Danzig revisited (EuroDendro 2004), Rendsburg 2004, pdf-abstract Archived September 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Loew (2011), p. 24; Wazny et al. (2004), abstract Archived September 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 39. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  19. ^ admin2. "1000 LAT GDAŃSKA W ŚWIETLE WYKOPALISK". Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  20. ^ a b Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 40. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  21. ^ a b name="harlander">Harlander, Christa (2004). Stadtanlage und Befestigung von Danzig (zur Zeit des Deutschen Ordens). GRIN Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 978-3-638-75010-3.
  22. ^ Zbierski, Andrzej (1978). Struktura zawodowa, spoleczna i etnicza ludnosci. In Historia Gdanska, Vol. 1. Wydawnictwo Morskie. pp. 228–9. ISBN 978-83-86557-00-4.
  23. ^ Turnock, David (1988). The Making of Eastern Europe: From the Earliest Times to 1815. Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-415-01267-6.
  24. ^ name="lingenberg">Lingenberg, Heinz (1982). Die Anfänge des Klosters Oliva und die Entstehung der deutschen Stadt Danzig: die frühe Geschichte der beiden Gemeinwesen bis 1308/10. Klett-Cotta. p. 292. ISBN 978-3-129-14900-3.
  25. ^ ‘The Slippery Memory of Men’: The Place of Pomerania in the Medieval Kingdom of Poland by Paul Milliman page 73, 2013
  26. ^ a b Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  27. ^ a b c d Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 41. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  28. ^ a b c Hartmut Boockmann, Ostpreussen und Westpreussen, Siedler, 2002, p.158, ISBN 3-88680-212-4
  29. ^ a b James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, ISBN 0-313-30984-1, p.376 Google Books
  30. ^ Thomas Urban: "Rezydencja książąt Pomorskich". (in Polish) Archived August 25, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  32. ^ Frankot, Edda (2012). 'Of Laws of Ships and Shipmen': Medieval Maritime Law and its Practice in Urban Northern Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7486-4624-1.
  33. ^ a b Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 42. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  34. ^ Loew, Peter O. (2011). Danzig: Biographie einer Stadt. München: C.H.Beck. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.
  35. ^ Sobecki, Sebastian (2016). Danzig. Europe: A Literary History, 1348–1418, Ed. David Wallace. Oxford University Press. pp. 635–41. ISBN 9780198735359.
  36. ^ "II Pokój Toruński i przyłączenie Gdańska do Rzeczpospolitej". mgdansk.pl.
  37. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Poland". worldstatesmen.org.
  38. ^ Danzig – Gdańsk until 1920
  39. ^ a b c Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  40. ^ Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.: "Geben wir und verlehen unnsir Stadt Danczk das sie zcu ewigen geczeiten nymands for eynem herrn halden noc gehorsam zcu weszen seyn sullen in weltlichen sachen."
  41. ^ Juliette Roding, Lex Heerma van Voss (1996). The North Sea and culture (1550–1800): proceedings of the international conference held at Leiden 21–22 April 1995. Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 103. ISBN 978-90-6550-527-9.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  42. ^ "Zielona Brama w Gdańsku". wilanowmiasta.gazeta.pl (in Polish). 2007-02-18. Archived from the original on 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  43. ^ Zamoyski, Adam (2015). Poland. A History. William Collins. p. 26, 92. ISBN 978-0007556212.
  44. ^ Bömelburg, Hans-Jürgen, Zwischen polnischer Ständegesellschaft und preußischem Obrigkeitsstaat: vom Königlichen Preußen zu Westpreußen (1756–1806), München: Oldenbourg, 1995, (Schriften des Bundesinstituts für Ostdeutsche Kultur und Geschichte (Oldenburg); 5), zugl.: Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Diss., 1993, 549 pp.
  45. ^ Historia Polski 1795–1815 Andrzej Chwalba Kraków 2000, page 441
  46. ^ a b Planet, Lonely. "History of Gdańsk – Lonely Planet Travel Information". lonelyplanet.com.
  47. ^ Dzieje Gdańska Edmund Cieślak, Czesław Biernat Wydawn. Morskie, 1969 page 370
  48. ^ Dzieje Polski w datach Jerzy Borowiec, Halina Niemiec page 161
  49. ^ Polska, losy państwa i narodu Henryk Samsonowicz 1992 Iskry page 282
  50. ^ Ergebnisse der Volks- und Berufszählung vom 1. November 1923 in der Freien Stadt Danzig (in German). Verlag des Statistischen Landesamtes der Freien Stadt Danzig. 1926.. Polish estimates of the Polish minority during the interwar era, however, range from 37,000 to 100,000 (9%–34%). Studia historica Slavo-Germanica, Tomy 18–20page 220 Uniwersytet Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Instytut Historii Wydawnictwo Naukowe imienia. Adama Mickiewicza, 1994.
  51. ^ The history of the German resistance, 1933–1945 Peter Hoffmann page 37 McGill-Queen's University Press 1996
  52. ^ Hitler Joachim C. Fest page 586 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002
  53. ^ Blitzkrieg w Polsce wrzesien 1939 Richard Hargreaves page 84 Bellona, 2009
  54. ^ A military history of Germany, from the eighteenth century to the present dayMartin Kitchen page 305 Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975
  55. ^ International history of the twentieth century and beyond Antony Best page 181 Routledge; 2 edition (July 30, 2008)
  56. ^ a b "Gdansk". Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  57. ^ Bauer, Yehuda (1981). American Jewry and the Holocaust. Wayne State University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-8143-1672-6. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  58. ^ "Die "Lösung der Judenfrage" in der Freien Stadt Danzig". www.shoa.de (in German). 2018-11-30. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29.
  59. ^ "Gdansk, Poland". jewishgen.org.
  60. ^ Żydzi na terenie Wolnego Miasta Gdańska w latach 1920–1945:działalność kulturalna, polityczna i socjalnaGrzegorz Berendt Gdańskie Tow. Nauk., Wydz. I Nauk Społecznych i Humanistycznych, 1997 page 245
  61. ^ Museums Stutthof in Sztutowo. Retrieved January 31, 2007. Archived August 24, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ "Gdańsk.pl". 3 March 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  63. ^ Grzegorz Baziur, OBEP IPN Kraków (2002). "Armia Czerwona na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1945–1947 (Red Army in Gdańsk Pomerania 1945–1947)". Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Institute of National Remembrance Bulletin). 7: 35–38.
  64. ^ Biskupski, Mieczysław B. The History of Poland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, p. 97.
  65. ^ Tighe, Carl. Gdańsk: National Identity in the Polish-German Borderlands. London: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 199.
  66. ^ Loew, Peter Oliver (2011). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 232. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  67. ^ Lech Krzyżanowski; Michał Wożniak; Marek Źak; Wacław Górski (1995). Beautiful historic Gdańsk. Excalibur. p. 769.
  68. ^ Kozinska, Bogdana; Bingen, Dieter (2005). Die Schleifung – Zerstörung und Wiederaufbau historischer Bauten in Deutschland und Polen (in German). Deutsches Polen-Institut. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-447-05096-8. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  69. ^ Loew, Peter Oliver (2011). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.
  70. ^ Kalinowski, Konstanty; Bingen, Dieter (2005). Die Schleifung – Zerstörung und Wiederaufbau historischer Bauten in Deutschland und Polen (in German). Deutsches Polen-Institut. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-447-05096-8. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  71. ^ Friedrich, Jacek (2010). Neue Stadt in altem Glanz – Der Wiederaufbau Danzigs 1945–1960 (in German). Böhlau. pp. 30, 40. ISBN 978-3-412-20312-2.
  72. ^ Czepczynski, Mariusz (2008). Cultural landscapes of post-socialist cities: representation of powers and needs. Ashgate publ. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7546-7022-3.
  73. ^ Friedrich, Jacek (2010). Neue Stadt in altem Glanz – Der Wiederaufbau Danzigs 1945–1960 (in German). Böhlau. pp. 34, 102. ISBN 978-3-412-20312-2.
  74. ^ "W Gdańsku otwarto Europejskie Centrum Solidarności" (in Polish). Onet.pl. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  75. ^ "Italy's Mogherini and Poland's Tusk get top EU jobs". BBC. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  76. ^ "Gdansk mayor Pawel Adamowicz dies after being stabbed in heart on stage". CNN. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  77. ^ https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/mayor-of-polish-city-dies-after-stabbing-at-charity-event/ar-BBSeqqz?ocid=chromentpshop
  78. ^ "Gdansk". Weatherbase.com. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  79. ^ "Köppen climate classification". Britannica. Retrieved 14 February 2018
  80. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Gdańsk". WMO. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  81. ^ Russell Sturgis; Arthur Lincoln Frothingham (1915). A history of architecture. Baker & Taylor. p. 293.
  82. ^ Paul Wagret; Helga S. B. Harrison (1964). Poland. Nagel. p. 302.
  83. ^ ROBiDZ w Gdańsku. "Kaplica Królewska w Gdańsku". www.wrotapomorza.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  84. ^ Snow, Georgia (3 September 2014). "Elizabethan playhouse in Poland to host work by Shakespeare's Globe". The Stage. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  85. ^ SKM Passenger Information, Map http://www.skm.pkp.pl/
  86. ^ Polish Pendolino launches 200 km/h operation, Railway Gazette International, 15 December 2014
  87. ^ "Pendolino z Trójmiasta do Warszawy. Więcej pytań niż odpowiedzi". trojmiasto.pl. 2013-07-30.
  88. ^ ';Jeszcze szybciej z Warszawy do Gdańska,' Kurier Kolejowy 9 01 2015 http://www.kurierkolejowy.eu/aktualnosci/22716/Jeszcze-szybciej-z-Warszawy-do-Gdanska.html
  89. ^ 2009 EuroBasket, ARCHIVE.FIBA.com, Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  90. ^ "Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza: Wybory samorządowe". wybory2002.pkw.gov.pl. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  91. ^ "Geografia wyborcza – Wybory samorządowe – Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza". wybory2006.pkw.gov.pl. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  92. ^ "Wybory Samorządowe 2010 – Geografia wyborcza – Województwo pomorskie – – m. Gdańsk". wybory2010.pkw.gov.pl. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  93. ^ "Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza | Gdańsk". wybory2014.pkw.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  94. ^ "Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Gdańsku". asp.gda.pl.
  95. ^ "Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences". imp.gda.pl/en.
  96. ^ WSB University in Gdańsk Archived 2016-02-14 at the Wayback Machine – WSB Universities
  97. ^ "The Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics". Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  98. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Partner Cities" (in Polish and English). City of Gdańsk. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
  99. ^ Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen – Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen – Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall – Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  100. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Archived from the original on 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
  101. ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  102. ^ "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. Archived from the original on 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  103. ^ "Le Havre – Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre – Twin towns]. City of Le Havre (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2013-08-07.

Bibliography

External links

2020 UEFA Europa League Final

The 2020 UEFA Europa League Final will be the final match of the 2019–20 UEFA Europa League, the 49th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 11th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It will be played at the Stadion Energa Gdańsk in Gdańsk, Poland on 27 May 2020.The winners will earn the right to play against the winners of the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League in the 2020 UEFA Super Cup. They will also qualify to enter the group stage of the 2020–21 UEFA Champions League, and if they have already qualified through their league performance, the berth reserved will be given to the third-placed team of the 5th-ranked association according to next season's access list.

Free City of Danzig

The Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig; Polish: Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas. It was created on 15 November 1920 in accordance with the terms of Article 100 (Section XI of Part III) of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles after the end of World War I.

The Free City included the city of Danzig and other nearby towns, villages, and settlements that were primarily inhabited by Germans. As the Treaty stated, the region was to remain separated from post-World War I Germany (the Weimar Republic) and from the newly independent nation of the Second Polish Republic ("interwar Poland"), but it was not an independent state. The Free City was under League of Nations protection and put into a binding customs union with Poland.

Poland was given certain rights pertaining to communication, the railways and port facilities in the city. The Free City was created in order to give Poland access to a well-sized seaport. The Free City's population of 410,000 was 98% German, 1% Polish and 1% other. However, in the 1920 Free City of Danzig Constituent Assembly election, the Polish Party received over 6% of the vote, the percentage of votes later declined to about 3%.

Poland, despite having been awarded generous rights in the Free City nevertheless went ahead and built Gdynia in 1921. This completely new port north of Gdansk was established on territory awarded in 1919. By 1933, the commerce passing through Gdynia exceeded that of Danzig. Notwithstanding this, Poland refused to relinquish trading and other rights awarded to her, further alienating the Danzigers.

By 1936, the city's Senate had a majority of local Nazis. Agitation to rejoin Germany was stepped up.

Due to anti-Semitic persecution and oppression, many Jews fled. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the Nazis abolished the Free City and incorporated the area into the newly formed Reichsgau of Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis classified the Poles and Jews living in the city as subhumans, subjecting them to discrimination, forced labor, and extermination. Many were sent to their deaths at Nazi concentration camps, including nearby Stutthof (now Sztutowo, Poland).

During the city's conquest by the Soviet Army in the early months of 1945, a substantial number of citizens fled or were killed. After the war, many surviving Germans were expelled to West or East Germany as members of the pre-war Polish ethnic minority started returning and as new Polish settlers began to come. Due to these events, Gdańsk suffered severe underpopulation and did not recover until the late 1950s. In 1945 the city officially became part of Poland as a consequence of the Potsdam Agreement.

Gdańsk Bay

Gdansk Bay or the Bay of Gdansk Polish: Zatoka Gdańska; Kashubian: Gduńskô Hôwinga; Russian: Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and German: Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as the Gulf of Gdańsk.

Gdańsk County

Gdańsk County (Polish: powiat gdański) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. It includes areas to the east and south of the city of Gdańsk, from which the county takes its name, although the city is not part of its territory. The county seat and only town in Gdańsk County is Pruszcz Gdański, which lies 12 kilometres (7 mi) south of central Gdańsk.

The county covers an area of 793.17 square kilometres (306.2 sq mi). As of 2006 its total population is 85,566, out of which the population of Pruszcz Gdański is 23,986 and the rural population is 61,580.

Gdańsk County on a map of the counties of Pomeranian Voivodeship

Gdańsk County is bordered by the city of Gdańsk to the north, Nowy Dwór Gdański County to the east, Malbork County to the south-east, Tczew County and Starogard County to the south, and Kościerzyna County and Kartuzy County to the west.

Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport

Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport (Polish: Port Lotniczy Gdańsk im. Lecha Wałęsy, formerly Polish: Port Lotniczy Gdańsk-Rębiechowo) (IATA: GDN, ICAO: EPGD) is an international airport located 12 km (7.5 mi) northwest of Gdańsk, Poland, not far from the city centres of the Tricity metropolitan area: Gdańsk (12 km (7.5 mi)), Sopot (10 km (6.2 mi)) and Gdynia (23 km (14 mi)). Since 2004 the airport is named after Lech Wałęsa, the former Polish president. With around 5 million passengers served in 2018, it is the 3rd largest airport in Poland in terms of passenger traffic.

Gdynia

Gdynia [ˈɡdɨɲa] (listen) (German: Gdingen, 1939-1945 Gotenhafen; Kashubian: Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. Located in Kashubia in Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia has a population of 246,232 making it the twelfth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest in the voivodeship after Gdańsk. It is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over a million people.

For centuries, Gdynia remained a small farming and fishing village on the Baltic coast. At the beginning of the 20th-century Gdynia became a seaside resort town and experienced an inflow of tourists. This triggered an increase in local population. After Poland regained its independence in 1918, a decision was made to construct a Polish seaport in Gdynia, between the Free City of Danzig (a semi-autonomous city-state under joint League of Nations and Polish administration) and German Pomerania, making Gdynia the primary economic hub of the Polish Corridor. It was then that the town was given a more cosmopolitan character with modernism being the dominant architectural style and emerged as a city in 1926.

The rapid development of Gdynia was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. The German troops refrained from deliberate bombing. The newly built port and shipyard were completely destroyed during the war. The population of the city suffered much heavier losses as most of the inhabitants were evicted and expelled. The locals were either displaced to other regions of occupied Poland or sent to Nazi concentration camps throughout Europe. After the war, Gdynia was settled with the former inhabitants of Warsaw and lost cities such as Lviv and Vilnius in the Eastern Borderlands. The city was gradually regenerating itself with its shipyard being rebuilt and expanded. In December 1970 the shipyard workers protest against the increase of prices was bloodily repressed. This greatly contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in Gdańsk.

Today the port of Gdynia is a regular stopover on the itinerary of luxurious passenger ships and a new ferry terminal with a civil airport are under realisation. The city won numerous awards in relation to safety, infrastructure, quality of life and a rich variety of tourist attractions. In 2013 Gdynia was ranked as Poland's best city to live in and topped the rankings in the overarching category of general quality of life. Gdynia is also highly noted for its access to education. There are prestigious universities such as the Polish Naval Academy nearby.

Gdynia hosts the Gdynia Film Festival, the main Polish film festival, and was the venue for the International Random Film Festival in 2014.

ISU Junior Grand Prix in Poland

The ISU Junior Grand Prix in Poland is an international figure skating competition. Sanctioned by the International Skating Union, it is held in the autumn in some years as part of the JGP series. Medals may be awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. When held in Gdańsk, the qualifying event is usually known as the Baltic Cup. It may be titled the Toruń Cup or Copernicus Stars when held in Toruń.

Kartuzy County

Kartuzy County (Kashubian: kartësczi pòwiat, Polish: powiat kartuski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest town is Kartuzy, which lies 29 kilometres (18 mi) west of the regional capital Gdańsk. The only other town in the county is Żukowo, lying 11 km (7 mi) east of Kartuzy.

The county covers an area of 1,120.04 square kilometres (432.4 sq mi). As of 2006 its total population is 109,311, out of which the population of Kartuzy is 15,263, that of Żukowo is 6,302, and the rural population is 87,746.

Kartuzy County on a map of the counties of Pomeranian Voivodeship

Kartuzy County is bordered by Wejherowo County to the north, the city of Gdynia to the north-east, the city of Gdańsk and Gdańsk County to the east, Kościerzyna County to the south, Bytów County to the west, and Lębork County to the north-west.

Kashubia

Kashubia or Cassubia (Kashubian: Kaszëbë, Polish: Kaszuby, German: Kaschubei, Kaschubien) is a language area in the historic Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) region of northwestern Poland. It is defined by the widespread use of the Kashubian language. The capital of Kashubia is Gdańsk.

Located west of Gdańsk (inclusive of all but the easternmost district) and the mouth of the Vistula river, it is inhabited by members of the Kashubian ethnic group. The region is home to the Kashubian Lake District. According to the 1999 basic study Geografia współczesnych Kaszub (Geography of present-day Kashubia) by the Gdańsk scholar Jan Mordawski 43 municipalities (gminas) of the Pomeranian Voivodeship have a Kashubian share of at least one third of the total population:

Cities: Gdańsk (Gduńsk), Gdynia (Gdiniô), Sopot (Sopòt)

Bytów County (Bëtowsczi kréz): Town of Bytów (Bëtowò) with Gmina Bytów, Gmina Czarna Dąbrówka (Czôrnô Dãbrówka), Gmina Lipnica (Lëpnica), Gmina Parchowo (Parchòwò), Gmina Tuchomie (Tëchòmié)

Chojnice County (Chònicczi kréz): Town of Brusy (Brusë) with Gmina Brusy, Gmina Chojnice (Chojnice), Gmina Konarzyny (Kònarzënë)

Człuchów County (Człëchòwsczi kréz): Gmina Przechlewo (Przechlewò)

Lębork County (Lãbòrsczi kréz): Gmina Cewice (Céwice)

Kartuzy County (Kartësczi kréz): Town of Kartuzy (Kartuzë) with Gmina Kartuzy, Town of Żukowo (Żukòwò) with Gmina Żukowo, Gmina Chmielno (Chmielno), Gmina Przodkowo (Przedkòwò), Gmina Sulęczyno (Sëlëczëno), Gmina Sierakowice (Sërakòjce), Gmina Somonino (Somònino), Gmina Stężyca (Stãżëca)

Kościerzyna County (Kòscérsczi kréz): Town of Kościerzyna (Kòscérzëna) with Gmina Kościerzyna, Gmina Dziemiany (Dzemiónë), Gmina Karsin (Kôrsëno), Gmina Lipusz (Lëpùsz), Gmina Nowa Karczma (Nowô Karczma)

Puck County (Pùcczi kréz): Town of Puck (Pùck) with Gmina Puck, towns of Hel (Hél), Jastarnia (Jastarniô) and Władysławowo (Wiôlgô Wies), Gmina Kosakowo (Kòsôkòwò), Gmina Krokowa (Krokòwa)

Wejherowo County (Wejrowsczi kréz): Town of Wejherowo (Wejrowò) and Gmina Wejherowo, towns of Reda (Réda) and Rumia (Rëmiô), Gmina Choczewo (Chòczewò), Gmina Gniewino (Gniewino), Gmina Linia (Lëniô), Gmina Luzino (Lëzëno), Gmina Łęczyce (Łãczëce), Gmina Szemud (Szëmôłd)

Lechia Gdańsk

Lechia Gdańsk (Polish pronunciation: [ˈlɛxʲa ˈɡdaɲsk]) is a Polish football club based in Gdańsk. The club's name comes from Lechia, a poetic name for Poland. The club was founded by people expelled from Lwów, who were supporters of the oldest Polish football team Lechia Lwów, founded in 1903. Founded in 1945, Lechia was a powerhouse in Polish football during the mid-1950s. Next decades were lean, the team returned to form in the early 1980s, winning a Cup of Poland, a Super Cup, and playing in the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, where it lost in the 1st round to Juventus. In May 2008 the club was promoted again to the Polish top division.

Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province (Polish: województwo pomorskie [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ pɔˈmɔrskʲɛ]; Kashubian Pòmòrsczé wòjewództwò), is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland. The provincial capital is Gdańsk.

The voivodeship was established on January 1, 1999, out of the former voivodeships of Gdańsk, Elbląg and Słupsk, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It is bordered by West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeships to the south, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the east, and the Baltic Sea to the north. It also shares a short land border with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast), on the Vistula Spit. The voivodeship comprises most of Pomerelia (the easternmost part of historical Pomerania), as well as an area east of the Vistula River. The western part of the province, around Słupsk, belonged historically to Farther Pomerania, while Pomerelia and the eastern bank of the Vistula belonged to the historical region of Prussia. The central parts of the province are also known as Kashubia, named after the Kashubian minority.

A province of rich cultural heritage. The Tricity urban area, consisting of Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, is one of the main cultural, commercial and educational centres of Poland. Gdańsk and Gdynia are two of the major Polish seaports, the first erected by Mieszko I of Poland in the Middle Ages, the latter built in the interwar period. Amongst the most recognisable landmarks of the region are the historic city centre of Gdańsk filled with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque masterpieces, the Museum of the National Anthem in Będomin, located at the birthplace of Józef Wybicki, poet and politician, author of the national anthem of Poland, the largest medieval churches of Poland (the St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk and the Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption in Pelplin) and the Malbork Castle. The voivodeship also includes the narrow Hel Peninsula and the Polish half of the Vistula Spit. Other tourist destinations include Wejherowo, Sopot, Jurata, Łeba, Władysławowo, Puck, Krynica Morska, Ustka, Jastarnia, Kuźnica, Bytów and many fishing ports and lighthouses.

The name Pomerania derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea" or "on the sea".

Pomerelia

Pomerelia (Latin: Pomerelia; German: Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Danzig Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, west of the Vistula river and east of the Łeba river. Its biggest city was Gdańsk. Since 1999 the region has formed the core of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Gdańsk Pomerania is traditionally divided into Kashubia and Kociewie.

SS Sołdek

SS Sołdek was a Polish coal and ore freighter. She was the first ship built in Szczecin (Poland) after World War II and the first seagoing ship completed in Poland. She was the first of 29 ships classed as Project B30, built between 1949 and 1954 in Stocznia Gdańska (Gdańsk Shipyard). The name was given in honour of Stanisław Sołdek, one of the shipyard's shock workers.The ship is currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdańsk, as a part of National Maritime Museum collection.

Sopot

Sopot [ˈsɔpɔt] (listen) (Kashubian: Sopòt; German: Zoppot (listen)) is a seaside resort city in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000.

Sopot is a city with powiat (county) status, in Pomeranian Voivodeship. Until 1999 Sopot was part of the Gdańsk Voivodeship. It lies between the larger cities of Gdańsk to the southeast and Gdynia to the northwest. The three cities together make up the metropolitan area of Tri-City.

Sopot is a major health-spa and tourist resort destination. It has the longest wooden pier in Europe, at 515.5 metres, stretching out into the Bay of Gdańsk. The city is also famous for its Sopot International Song Festival, the largest such event in Europe after the Eurovision Song Contest. Among its other attractions is a fountain of bromide spring water, known as the "inhalation mushroom".

Stadion Energa Gdańsk

The Stadion Energa Gdańsk (Polish pronunciation: [ˌstadjɔn ɛˌnɛrɡa ˈɡdaɲsk]), previously called the Baltic Arena and PGE Arena Gdańsk, is a football stadium in Gdańsk, Poland. It is used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of Lechia Gdańsk currently playing in the Ekstraklasa. The Stadium is located on ul. Pokoleń Lechii Gdańsk ("Generations of Lechia Gdańsk street") in the northern part of the city (Letnica district). The capacity of the stands is 41,620 spectators, all seated and roofed. The stadium is the largest arena in Ekstraklasa and the third largest in the country (after National Stadium and Silesia Stadium).

Construction of the stadium started in 2008 and was completed mid-2011. The opening match was between Lechia Gdańsk and Cracovia and ended with 1–1 draw. The first international match, Poland - Germany, took place on 6 September 2011 and ended 2-2. The match was relocated from Warsaw because the National Stadium was not ready. It is used by Lechia Gdańsk since 'the White-and-Green' relocated there from MOSiR Stadium.

The stadium was also one of the designated venues for the finals of Euro 2012. It hosted four matches during the tournament. Three matches in Group C and one quarterfinal were played there.In 2010 the official name of the stadium changed to PGE Arena Gdańsk on the basis of a sponsorship agreement with Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PGE Group). The contract ended, however, on 30 September 2015, after PGE chose not to renew the contract. On 9 November Energa was revealed as the new stadium's sponsor. The song 'Macho' from Tamil film Mersal was shot here.

Tricity, Poland

Tricity, or Tri-City (Polish: Trójmiasto [Polish pronunciation: [trujˈmʲastɔ]], Kashubian: Trzëgard}) is a metropolitan area in Poland consisting of three cities in Pomerania: Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, as well as minor towns in their vicinity. They are situated adjacent to one other, in a row on the coast of Gdańsk Bay, Baltic Sea, in Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship), northern Poland. The Tricity metropolitan area has a population of over 1 million people.

The name Trójmiasto was used informally or semi-formally only, until 28 March 2007, when the "Tricity Charter" (in Polish Karta Trójmiasta) was signed as a declaration of the cities' cooperation.

University of Gdańsk

The University of Gdańsk (Polish: Uniwersytet Gdański) is a public research university located in Gdańsk, Poland. It is an important centre for the studies of the Kashubian language.

Vistula

The Vistula (; Polish: Wisła [ˈvʲiswa], German: Weichsel [ˈvaɪksl̩]) is the longest and largest river in Poland and the 9th longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres (651 miles) in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.

The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, 1,220 meters (4,000 ft) above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.1
 
 
35
25
 
 
0.9
 
 
36
26
 
 
1.1
 
 
43
31
 
 
1.2
 
 
53
38
 
 
2.2
 
 
62
46
 
 
2.7
 
 
67
52
 
 
2.7
 
 
72
56
 
 
2.7
 
 
72
56
 
 
2.5
 
 
64
50
 
 
1.9
 
 
55
42
 
 
1.8
 
 
43
34
 
 
1.5
 
 
37
28
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Climate data for Gdańsk (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
2.1
(35.8)
5.5
(41.9)
10.1
(50.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.0
(66.2)
21.0
(69.8)
21.3
(70.3)
16.9
(62.4)
12.0
(53.6)
6.0
(42.8)
2.9
(37.2)
11.2
(52.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.5
(36.5)
6.4
(43.5)
11.5
(52.7)
15.0
(59.0)
17.2
(63.0)
17.2
(63.0)
13.3
(55.9)
8.9
(48.0)
3.8
(38.8)
0.7
(33.3)
8.0
(46.4)
Average low °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.7
(36.9)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
13.3
(55.9)
13.1
(55.6)
9.7
(49.5)
5.8
(42.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.7
(40.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.6
(0.97)
17.9
(0.70)
22.4
(0.88)
29.5
(1.16)
48.9
(1.93)
63.5
(2.50)
66.7
(2.63)
55.8
(2.20)
54.9
(2.16)
47.4
(1.87)
42.0
(1.65)
33.7
(1.33)
507.3
(19.97)
Average precipitation days 15 13 13 11 12 13 13 12 14 14 16 16 162
Mean monthly sunshine hours 39 70 134 163 244 259 236 225 174 105 45 32 1,726
Source: World Meteorological Organization[80]

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.