Gay pride

Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT rights movements throughout the world. Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals and even a cable TV station and the Pride Library.

Ranging from solemn to carnivalesque, pride events are typically held during LGBT Pride Month or some other period that commemorates a turning point in a country's LGBT history, for example Moscow Pride in May for the anniversary of Russia's 1993 decriminalization of homosexuality. Some pride events include LGBT pride parades and marches, rallies, commemorations, community days, dance parties, and large festivals.

As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host in 2019 the largest international celebration of LGBT pride in history, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride,[7] to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and shall include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that will be open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.[8]

Common symbols of pride are the rainbow or pride flag, the lowercase Greek letter lambda (λ), the pink triangle and the black triangle, these latter two reclaimed from use as badges of shame in Nazi concentration camps.[9]

Gay pride
Stonewall Inn 5 pride weekend 2016
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement and an icon of LGBT culture and gay pride, is adorned with flags depicting the colors of the rainbow.[1][2][3]
Gay flag 8
Original Gay pride flag with eight bars. First displayed at 1978 San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.[4][5][6]

Historical background

Barbara Gittings 1965
Gay equality activist Barbara Gittings picketing Independence Hall in 1965

Pride precursors

Annual Reminders

The 1950s and 1960s in the United States was an extremely repressive legal and social period for LGBT people. In this context American homophile organizations such as the Daughters of Bilitis and the Mattachine Society coordinated some of the earliest demonstrations of the modern LGBT rights movement. These two organizations in particular carried out pickets called "Annual Reminders" to inform and remind Americans that LGBT people did not receive basic civil rights protections. Annual Reminders began in 1965 and took place each July 4 at Independence Hall in Philadelphia.

"Gay is Good"

The anti-LGBT discourse of these times equated both male and female homosexuality with mental illness. Inspired by Stokely Carmichael's "Black is Beautiful", Gay civil rights pioneer and participant in the Annual Reminders Frank Kameny originated the slogan "Gay is Good" in 1968[10] to counter social stigma and personal feelings of guilt and shame.

Christopher Street Liberation Day

Early on the morning of Saturday, June 28, 1969, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning persons rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar at 43 Christopher Street in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City. This riot and further protests and rioting over the following nights were the watershed moment in modern LGBT rights movement and the impetus for organizing LGBT pride marches on a much larger public scale.

On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, and Linda Rhodes proposed the first pride march to be held in New York City by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations (ERCHO) meeting in Philadelphia.[11]

"That the Annual Reminder, in order to be more relevant, reach a greater number of people, and encompass the ideas and ideals of the larger struggle in which we are engaged—that of our fundamental human rights—be moved both in time and location.

We propose that a demonstration be held annually on the last Saturday in June in New York City to commemorate the 1969 spontaneous demonstrations on Christopher Street and this demonstration be called CHRISTOPHER STREET LIBERATION DAY. No dress or age regulations shall be made for this demonstration.

We also propose that we contact Homophile organizations throughout the country and suggest that they hold parallel demonstrations on that day. We propose a nationwide show of support.[12][13][14][15]

All attendees to the ERCHO meeting in Philadelphia voted for the march except for Mattachine Society of New York, which abstained.[12] Members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) attended the meeting and were seated as guests of Rodwell's group, Homophile Youth Movement in Neighborhoods (HYMN).[16]

Meetings to organize the march began in early January at Rodwell's apartment in 350 Bleecker Street.[17] At first there was difficulty getting some of the major New York City organizations like Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) to send representatives. Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Michael Brown, Marty Nixon, and Foster Gunnison of Mattachine made up the core group of the CSLD Umbrella Committee (CSLDUC). For initial funding, Gunnison served as treasurer and sought donations from the national homophile organizations and sponsors, while Sargeant solicited donations via the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop customer mailing list and Nixon worked to gain financial support from GLF in his position as treasurer for that organization.[18][19] Other mainstays of the organizing committee were Judy Miller, Jack Waluska, Steve Gerrie and Brenda Howard of GLF.[20] Believing that more people would turn out for the march on a Sunday, and so as to mark the date of the start of the Stonewall uprising, the CSLDUC scheduled the date for the first march for Sunday, June 28, 1970.[21] With Dick Leitsch's replacement as president of Mattachine NY by Michael Kotis in April 1970, opposition to the march by Mattachine ended.[22]

Brenda Howard is known as the "Mother of Pride" for her work in coordinating the march. Howard also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June.[23][24] Additionally, Howard along with fellow LGBT Activists Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and L. Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities.[25] As LGBT rights activist Tom Limoncelli put it, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard thought it should be.'"[26]

Christopher Street Liberation Day on June 28, 1970 marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots with an assembly on Christopher Street and the first Gay Pride march in U.S. history, covering the 51 blocks to Central Park. The march took less than half the scheduled time due to excitement, but also due to wariness about walking through the city with gay banners and signs. Although the parade permit was delivered only two hours before the start of the march, the marchers encountered little resistance from onlookers.[28] The New York Times reported (on the front page) that the marchers took up the entire street for about 15 city blocks.[27] Reporting by The Village Voice was positive, describing "the out-front resistance that grew out of the police raid on the Stonewall Inn one year ago".[29]


Regnbågsflaggan utanför Visby Polishus under Stockholm Pride 2014 (1)
The Visby police house displaying the LGBT pride flag during the Stockholm pride week, 2014.

On Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay Liberation organized a march[30] from Washington Square Park ("Bughouse Square") to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, which was the route originally planned, and then many of the participants extemporaneously marched on to the Civic Center (now Richard J. Daley) Plaza.[31] The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere. Subsequently during the same weekend, gay activist groups on the West Coast of the United States held a march in Los Angeles and a march and "Gay-in" in San Francisco.[32][33]

The next year, Gay Pride marches took place in Boston, Dallas, Milwaukee, London, Paris, West Berlin, and Stockholm.[29] By 1972 the participating cities included Atlanta, Brighton,[34] Buffalo, Detroit, Washington D.C., Miami, and Philadelphia,[35] as well as San Francisco.

Frank Kameny soon realized the pivotal change brought by the Stonewall riots. An organizer of gay activism in the 1950s, he was used to persuasion, trying to convince heterosexuals that gay people were no different than they were. When he and other people marched in front of the White House, the State Department and Independence Hall only five years earlier, their objective was to look as if they could work for the U.S. government.[36] Ten people marched with Kameny then, and they alerted no press to their intentions. Although he was stunned by the upheaval by participants in the Annual Reminder in 1969, he later observed, "By the time of Stonewall, we had fifty to sixty gay groups in the country. A year later there was at least fifteen hundred. By two years later, to the extent that a count could be made, it was twenty-five hundred."[37]

Similar to Kameny's regret at his own reaction to the shift in attitudes after the riots, Randy Wicker came to describe his embarrassment as "one of the greatest mistakes of his life".[38] The image of gays retaliating against police, after so many years of allowing such treatment to go unchallenged, "stirred an unexpected spirit among many homosexuals".[38] Kay Lahusen, who photographed the marches in 1965, stated, "Up to 1969, this movement was generally called the homosexual or homophile movement.... Many new activists consider the Stonewall uprising the birth of the gay liberation movement. Certainly it was the birth of gay pride on a massive scale."[39]

1980s and 1990s

2018 San Francisco Pride
San Francisco Pride 2018

In the 1980s there was a major cultural shift in the Stonewall Riot commemorations. The previous loosely organized, grassroots marches and parades were taken over by more organized and less radical elements of the gay community. The marches began dropping "Liberation" and "Freedom" from their names under pressure from more conservative members of the community, replacing them with the philosophy of "Gay Pride" (in San Francisco, the name of the gay parade and celebration was not changed from Gay Freedom Day Parade to Gay Pride Day Parade until 1994). The Greek lambda symbol and the pink triangle, which had been revolutionary symbols of the Gay Liberation Movement, were tidied up and incorporated into the Gay Pride, or Pride, movement, providing some symbolic continuity with its more radical beginnings. The pink triangle was also the inspiration for the homomonument in Amsterdam, commemorating all gay men and lesbians who have been subjected to persecution because of their homosexuality.

LGBT Pride Month

Carmel pride rally
HBT rally in Carmel, Haifa, Israel
Boise Pride at the Idaho Capitol.
NASA LGBT parade
NASA pride event in Silicon Valley

The month of June was chosen for LGBT Pride Month to commemorate the Stonewall riots, which occurred at the end of June 1969. As a result, many pride events are held during this month to recognize the impact LGBT people have had in the world. Brenda Howard is known as the "Mother of Pride", for her work in coordinating the first LGBT Pride march, and she also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June.[23][24] Additionally, Howard along with fellow LGBT rights activists Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and L. Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities.[25] As LGBT rights activist Tom Limoncelli put it, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard thought it should be.'"[26]

Two Presidents of the United States have officially declared a Pride Month. First, President Bill Clinton declared June "Gay & Lesbian Pride Month" in 1999 and 2000. Then from 2009 to 2016, each year he was in office, President Barack Obama declared June LGBT Pride Month.[40]

Beginning in 2012, Google displayed some LGBT-related search results with different rainbow-colored patterns each year during June.[41][42][43] In 2017, Google also included rainbow coloured streets on Google Maps to display Gay Pride marches occurring across the world.[44]


From both outside and inside the LGBT community, there is criticism and protest against pride events. Bob Christie's documentary Beyond Gay: The Politics of Pride evaluates gay pride events in different countries within the context of local opposition.

Initiatives and criticism by governments and political leaders


Parada gay 2011 - bonecos dilma e bolsonaro
Gay Pride in São Paulo. The LGBT-related magazine The Advocate has called Jair Bolsonaro "Brazil's biggest homophobe".[45]

In August 2011, Sao Paulo city alderman Carlos Apolinário of the right-wing Democrats Party sponsored a bill to organize and sponsor "Heterosexual Pride Day" on the third Sunday of December. The bill was passed by the city council, and awaits the signature of mayor Gilberto Kassab. Apolinário, an Evangelical Protestant, stated that the intent of the parade was a "struggle ... against excesses and privileges". Members of Grupo Gay da Bahia and the Workers' Party criticized the bill as enhancing "the possibility of discrimination and prejudice".[46] However, no events have ever been held.

A Brazilian photographer was arrested after refusing to delete photos of police attacking two young people participating in a gay pride parade on October 16, 2011 in the city of Itabuna, Bahia, reported the newspaper Correio 24 horas.

According to the website Notícias de Ipiau, Ederivaldo Benedito, known as Bené, said four police officers tried to convince him to delete the photos soon after they realized they were being photographed. When he refused, they ordered him to turn over the camera. When the photographer refused again, the police charged him with contempt and held him in jail for over 21 hours until he gave a statement.

According to Chief Marlon Macedo, the police alleged that the photographer was interfering with their work, did not have identification, and became aggressive when he was asked to move. Bené denied the allegations, saying the police were belligerent and that the scene was witnessed by "over 300 people", reported Agência Estado.[47]


In a 2008 interview for the biography book La Reina muy cerca (The Queen Up Close) by Spanish journalist and writer Pilar Urbano, Queen Sofía of Spain sparked off controversy by voicing her disapproval of LGBT pride in addition to overstepping her official duties as a member of the Royal Family by censuring the Spanish Law on Marriage in how it names equal same-sex unions "matrimonio" (marriage). Albeit without using the slogan "Straight Pride", Queen Sofía was directly quoted as saying that if heterosexuals were to take the streets as the LGBT community does for Gay Pride parades, that the former collective would bring Madrid to a standstill.[48]

Even though the Royal Household of Spain approved publication of the interview and Pilar Urbano offered to share the interview recording, both Queen Sofía and the Royal Household have refuted the comments in question.[48]


Istanbul Pride Solidarity Demo Berlin 2018 14
Istanbul Pride Solidarity in Berlin, Germany, 2018

In 2015 police dispersed the LGBT Pride Parade using tear gas and rubber bullets.[49]

In 2016 and 2017 Istanbul Governor's Office didn't allow the LGBT Pride Parade, citing security concerns and public order.[50]


In 2016, Ugandan police broke up a gay pride event in the capital.[51] Homosexual acts are illegal in Uganda.


In a special queer issue of The Stranger in 1999, openly gay author, pundit, and journalist Dan Savage questioned the relevance of pride thirty years later, writing that pride was an effective antidote to shame imposed on LGBT people, but that pride is now making LGBT people dull and slow as a group, as well as being a constant reminder of shame. However, he also states that pride in some simpler forms are still useful to individuals struggling with shame. Savage writes that gay pride can also lead to disillusionment where an LGBT individual realises the reality that sexual orientation doesn't say much about a person's personality, after being led by the illusion that LGBT individuals are part of a co-supportive and inherently good group of people.[52]

The growth and commercialization of Christopher Street Days, coupled with their de-politicalisation, has led to an alternative CSD in Berlin, the so-called "Kreuzberger CSD" or "Transgenialer" ("Transgenial"/Trans Ingenious") CSD. Political party members are not invited for speeches, nor can parties or companies sponsor floats. After the parade there is a festival with a stage for political speakers and entertainers. Groups discuss lesbian/transsexual/transgender/gay or queer perspectives on issues such as poverty and unemployment benefits (Hartz IV), gentrification, or "Fortress Europe".

In June 2010, American philosopher and theorist Judith Butler refused the Civil Courage Award (Zivilcouragepreis) of the Christopher Street Day Parade in Berlin, Germany at the award ceremony, arguing and lamenting in a speech that the parade had become too commercial, and was ignoring the problems of racism and the double discrimination facing homosexual or transsexual migrants. According to Butler, even the organizers themselves promote racism.[53] The general manager of the CSD committee, Robert Kastl, countered Butler's allegations and pointed out that the organizers already awarded a counselling center for lesbians dealing with double discrimination in 2006. Regarding the allegations of commercialism Kastl explained further that the CSD organizers don't require small groups to pay a participation fee which starts at 50 € and goes up to 1500 €. He also distanced himself from all forms of racism and islamophobia.[54]

A number of associations and social movements have been denouncing in recent years which, in its views, is a depletion of the claims of these demonstrations and the merchandization of the parade. In this respect, they defend, in countries like Spain, the United States or Canada, a Critical Pride celebration to have a political meaning again.[55][56][57][58] Gay Shame, a radical movement within the LGBT community, opposes the assimilation of LGBT people into mainstream, heteronormative society, the commodification of non-heterosexual identity and culture, and in particular the (over) commercialization of pride events.

"Straight Pride" analogy

"Straight Pride" and "Heterosexual Pride" are analogies and slogans that oppose heterosexuality to homosexuality by copying the phrase "Gay Pride".[59] Originating from the Culture Wars in the United States, "Straight Pride" is a form of conservative backlash as there is no straight or heterosexual civil rights movement. While criticism from inside and outside the LGBT community abounds, the "Straight Pride" incidents have, however, gained some media attention especially when they involve government and public institutions.

See also


  1. ^ Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  2. ^ Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  3. ^ "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  4. ^ "History of the LGBT rainbow flag on its 37th anniversary". New York Daily News. 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  5. ^ Morgan, Thad (June 2, 2017). "How Did the Rainbow Flag Become an LGBT Symbol?". History Network. A&E Networks. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  6. ^ Van Niekerken, Bill (June 22, 2018). "A history of gay rights in San Francisco". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  7. ^ "Governor Cuomo Announces Commemoration of 50th Anniversary of Stonewall Rebellion in 2019". State of New York. June 25, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  8. ^ "Governor Cuomo Announces Commemoration of 50th Anniversary of Stonewall Rebellion in 2019". State of New York. June 25, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  9. ^ "Symbols of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Movements". Lambda. Archived from the original on August 16, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
  10. ^ "Kameny, Frank". glbtq. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011.
  11. ^ Sargeant, Fred. "1970: A First-Person Account of the First Gay Pride March." The Village Voice. June 22, 2010. retrieved January 3, 2011.
  12. ^ a b Carter, p. 230
  13. ^ Marotta, pp. 164–165
  14. ^ Teal, pp. 322–323
  15. ^ Duberman, pp. 255, 262, 270–280
  16. ^ Duberman, p. 227
  17. ^ Nagourney, Adam. "For Gays, a Party In Search of a Purpose; At 30, Parade Has Gone Mainstream As Movement's Goals Have Drifte." The New York Times. June 25, 2000. retrieved January 3, 2011.
  18. ^ Carter, p. 247
  19. ^ Teal, p. 323
  20. ^ Duberman, p. 271
  21. ^ Duberman, p. 272
  22. ^ Duberman, p. 314 n93
  23. ^ a b Channel 13/WNET Out! 2007: Women In the Movement Archived January 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ a b The Gay Pride Issue: Picking Apart The Origin of Pride Archived July 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ a b Dynes, Wayne R. Pride (trope), Homolexis Archived July 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ a b
  27. ^ a b Fosburgh, Lacey (June 29, 1970). "Thousands of Homosexuals Hold A Protest Rally in Central Park", The New York Times, p. 1.
  28. ^ Clendinen, p. 62–64.
  29. ^ a b LaFrank, p. 20.
  30. ^ Chicago Tribune, June 28, 1970, p. A3
  31. ^ "Outspoken: Chicago's Free Speech Tradition". Newberry Library. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  32. ^ "The San Francisco Chronicle", June 29, 1970
  33. ^ "As of early 1970, Neil Briggs became the vice-chairman of the LGBTQ Association", CanPress, February 28, 1970. [1]
  34. ^ "A History of Lesbian & Gay Brighton: A Community Comes of Age, 1988-2001". Brighton Ourstory.
  35. ^ Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Crage, Suzanna M. (October 2006). "Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth", American Sociological Review, 71 (5) pp. 724–752. doi 10.1177/000312240607100502
  36. ^ Cain, p. 91–92.
  37. ^ Carter, p. 251.
  38. ^ a b Clendinen, p. 25.
  39. ^ LaFrank, p. 21.
  40. ^ Estepa, Jessica (June 1, 2017). "President Trump hasn't declared June as Pride Month — at least, not yet". USA Today. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  41. ^ Google marks LGBT pride through a rainbow curtain underneath search-bars retrieved June 16, 2012
  42. ^ Google shows its support for Gay Pride Month with rainbow art for LGBT search terms retrieved June 19, 2017
  43. ^ Gilbert Baker Google doodle celebrates LGBT-rights activists & creator of the iconic rainbow flag retrieved June 19, 2017
  44. ^ "How tech companies are recognising Pride Month". retrieved June 26, 2017
  45. ^ "WATCH: Ellen Page Confronts Brazil's Biggest Homophobe on 'Gaycation'". March 12, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  46. ^ Andrew Downie (August 4, 2011). "'Heterosexual Pride Day' in São Paulo?". The Christian Science Monitor.
  47. ^ Natalia Mazotte (October 24, 2011). "Photos of police attack at gay pride parade land Brazilian journalist in jail". Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin. ZD.
  48. ^ a b Pilar Urbano attribute to Queen Sofía polemic comments La Vanguardia.
  49. ^ "Governor's Office bans LGBT Pride March in Istanbul". Hurriyet Daily News.
  50. ^ "Governor's Office bans LGBT Pride March in Istanbul". hurriyet.
  51. ^ "Ugandan police break up gay pride event". CTV News. Associated Press. August 5, 2016.
  52. ^ "Pride". The Stranger. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012.
  53. ^ Butler, Judith. I must distance myself from this complicity with racism (Video) Archived March 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (Transcript). Archived March 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Christopher Street Day 'Civil Courage Prize' Day Refusal Speech. European Graduate School. June 19, 2010.
  54. ^ Ataman, Ferda / Kögel, Annette / Hasselmann, Jörg: "Butler-Auftritt: Heftige Diskussionen nach Kritik an CSD", Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin). July 20, 2010.
  55. ^ (in Spanish) Gaypitalismo: Orgullo Empresarial. Público. July 2, 2014
  56. ^ (in Spanish) "Mercadeo rosa para la amnesia del movimiento". Diagonal Periódico. July 2, 2015
  57. ^ LGBT Night March decries Pride's corporate sponsorship". Toronto Star. June 28, 2016
  58. ^ Too straight, white and corporate: why some queer people are skipping SF Pride. The Guardian. June 25, 2016
  59. ^ "Making colleges and universities safe for gay and lesbian students: Report and recommendations of the Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth" (PDF). Massachusetts. Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth., page 20. "A relatively recent tactic used in the backlash opposing les/bi/gay/trans campus visibility is the so-called "heterosexual pride" strategy".


  • Alwood, Edward (1996), Straight News: Gays, Lesbians, and the News Media Columbia University Press, New York (ISBN 0-231-08436-6).
  • Carter, David (2004), Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked The Gay Revolution, St. Martin's Press (ISBN 0-312-34269-1).
  • Duberman, Martin (1993), Stonewall Dutton, New York (ISBN 0-452-27206-8).
  • Loughery, John (1998), The Other Side of Silence – Men's Lives and Gay Identities: A Twentieth-Century History, New York, Henry Holt and Company (ISBN 0-8050-3896-5).
  • Marotta, Toby (1981), The Politics of Homosexuality, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company (ISBN 0-395-31338-4).
  • Teal, Donn (1971), The Gay Militants, New York, Stein and Day (ISBN 0-8128-1373-1).

External links

Media related to LGBT Pride at Wikimedia Commons

Amsterdam Gay Pride

Amsterdam Pride or Amsterdam Gay Pride is a citywide gay-festival held annually at the center of Amsterdam during the first weekend of August. The festival attracts several hundred-thousand visitors each year and is one of the largest publicly held annual events in the Netherlands.

Amsterdam Pride was first organized in 1996, meant as a festival to celebrate freedom and diversity. It was therefore not like many other Gay Prides, which began as demonstrations for equal rights. The latter purpose served another event, which is called Pink Saturday (Dutch: Roze Zaterdag) since 1979 and is held in a different city each year since 1981.

The peak of the festival is during the Canal Parade, a parade of boats of large variety on the first Saturday of August, which usually goes from Westerdok over the Prinsengracht, the Amstel river, the Zwanenburgwal and the Oudeschans to Oosterdok. In 2014, the first Jewish boat and the first Moroccan boat participated in the Amsterdam Pride Canal Parade.Dana International was on the Jewish boat, as well as the Fokkens twins (Louise Fokkens and Martine Fokkens), who are famous in the Netherlands for having worked 50 years as sex workers in Amsterdam’s Red Light District before their retirement earlier in 2014. Marianne van Praag, a Reform rabbi from The Hague, was the only rabbi aboard the Jewish boat.The Amsterdam Gay Pride usually spans a week of various activities for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, including exhibitions, cultural and sport events. There are also street parties in the streets where there's a concentration of gay bars, like Reguliersdwarsstraat, Zeedijk, Warmoesstraat and alongside Amstel. On Rembrandtplein there's a closing party on the Sunday after the Canal Parade.

At the Beach LA

At The Beach, Los Angeles (ATBLA) is the organization that promotes and administers the Los Angeles Black gay pride event that occurs during the American Independence Day celebration. At The Beach is an annual beach party/Pride celebration which exists as the focal point for the black gay pride events, and was one of the three largest black gay pride events in the United States. Every year since its founding, At the Beach (ATB) has grown in scope.

The event has seen a noticeable attendance decline in recent years, primarily due to the new great migration of blacks from California (and the West Coast) to states more eastward seeking a more affordable cost of living and/or larger presence of black culture.

Birmingham Pride

Birmingham Pride is a weekend-long LGBTQ+ festival held annually in the Gay Village, Hurst Street, Birmingham, England, over the Spring Bank Holiday weekend. Birmingham Pride is the UK's largest two-day gay pride festival.It usually features a carnival parade through the city centre (but the 2008 parade was cancelled), plus dance and musical events, funfair rides, a temporary village green, and street stalls and entertainments.

Black gay pride

The Black Gay Pride movement is a movement within the United States for African American members of the LGBT community. Started in the 1990s, Black Gay Pride movements began as a way to provide black LGBT people an alternative to the largely white mainstream LGBT movement. The movement serves as a way for black LGBT people to discuss the specific issues that are unique to the black LGBT community. While the mainstream gay pride movement, often perceived as overwhelmingly white, has focused much of its energy on marriage equality, the Black Gay Pride movement has focused on issues like medicine, homophobia in their communities and housing.Today, there 25 Black Gay Pride events all over the United States. The largest of these events have historically been D.C. Black Pride, At the Beach Los Angeles and Atlanta Black Pride. While black pride events started as early as 1988, D.C. Black Pride, which began in 1991, has been cited as one of the earliest celebrations. The D.C. Black Pride celebration started out of a tradition called the Children's Hour 15 years prior.

Chicago Pride Parade

The Chicago Pride Parade, also colloquially (and formerly) called the Chicago Gay Pride Parade or PRIDE Chicago, is the annual pride parade held on the last Sunday of June in Chicago, Illinois in the United States. It is considered the culmination of the larger Gay and Lesbian Pride Month, as promulgated by the Chicago City Council and Mayor of Chicago. Chicago's Pride Parade is one of the largest, by attendance, in the world.

Cologne Pride

Cologne Pride or Cologne Gay Pride (formerly: Christopher Street Day Cologne) is one of the largest gay and lesbian organised event in Germany and one of the biggest in Europe. Its origin is to celebrate the pride in Gay and Lesbian Culture.

Cologne Gay Pride is made of a large city Gay pride parade, and a week of a number of festivals, parties and political forums. The parade and festivals are comparable to carnival celebrations and the political motivation of the event did achieve a lot in equal rights and gay rights.

Cologne Gay Pride takes place annually in Cologne, Germany.

Guadalajara Gay Pride

The Guadalajara Pride known in Spanish as Desfile del Orgullo translated as "Parade of the Pride" is an event that celebrates diversity in general and seeks equal rights for gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender people, is celebrated in the city of Guadalajara, Mexico in 2015 meets its second edition.

The parade was founded in 2014 by activist Karina Velasco Michel, after years of fighting for it and after several moves against homophobia in the city of Guadalajara, this city was the first city in the country after the Mexico City in which the movement openly gay gushed as well as demonstrations and marches demanding equal rights for the LGBT community. While the first demonstrations in Guadalajara and gay organizations were heavily consolidating in the 1980s severely harassed by then ultra-conservative government, currently the event is a well known and respectable gay parade in the world and every year dissemination and quality are observed during every edition.

This gay parade in Guadalajara, is one of the most leading prides in Latin America along with cities such as Mexico City, São Paulo and Buenos Aires.

This event is celebrated every antepenult week of June The Guadalajara Pride celebrations are usually preluded by a week of cultural events focused on the LGBT community to promote human rights and practice the right of freedom of speech, this week is called Semana de la diversidad (week of the diversity) and host the famous MIX Festival which is the International LGBT Film Festival of Guadalajara (MIX Festival de Diversidad Sexual en Cine y Video), also several art expositions, conferences, AIDS marathons, concerts and several artistic and cultural activities which are a well known characteristic of Guadalajara city, Guadalajara Pride has the special feature that since 2014 took the emblematic Glorieta de la Minerva as the starting point of the Pride and culminating in Guadalajara main square called Plaza de la Liberación.

Houston Gay Pride Parade

The Houston Gay Pride Parade (or often called the Houston Pride Parade) is the major feature of a gay pride festival held annually since 1979. The festival takes place in June to celebrate the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their allies. This event commemorates the 1969 police raid of the Stonewall Inn on Christopher Street in New York City's Greenwich Village neighborhood, which is generally considered to be the beginning of the modern gay rights movement.

The festivities are held all day on the 4th Saturday of June. The highlight of the event is the parade, which has been held in the evening after sunset since 1997. The necessary revision in a Houston parade ordinance to allow a nighttime parade was facilitated by then-Houston City Council member Annise Parker. With the event after dark, the various units can be creatively illuminated.

Until 2015, it took place in Houston's Montrose area. The route of the parade usually had been along Westheimer Road, from Dunlavy Street to Crocker Street. Owing partially to concerns over increasing congestion over the years in the nearby neighborhoods, and to accommodate a larger festival (held in the daytime before the parade itself), the 2015 parade was moved to downtown Houston.It is currently the most attended and largest gay pride event in Texas and the Southwest region of the United States and it's the 2nd largest Houston-organized event in the city behind Houston Rodeo. The 2015 Houston Pride Festival attracted 700,000 attendees, which set a new record.

Jerusalem gay pride parade

The Jerusalem gay pride parade is an annual pride parade taking place in Jerusalem. Since the first March for Pride and Tolerance in 2002, Jerusalem Pride—"Love Without Border"—has become an established event in Jerusalem, each year bringing in additional partners and supporters.Twice, in 2005 and 2015, it was marred by violence as an ultra-Orthodox Jewish man stabbed marchers with a knife, resulting in three injuries (2005) and in six injuries, one fatal (2015). The man arrested, Yishai Schlissel, was jailed after the 2005 attack, and was released from imprisonment three weeks before he attacked again in 2015.

LGBT symbols

The LGBT community has adopted certain symbols for self-identification to demonstrate unity, pride, shared values, and allegiance to one another. LGBT symbols communicate ideas, concepts, and identity both within their communities and to mainstream culture. The two most-recognized international LGBT symbols are the pink triangle and the rainbow flag. The pink triangle, employed by the Nazis in World War II as a badge of shame, was re-appropriated but retained negative connotations. The rainbow flag, previously used as a symbol of unity among all people, was adopted to be a more organic and natural replacement without any negativity attached to it.

Minsk Pride

Minsk Pride — gay pride in Minsk (Belarus). This is a festival in support of tolerance for gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender people in Belarus.

Moscow Pride

Moscow Pride (Russian Московский Гей-Прайд, Moscow Gay Pride) is a demonstration of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender persons (LGBT). It was intended to take place in May annually since 2006 in the Russian capital Moscow, but has been regularly banned by Moscow City Hall, headed by Mayor Yuri Luzhkov until 2010. The demonstrations in 2006, 2007, and 2008 were all accompanied by homophobic attacks, which was avoided in 2009 by moving the site of the demonstration at the last minute. The organizers of all of the demonstrations were Nikolai Alekseev and the Russian LGBT Human Rights Project In June 2012, Moscow courts enacted a hundred-year ban on gay pride parades.

New York City LGBT Pride March

The annual New York City LGBT Pride March, or New York City Pride March, traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan. The New York City Pride March rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. The March passes by the site of the Stonewall Inn on Christopher Street, location of the June 1969 Stonewall riots that launched the modern Gay Rights Movement. The March, along with The Rally, PrideFest, and Pride Island are the main annual events organized by NYC Pride. Since 1984, the volunteers of the non-profit Heritage of Pride (HOP) have produced these events for New York City, supported in earlier days by limited staff.Since 2017, plans were formed by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events organized by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I ❤ NY LGBT division and will include a welcome center during the weeks in June. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world; it is believed that 2019 will be the largest international LGBT pride celebration held in history.

Nuuk Gay Pride

Nuuk Gay Pride is an LGBT festival which is held every June in Nuuk, Greenland. A colourful and festive occasion, it combines political issues with concerts, films and a parade and different arrangements. The focal point is Katuaq in the city centre. It usually opens on the day of the Pride arrangement, culminating with a parade. The first time the pride was held, some 1,000 gay, lesbian, transgender and bisexual people and supporters took part in the parade with floats and flags.

Pride parade

Pride parades (also known as pride marches, pride events, and pride festivals) are outdoor events celebrating lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social and self acceptance, achievements, legal rights and pride. The events also at times serve as demonstrations for legal rights such as same-sex marriage. Most pride events occur annually, and many take place around June to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, a pivotal moment in modern LGBTQ social movements.As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host in 2019 the largest international LGBT pride celebration in history, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I ❤ NY program's LGBT division and shall include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that will be open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.

Rainbow flag (LGBT movement)

The rainbow flag, commonly known as the gay pride flag or LGBT pride flag, is a symbol of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) pride and LGBT social movements. Other older uses of rainbow flags include a symbol of peace. The colors reflect the diversity of the LGBT community, as the flag is often used as a symbol of gay pride during LGBT rights marches. While this use of the rainbow flag originated in Northern California’s San Francisco Bay Area, the flag is now used worldwide.

Originally devised by San Francisco artist Gilbert Baker, the design has undergone several revisions since its debut in 1978, first to remove colors then restore them based on availability of fabrics. The most common variant consists of six stripes: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. The flag is typically flown horizontally, with the red stripe on top, as it would be in a natural rainbow.

River City Pride

River City Pride, also known as Jacksonville Pride, is an annual weekend-long pride parade and festival in Jacksonville, Florida. The event celebrates the local lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and their allies. Over the years the event has been held in multiple venues around the city. The current incarnation is centered in the Five Points area in the neighborhood of Riverside. An estimated 15,000 were in attendance during the 2014 celebrations.

San Francisco Pride

The San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Celebration, usually known as San Francisco Pride, is a parade and festival held at the end of June each year in San Francisco, California, to celebrate the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people and their allies. The 47th annual parade in 2017 included 270 parade contingents, and is described on the official website as "the largest gathering of LGBT people and allies in the nation".

São Paulo Gay Pride Parade

São Paulo LGBT Pride Parade (Portuguese: Parada do Orgulho LGBT de São Paulo) is an annual gay pride parade that has taken place in Avenida Paulista, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, since 1997. The 2006 parade was considered the biggest pride parade in the world at the time by the Guinness Book of World Records, and it typically rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest pride parade in the world. In 2010, the city hall of São Paulo invested R$ 1 million reais in the parade. The event is the second largest of the city, after only Formula One. According to the LGBT app Grindr, the gay parade of the city was elected the best in the world.The Pride and its associated events are organized by the APOGLBT, Associação da Parada do Orgulho de Gays, Lesbicas, Bissexuais e Travestis e Transexuais, since its foundation in 1999. The march is the event's main activity and the one that draws the biggest attention to the press, the Brazilian authorities as well as to the hundreds of thousands of curious people that line themselves along the parade's route. In 2009, 3.2 million people attended the 13th annual São Paulo Gay Pride Parade.

The meeting point is at the Museum of Art of São Paulo (MASP – Museu de Arte de São Paulo) right at the middle of São Paulo's postcard Avenida Paulista. Even though the meeting time is at 12 noon, the parade doesn't start to move before 2 or 3 PM. The parade is 2.6 miles long (4.2 km) and starts at Avenida Paulista (MASP), at around noon. It follows Rua da Consolação to the end at Praça Roosevelt, in Downtown São Paulo, at around 10 PM.

Strongly supported by the State and the City of São Paulo government authorities, the event counts with a solid security plan. These are last year's numbers: approximately 2,000 policemen, two mobile police stations for immediate reporting of occurrences, 30 equipped ambulances, 55 nurses, 46 medical physicians, and three hospital camps with 80 beds.

The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade is heavily supported by the federal government as well as by the Governor of São Paulo and the city mayor. Many politicians show up to open the main event and the government often parades with a float with politicians on top of it. Caixa Econômica Federal, a government bank, and Petrobrás, Brazil's oil firm, have already reaffirmed their commitment to back up the event and its diversity, funding once again the event.

In the Pride the city usually receives about 400,000 tourists and moves between R$ 180 million and R$ 190 million.

United States Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States
American Heart Month
Black History Month
Irish-American Heritage Month
National Colon Cancer Awareness Month
Women's History Month
Confederate History Month
Asian Pacific American Heritage Month
Jewish American Heritage Month
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and
Transgender Pride Month
Prostate Cancer Awareness Month
Hispanic Heritage Month
Breast Cancer Awareness Month
Disability Employment Awareness Month
Filipino American History Month
LGBT History Month
Native American Indian Heritage Month
Varies (year round)

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