Gaziura (Greek: Γαζίουρα), was a town in Pontus, on the river Iris, near the point where its course turns northwards. Some scholars equate Gaziura with Talaura, others with Ibora, and others with modern Turhal.
It was the ancient residence of the kings of Pontus, but in Strabo's time it was deserted. (Strab. xii.) Dion Cassius (xxxv. 12) notices it as a place where Mithridates VI of Pontus took up his position against the Roman Triarius. (Comp. Pliny vi. 2.)
Ariarathes I (Aramaic: Ariorath or Ariourat; Ancient Greek: Ἀριαράθης, romanized: Ariaráthēs; 405/4 BC – 322 BC) was the last Achaemenid Persian governor (satrap) of the province (satrapy) of Northern Cappadocia, serving from the 340s BC to 331 BC. He led defensive efforts against the Macedonian invasion, commanded by Alexander the Great, and later fought at the Battle of Gaugamela under Darius III, the last King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire. After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, Ariarathes continued his resistance against the Macedonians and established the Kingdom of Cappadocia, becoming the first ruler of the Iranian Ariarathid dynasty.
Ariarathes was eventually captured and executed in 322 BC by the Macedonian Perdiccas. His territory was seized, whereafter it was contested between several of Alexander's successors and former generals. However, Ariarathes's dynastic successors regained control over Cappadocia in 301 BC and ruled over the kingdom until 96 BC when they were deposed by the Roman Republic.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Asia Minor Slavs
Asia Minor Slavs refers to the historical South Slav communities relocated to Anatolia by the Byzantine Empire, from the Balkans. After Maurice's Balkan campaigns (582–602 CE), and subsequent subduing of Slavs in the Balkans during the 7th and 8th centuries, large communities were forcefully relocated to Asia Minor as military, fighting the Umayyad Caliphate.Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Coinage of the Kingdom of Pontus
History of coinage of the Pontic Kingdom probably began during reign of Mithridates II of the Kingdom of Pontus. Early Pontic coinage imitated coinage with Alexander the Great's portraits. Later coinage is well known for its high decree of realism in portraits of the Pontic kings who were proud of their Iranian ancestry. Pontic coin portraitry developed isolated from wider Hellenistic tradition. However, Mithridates V and his son Mithridates VI partially abandoned oriental influences in the coin portraitry.
Pontic mints experimented with new materials for coinage. Pure copper and brass were used in mints during reign of Mithridates VI. His brass coinage are the earliest known coins made from brass. His rule and wars resulted in a wide expansion in number of mints and struck coinage. Earlier Pontic coinage attributable to prior rulers is very rare.
Pontic coinage managed to gain a wide acceptance within eastern Mediterranean region.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Cyaneae
Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.Docimium
Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.Drizipara
Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.Ibora
Ibora was a city in the late Roman province of Helenopontus, which became a Christian bishopric. It is now called İverönü, Erbaa in present-day Tokat Province, Turkey. This is stated also by the Annuario Pontificio, which lists the bishopric as a titular see.The article by Siméon Vailhé in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia placed its site at modern Turhal in the same modern province.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Phellus
Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.
Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).Rhodiapolis
Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Talaura
Talaura (Greek: Τάλαυρα) or Taulara, was a mountain fortress in Pontus to which Mithridates VI of Pontus withdrew with his most precious treasures, which were afterwards found there by Lucullus. (Dion Cass. xxxv. 14; Appian, Mithr. 115.) As the place is not mentioned by other writers, some suppose it to have been the same as Gaziura, the modern Turhal which is perched upon a lofty isolated rock. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 360.) The editors of Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World equate Talaura with Bayramtepe (formerly called Horoztepe). The city also minted coins in antiquity.Tyana
Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.Yeşilırmak (river)
The Yeşilırmak (Turkish: Yeşilırmak, "Green River"; classical Ancient Greek: Ἶρις, Iris) is a river in northern Turkey. From its source north-east of Sivas, it flows past Tokat and Amasya, and reaches the Black Sea at Samsun after 418 km (260 mi).
Its tributaries include the Çekerek (ancient Scylax) and the Kelkit (ancient Lycus).
Strabo's Geographica describes it as flowing through Comana Pontica, the plain of Dazimonitis (Kaşova) (40°17′41″N 36°17′48″E), and Gaziura (probably modern Turhal) before receiving the waters (40°33′42″N 35°45′34″E) of the Scylax, then flowing through Amaseia (Amasya) before reaching the valley of Phanaroea.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.