The Gazette des Beaux-Arts was a French art review, founded in 1859 by Édouard Houssaye, with Charles Blanc as its first chief editor. Assia Visson Rubinstein was chief editorial secretary under the direction of George Wildenstein from 1936 until 1960. Her papers, which include all editions of the Gazette from this period, are intact at the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne in Dorigny. The Gazette was a world reference work on art history for nearly 100 years - one other editor in chief, from 1955 to 1987, was Jean Adhémar. It was bought in 1928 by the Wildenstein family, whose last representative was Daniel Wildenstein, its director from 1963 until his death in 2001. The magazine was published monthly and was headquartered in Paris. The review closed in 2002.
Albert Boime (March 17, 1933 – October 18, 2008), was an American art historian and author of more than 20 art history books and numerous academic articles. He was a professor of art history at the University of California, Los Angeles for three decades, until his death.Albert Marquet
Albert Marquet (27 March 1875 – 14 June 1947) was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement. He initially became one of the Fauve painters and a lifelong friend of Henri Matisse. Marquet subsequently painted in a more naturalistic style, primarily landscapes, but also several portraits and, between 1910 and 1914, several female nude paintings.Appartement du roi
The appartement du roi or King's Apartment is the suite of rooms in the Palace of Versailles that served as the living quarters of Louis XIV. Overlooking the Marble Court (cour de marbre), these rooms are situated in the oldest part of the chateau in rooms originally designated for use by the queen in Louis XIII's chateau. Owing largely to the discomfort of the grand appartement du roi and to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors, Louis XIV began to remodel these rooms for his use shortly after the death of Maria Theresa in 1684. The appartement du roi evolved to become the everyday working quarters for Louis XV and Louis XVI.
Initially, the appartement du roi consisted of a suite of eight rooms that issued from the Queen's Staircase (escalier de la reine). The number was reduced to seven after 1701 and to six in 1755.Arthur Rhoné
Arthur-Ali Rhoné (14 March 1836 – 7 June 1910) was a wealthy amateur French Arabist and Egyptologist.
He was known for his efforts to prevent the vandalism of monuments in Cairo, Egypt, and in Paris, France.
Often the destruction was done in the name of restoration, or of other improvements to the city.Chapels of Versailles
The present chapel of the Palace of Versailles is the fifth in the history of the palace. These chapels evolved with the expansion of the château and formed the focal point of the daily life of the court during the Ancien Régime (Bluche, 1986, 1991; Petitfils, 1995; Solnon, 1987).Charles Ephrussi
Charles Ephrussi (24 December 1849 – 30 September 1905) was a Jewish-French art critic, art historian, and art collector. He also was a part-owner (from 1885) and then editor (from 1894) as well as a contributor to the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, the most important art historical periodical in France.
A member of the wealthy Ephrussi family, he spent the first ten years of his life in Odessa, a major port on the Black Sea where his grandfather was a grain industrialist, before moving to Vienna. His father Léon and his uncle Ignace were in charge of establishing branches of the family business in Europe.
In 1871, Charles Ephrussi moved to the newly built Hôtel Ephrussi, 81 rue de Monceau, in Paris, with his parents and brothers. The next year, he traveled to Italy, where he began to collect art. On his return to Paris, he became more involved in both the purchase of art and writing about it, publishing his first article in Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1876. Like most of his publications, it concerned Renaissance art. He also gave two works of art to the Louvre at this time.
In about 1880, Charles Ephrussi became interested in the art of the Impressionists and, within the next few years, purchased some 40 works by Monet, Manet, Degas, Renoir, and Pissarro, among others. He has been identified as the man in a top hat standing with his back to us in Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating Party (Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.). An account of the collection hanging in his study appears in a letter written in 1881 by the Symbolist poet Jules Laforgue (later published in La Revue blanche). But, to the distress of some of the Impressionists, he continued to buy other types of art, including pictures by his friends Gustave Moreau and Paul Baudry.
It also was at this time that he began to collect Japanese lacquers and netsukes, the subject of Edmund de Waal's The Hare with Amber Eyes (2010) which also devotes considerable attention to Charles' life and artistic interests.
In 1891, Ephrussi moved with his brother Ignace to a grander Parisian hôtel at 11, avenue d'Iéna. His taste had changed, and he decorated his part in the Empire style. By this time, he was a well-established figure in the Paris art world, and a welcome guest at some of the most famous salons. He was one of the inspirations for the figure of Swann in Marcel Proust's À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; titled Remembrance of Things Past in the first translation).
All of this changed with the Dreyfus affair in 1894, which polarized France and caused many doors to be closed to Jews. The Ephrussi family was very prominent and thus became the target of anti-Semitic attacks.
Charles died in 1905, before Dreyfus was exonerated. He had never married, and left much of his estate to his niece Fanny Kann and her husband Théodore Reinach.François Émile Michel
François Émile Michel (19 July 1828 – 23 May 1909) was a French painter, art critic and art historian.
Born in Metz, Michel became a student of Auguste Migette and Laurent-Charles Maréchal, the stained glass painter, and began to exhibit in 1853. Among Michel's masterpieces are Une Gardense d'Oies (1853) and Unit d'ete (1872). He wrote for the Gazette des Beaux-Arts and other periodicals. His most famous book is on the life and works of Rembrandt. His other books include Les Brueghel and Paul Potter. He was elected a member of the Institut de France in 1892. He died in Paris.Gaston Migeon
Gustave Achille Gaston Migeon (25 May 1861 in Vincennes – 29 October 1930 in the 17th arrondissement of Paris) was a French historian of the arts of the world.
He was a curator in the Department of Middle Age art objects, Renaissance and modern times at the Louvre.Grande Commande
The grande commande was a commission ordered by Louis XIV for statues intended to decorate the parterre d’eau of the gardens of the Palace of Versailles, as initially conceived in 1672. The commission, which included 24 statues and four groups, was ordered in 1674. Designed by Charles Le Brun from Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia, the statues were executed by the foremost sculptors of the day (Blunt, 1980; Friedman, 1988, 1993; Nolhac, 1913; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985).
Owing to concerns of the effects of the vertical lines of the statues in relations to the garden façade of the château, the statues of the grande commande were transferred to other locations in the gardens in 1684 (Berger, 1985; Blunt, 1980; Friedman, 1988, 1993; Marie, 1968; Nolhac, 1901, 1913; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985; Weber, 1993).
The 24 statues were personifications of the classic quaternities:
The four groupings represented the four classic Abductions:
The Four Abductions:Persephone by Pluto
Cybele by Saturn
Orethyia by Boreas
Coronis by NeptuneGroup portrait of an unknown family or company
Group portrait of an unknown family or company (1658–1660) is an oil on canvas painting by the Dutch painter Pieter de Hooch, it is an example of Dutch Golden Age painting and is part of the collection of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna.
This painting by Hooch was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1908, who wrote; "321. FAMILY IN THE COURTYARD OF A HOUSE. De G. 87. Three women and four men are assembled in a courtyard, on the right of which is the town wall. A fifth man is going away through the adjacent garden, upon which a wooden door opens in the middle distance. Three of the principal figures a grey-bearded old man in dark clothes with a black cap, and two elderly women in black with white caps and collars are seated on the righit, in front of an arbour, at a table on which stands a dish of grapes and peaches. On the tiled pavement a watch-dog lies at the feet of one of the women. From the left come a man and a woman ; the man is in black, with a broad-brimmed hat, and rests his right hand on his hip ; the woman wears a red petticoat trimmed with gold lace, a bodice of brocade, a black hood, and pearls in her hair and ears, and holds a peach in her left hand. Farther back in the middle of the picture stands a fair-haired young man, facing the spectator ; he wears a broad-brimmed hat, a light grey doublet and riding-cloak, pale blue breeches, and black and white rosettes on his shoes. An older man, dressed in similar fashion, but more simply, comes down a wooden staircase on the right. The tendrils of a creeper growing on the town wall over-spread the arbour. To the left of it is a rose-tree in full bloom on the fence. In the background are seen some gables and the tower of the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft. The lighting is uniform in quality. Signs of an alteration in the design may be seen to the right of the leg of the man standing on the left ; and the old man on the right appears to have been once seated at a lower level. It is a good work of the first period. [Compare 294.] Canvas, 45 1/2 inches by 38 1/2 inches. Long ascribed in error to J. Vermeer by Erasm. Engert, Waagen, and Bürger (Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1866, p. 550, No. 13). Presented by Graf Lamberg in 1821, as a Terborch, to the Akademie der bildenden Künste, Vienna, where it is No. 715 in the 1900 catalogue."Louis Courajod
Louis Charles Jean Courajod (22 February 1841 – 26 June 1896) was a French art historian, museum curator and connoisseur-collector, who was born and died in Paris.Courajod was trained as a lawyer, then as an historian at the École Nationale des Chartes (1864–67), then served an apprenticeship at the Cabinet des estampes of the Bibliothèque Nationale, under chief curator Henri Delaborde, while he pursued his studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études. His first publication (1867) was an article on the Plantagenet tombs at Fontevrault
In 1874 he began his career at the Musée du Louvre, developing at first his special interest in the Gothic sculpture of the 14th and 15th centuries, then turning to the art franc, of the Carolingians. In 1887, he was appointed a professor at the École du Louvre, teaching Medieval and Renaissance sculpture; he was director of the department from 1893. Among his students were André Michel, who succeeded him at the Louvre, and Paul Vitry.
Courajod was a regular contributor to the Gazette des Beaux-Arts. He served on the Commission des monuments historiques and was a member of the Société des Antiquaires de France.
Courajod introduced the term "International Gothic" to describe the Late Gothic movement expressed in sculptures and other media.
A commemorative memoir, Louis Courajod, un historien de l'art français, was published by Courajod's former pupil, Albert Marignan, in 1896.Léonce Bénédite
Léonce Bénédite (14 January 1859 – 12 May 1925) was a French art historian and curator. He was a co-founder of the Société des Peintres Orientalistes Français (Society for French Orienalist Painters) and was instrumental in establishing Orientalist art as a legitimate genre.
He was the assistant curator at the Chateau de Versailles between 1882 and 1886; the assistant curator at the Chateau de Versailles between 1886; and from 1886 he was the first assistant director at Étienne Arago at the Musée du Luxembourg until 1892 when he became the Director. For
Bénédite, writing was inseparable from his function as curator. He was a prolific writer, contributing to books, catalogs and art journals.
Bénédite was one of the executors of Auguste Rodin's will, with responsibility for managing Rodin's artistic heritage. He was a key figure in establishing the Rodin Museum at the Hôtel Biron in 1919 and became the Museum's first Curator.Madeleine Laurain-Portemer
Madeleine Laurain-Portemer (7 June 1917 – 15 August 1996) was a 20th-century French historian, specializing in the history of Mazarin and his time, married to Jean Portemer (1911-1998).Maurice Marinot
Maurice Marinot (born 20 March 1882 in Troyes, France, died 1960, Troyes) was a French artist. He was a painter considered a member of Les Fauves, and then a major artist in glass.
Marinot's father was a bonnet maker. Maurice did poorly in school, but convinced his parents to send him to the École des Beaux-Arts in 1901 to train as a painter under French painter, Fernand Cormon. He left art school after his work wasn't accepted by the standards of the day. In 1905 he returned to Troyes, where he stayed for the rest of his life.
In 1911 he visited his first glass shop, owned by his friends, the Viard brothers. He fell in love with the contrasts between colors, hot and cold, the play of light and fire. He began designing bowls, vases and bottles which his friends made, then he painted enamels on the surface.
In 1912 he had his first exhibition and by 1913 critics were praising his work, saying “It has been a long time since an innovation of such great importance has come to enrich the art of glass” (Leon Rosenthal, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1913). From that year he stopped exhibiting his paintings.
The Viard brothers give Marinot his own bench and a set of tools, so he learned quickly how to blow glass. In 1923 he stopped using enamels, and explored the use of bubbles, metal leaf, and colored glass. His production process was “Long and fraught with danger” and one piece could take as long as a year to reach his standards.
The Viard Glassworks closed in 1937. Marinot was ill, and never touched glass again, though he did continue to paint. In the 1944 Allied bombing of Troyes there was direct hit on his studio, destroying over 2,500 paintings, thousands of drawings, and much of his glass. His sister's extensive collection was not damaged.
Major donation of Maurice Marinot (glass and paintings) was made by Pierre and Denise Levy to the Museum of Modern Art in Troyes in 1976. Florence, Marinot's daughter also gave major Maurice Marinot pieces of art to the city of Rennes Museum of Art.
A 20 piece glass collection by Marinot including vases, goblets and stoppered bottles dating to 1926-27 was gifted to the National Gallery of Ireland in 1970.Merry company with two men and two women
Merry company with two men and two women (1657) is an oil on panel painting by the Dutch painter Pieter de Hooch; it is an example of a Merry Company, a popular form of genre painting in Dutch Golden Age painting, showing a group of figures who are not meant to be identified as portraits enjoying each other's company. It is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
This painting by Hooch was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1910, who wrote; "192. TWO LADIES AND TWO GENTLEMEN IN AN INTERIOR. Sm. 34. The party are assembled in the left-hand corner of a room, beside a large window, the upper part of which is fastened back. At the left corner of the table stands a girl, pouring out wine ; she wears a red jacket trimmed with white fur, a blue skirt, and a large white apron. A young gentleman, wearing a white costume, with a broad collar and a slouch hat, stands behind the table looking at the girl ; he leans with his right hand on a chair-back, and holds a pipe in his left. To the right of the table sits a gentleman in a black cape with long curls which conceal his profile ; he takes the arm of a girl, who sits beside him and regards him with a watchful and mischievous look. In the right foreground lies his slouch hat. In the background to the right is a bed with curtains ; above it hangs a portrait of a man, on the left of which is a map of a Dutch harbour with an inscription. The light falls from the left. It is a good picture, powerful and luminous in the rendering of light and colour. Burger regarded it as a Vermeer ; see Gazette des Beaux Arts for 1866, p. 551, No. 14. Panel, 27 inches by 22 1/2 inches.
In the collection of Baron Delessert, 1833 (Sm.). Sales. Francois Delessert, Paris, May 15, 1869, No. 36 (150,000 francs). B. Narischkine, Paris, April 5, 1883 (160,000 francs).
Secrétan, Paris, July 1, 1889 (270,000 francs). Afterwards in the possession of Durand-Ruel of Paris. Now in the Havemeyer collection in New York."Paul Sédille
Paul Sédille (16 June 1836, Paris – 6 January 1900) was a French architect and theorist; and designed the 1880 reconstruction of the iconic Magasins du Printemps department store in Paris.Philippe Burty
Philippe Burty (6 February 1830 – 3 June 1890) was a French art critic. He contributed to the popularization of Japonism and the revival of etching, supported the Impressionsts, and published the letters of Eugène Delacroix.
Burty was born in Paris in 1830. He was best known for his art criticism, and was also an informed art collector, artist, and lithographer. He contributed to the art magazine Gazette des Beaux-Arts since its foundation in 1859, in which he chronicled the arts and other curiosities and shared his tastes in prints and etchings.
Burty coined the term "Japonism" in 1872 to describe the vogue in Japanese art then current in Europe.Burty died in Astaffort in Lot-et-Garonne in 1890. He was the grandfather of the photographer Paul Haviland and the painter Frank Burty Haviland.Portrait of Maria Trip
Portrait of Maria Trip (c.1639) is an oil on panel painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt.
It is an example of Dutch Golden Age painting and is now in the collection of the Rijksmuseum.
This painting was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1915, who wrote; "845. A YOUNG WOMAN AT A STONE BALUSTRADE.
Bode 19 ; Dut. 283 ; Wb. 352 ; B.-HdG. 274. About thirty-five. Half-length ; life size. She stands, inclined to the left, and looks at the spectator. She holds her fan in her left hand, which rests on the balustrade. Her brown hair is uncovered and falls in ringlets on her brow. Her figured black silk gown is cut out at the throat and trimmed
with rosettes ; over it is a triple collar of rich lace, lying flat. She has rich pearls in her ears, on her bosom, round her neck, and on her wrists.
A small jewelled medallion is suspended from a black ribbon. Her right hand hangs at her side. She stands in front of a recess with a caryatid to the left ; behind her is a dark curtain. Full daylight falls from the front. Corrections are visible on the lower edge, where there was once a table, and there were large buttons on the left sleeve.
Signed on the left at foot, "Rembrandt f. 1639"; cedar panel, 42 inches by 32 inches. A carefully executed pen-sketch for this picture is in the British Museum Print Room ; reproduced, HdG. iv. 88. Etched by L. Flameng in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, and in Dutuit, iii. Mentioned by Vosmaer, pp. 170, 520; Bode, pp. 459, 559; Dutuit,
p. 54; Michel, pp. 213, 565 [163-4, 440]. Exhibited at Amsterdam, 1872 and 1898, No. 44; Brussels, 1882, No. 216 ; The Hague, 1890, No. 85 ; Utrecht, 1894, No. 417. In the Van Weede van Dijkveld collection, Utrecht. Exhibited on loan since 1896 in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1911 catalogue, No. 2022.".The painting was researched by Isa van Eeghen in the 20th-century who discovered that it was a portrait of Maria Trip, the wife of Balthasar Coymans.René Schützenberger
René-Paul Schützenberger (29 July 1860 – 31 December 1916) was a French Post-Impressionist painter.