Gasherbrum I

Gasherbrum I (Urdu: گاشر برم -1‎; simplified Chinese: 加舒尔布鲁木I峰; traditional Chinese: 加舒爾布魯木I峰; pinyin: Jiāshūěrbùlǔmù I Fēng), surveyed as K5 and also known as Hidden Peak, is the 11th highest mountain in the world at 8,080 metres (26,510 ft) above sea level. It is located on the Pakistan–Chinese border and Xinjiang region of China. Gasherbrum I is part of the Gasherbrum massif, located in the Karakoram region of the Himalaya. Gasherbrum is often claimed to mean "Shining Wall", presumably a reference to the highly visible face of the neighboring peak Gasherbrum IV; but in fact it comes from "rgasha" (beautiful) + "brum" (mountain) in Balti, hence it actually means "beautiful mountain."

Gasherbrum I was designated K5 (meaning the 5th peak of the Karakoram) by T.G. Montgomerie in 1856 when he first spotted the peaks of the Karakoram from more than 200 km away during the Great Trigonometric Survey of India. In 1892, William Martin Conway provided the alternate name, Hidden Peak, in reference to its extreme remoteness.

Gasherbrum I was first climbed on July 5, 1958 by Pete Schoening and Andy Kauffman of an eight-man American expedition led by Nicholas B. Clinch, Richard K. Irvin, Tom Nevison, Tom McCormack, Bob Swift and Gil Roberts were also members of the team.[3]:210–212

Gasherbrum I
Hidden Peak
HiddenPeak
Gasherbrum I in 2001
Highest point
Elevation8,080 m (26,510 ft) [1][2]
Ranked 11th
Prominence2,155 m (7,070 ft) [1]
Isolation24 kilometres (15 mi)
ListingEight-thousander
Ultra
Coordinates35°43′28″N 76°41′47″E / 35.72444°N 76.69639°ECoordinates: 35°43′28″N 76°41′47″E / 35.72444°N 76.69639°E
Geography
Gasherbrum I is located in Tibetan Plateau
Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I
PakistanChina border
Gasherbrum I is located in India
Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I (India)
Gasherbrum I is located in Gilgit Baltistan
Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum I (Gilgit Baltistan)
Parent rangeKarakoram
Climbing
First ascentJuly 5, 1958 by an American team
(First winter ascent 9 March 2012 Adam Bielecki and Janusz Gołąb)
Easiest routesnow/ice climb

Timeline

  • 1934 - A large international expedition, organized by the Swiss G.O. Dyhrenfurth, explores Gasherbrum I and II. Two climbers get to 6,300 m (20,670 ft).[4]
  • 1936 - A French expedition gets to 6,900 m (22,640 ft).
  • 1958 - An American team led by Nicholas Clinch makes the first ascent, via Roch ridge.[3]:208
  • 1975 - Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler reached the summit on a new route (northwest route) in pure alpine style (first time on an 8000-metre peak) taking three days total.[3]:212 One day later, a team of three led by Austrian Hanns Schell reached the summit on the American route.[3]:213
  • 1977 - The fourth successful ascent by two Slovenians (Nejc Zaplotnik and Andrej Stremfelj), again on a new route. Team member Drago Bregar died.[3]:213
  • 1980 - Frenchmen Maurice Barrard and Georges Narbaud[3]:213 are successful with the fifth ascent and pass the South Ridge for the first time.[4]
  • 1981 - A Japanese team follows the Clinch route with fixed ropes for the sixth successful ascent.[3]:214[4]
  • 1982 - Michael Dacher, Siegfried Hupfauer and Günter Sturm of a German expedition summit via a new route on the north face. In the same year, French Marie-José Valençot is the first woman who reaches the summit. Her husband, Sylvain Saudan from Switzerland, performs the first ski descent from the top of an 8000-metre peak to base camp.
  • 1983 - Jerzy Kukuczka with Wojciech Kurtyka, new route. Alpine style ascent without the aid of oxygen.
  • 1983 - Teams from Switzerland and Spain are successful.
  • 1984 - Reinhold Messner and Hans Kammerlander traverse Gasherbrum II and Gasherbrum I without returning to base camp in between
  • 1985 - Solo ascent by Benoît Chamoux. On July 14, the Italian Giampiero Di Federico (solo ascent) opens a new route on the north-west face.[5]
  • 1997 - Magnus Rydén and Johan Åkerström reach the summit.
  • 2003 - 19 people reach the summit, 4 deaths, including Mohammad Oraz.[6]
  • 2012 - March 9, Adam Bielecki (Poland) and Janusz Gołąb (Poland) made the first winter ascent. The ascent was made without the aid of supplementary oxygen.[7] The same day, three climbers from a different expedition — Austrian Gerfried Goschl, Swiss Cedric Hahlen and Pakistani Nisar Hussain Sadpara — went missing, never to be found again. They were trying to ascend via a new route and are considered to have been blown off by strong winds.[8]
  • 2013 - 7 July, Artur Hajzer died after falling in the Japanese Coloir after an attempt to reach the summit.[9]
  • 2013 - 21 July, Spaniards Abel Alonso, Xebi Gomez and Álvaro Paredes climbed to the top to then disappear while descending after a storm.[10]
  • 2017 - 30 July, in an alpine style six-day ascent without supplementary oxygen, Czechs Marek 'Mára' Holeček and Zdeněk Hák established a new route named Satisfaction! (in memory of Zdeněk Hrubý) up the Southwest Face.[11]

See also

Bibliography

  • Carter, H. Adams (1975). "Balti Place Names in the Karakoram". American Alpine Journal. 49: 53.
  • Clinch, Nicholas (December 1982). A Walk in the Sky: Climbing Hidden Peak. Seattle, WA, USA: The Mountaineers. ISBN 0-89886-042-3.
  • Fanshawe, Andy; Venables, Stephen (March 1996). Himalaya alpine-style: the most challenging routes on the highest peaks. Seattle, WA, USA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-34064-931-3.

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "Gasherbrum I". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  2. ^ "Trekking Routes - Highest peaks". cknp.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Clinch, Nicholas (1982). A Walk in the Sky: Climbing Hidden Peak. New York, Vancouver: The Mountaineers. ISBN 0898860423.
  4. ^ a b c "Gasherbrum I: Some background and History". k2news.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  5. ^ Fanshawe & Venables "Himalaya alpine-style"
  6. ^ "Everest Summiter Mohammad Oraz death/Iranian expedition". k2news.com. September 2003. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  7. ^ "Polish Winter Himalayan Mountaineering 2010-2015". Polishwinterhimalaism.pl. March 9, 2012. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  8. ^ "Three missing mountaineers feared dead, rescue mission called off". dawn.com. March 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
  9. ^ Crothers, David (16 July 2013). "Iconic Polish Climber Artur Hajzer Dies on Gasherbrum I". Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Se da por desaparecidos a Xevi Góméz, Álvaro Paredes y Abel Alonso en el G1". 26 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  11. ^ "Gasherbrum I SW Face, big new route by Marek Holeček and Zdeněk Hák". Planet Mountain. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.

External links

Adam Bielecki (climber)

Adam Bielecki (born 12 May 1983) is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber. At the age of 17, he was the youngest person to climb Khan Tengri in alpine-style. He is known for the first winter ascents of the eight-thousanders: Gasherbrum I and Broad Peak. He climbs in the sport style, without oxygen support from the bottle. In his book Spod zamarzniętych powiek written with co-autor Dominik Szczepański, Bielecki tells the story of his climbings, memories from Himalayan expeditions, and the effort the highest mountains demand.

Alexandru Găvan

Alex Găvan (born 19 May 1982) is a leading Romanian mountaineer specializing in Himalayan climbing of 8000 meter peaks without using supplemental oxygen or sherpa support in his ascents. By now Alex had successfully climbed six 8000 meter peaks. Since 2006, Alex runs a special project to climb all fourteen 8000 meter mountains in the world. At the present moment, he is the first Romanian climber to reach the summit of Gasherbrum I, Makalu and Shishapangma. His other three successful climbs of Cho Oyu, Manaslu and Broad Peak are second Romanian ascents. In 2006, with the successful ascent of Cho Oyu, Alex became at 24 years old the youngest Romanian ever to have climbed an eight thousand meter peak and was among the few who freely spoke about the Nangpa La shootings. He was awarded with "The 2007 Romanian Sportsman of the Year in High Altitude Mountaineering" by the Romanian Federation of Alpinism and Sport Climbing for the first Romanian ascent of Gasherbrum I.

Artur Hajzer

Artur Hajzer (28 June 1962 – 7 July 2013) was a Polish mountaineer. Hajzer climbed seven eight-thousanders, several via new routes (Manaslu’s NE face in 1986, Shishapangma’s east ridge in 1987) and made the first winter climb of Annapurna on February 3, 1987. He also summited Annapurna East (8010m) via a new route up the SE face in 1988. All these climbs were done together with Jerzy Kukuczka, without supplemental oxygen or Sherpa support. Artur also attempted Lhotse South Face three times, reaching 8200 m in 1985, 8300 m in 1987 and 7200 m (alpine style) in 1989. He also organised a rescue operation on Mount Everest’s West Ridge for Andrzej Marciniak in 1989. On September 30, 2011, he summited Makalu with Adam Bielecki and Tomasz Wolfart. In July 2013 he died after falling in the Japanese Coloir after an attempt to reach the summit of Gasherbrum I.

Baltoro Muztagh

The Baltoro Muztagh (simplified Chinese: 巴尔托洛慕士塔格山; traditional Chinese: 巴爾托洛慕士塔格山; pinyin: Bā'ěrtuōluò Mùshìtǎgé Shān, Urdu: بلتورو موز تاغ‎) is a subrange of the Karakoram mountain range, in Baltistan region of the Gilgit-Baltistan, northern most political entity of Pakistan; and in Xinjiang, China. The crest of the range forms part of the Pakistan-China border.

The range is home to K2 (8,611 metres (28,251 ft)), the second highest mountain in the world, and to three other Eight-thousander peaks. They are located on the north and east sides of the Baltoro Glacier.

Central Karakoram National Park

Central Karakoram National Park (Urdu: میانی قراقرم ملی باغ‎) is a national park located in Skardu district of Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. It encompasses some of the world’s highest peaks and largest glaciers. Internationally renowned for mountaineering, rock climbing and trekking opportunities, it covers an area of about 10,000 sq. km and contains the greatest concentration of high mountains on earth. It has four peaks over 8,000 m including K2 (8611 m), Gasherbrum-I (8068 m), Gasherbrum-II (8035 m) and Broad Peak (8051 m), and sixty peaks higher than 7,000 m.

Concordia (Karakoram)

Concordia (Urdu: کونکورڈیا‎) is the confluence of the Baltoro and Godwin-Austen glaciers, in the heart of the Karakoram range of Pakistan. It is located in Baltistan region of Pakistan. The name was applied by the English mountaineer Aleister Crowley during the 1902 Eckenstein/Crowley attempt on K2, and comes from the location's similarity to a glacial confluence, also named Concordia, in the Bernese Oberland, part of the Central Alps.

Around Concordia are clustered some of the highest peaks in the world. Four of the world's fourteen eight-thousanders are in this region, as well as a number of important lower peaks.

Concordia offers the region's best place to camp for mountain enthusiasts not involved in climbing. The base camps of K2, Broad Peak and Gasherbrum I and II are accessible from the site. An alternative exit to returning down the Baltoro Glacier is available by climbing the Gondogoro Pass (5615 meters).

Gasherbrum

Gasherbrum (Urdu: گاشر برم‎) is a remote group of peaks located at the northeastern end of the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram range of the Himalaya on the border of the Chinese- Xinjiang province and the Gilgit-Baltistan territory of Pakistan. The massif contains three of the world's 8,000 metre peaks (if Broad Peak is included). Although the word "Gasherbrum" is often claimed to mean "Shining Wall", presumably a reference to the highly visible face of Gasherbrum IV, it comes from "rgasha" (beautiful) + "brum" (mountain) in Balti, hence it actually means "beautiful mountain".

Gasherbrum II

Gasherbrum II (Urdu: گاشر برم -2‎); surveyed as K4, is the 13th highest mountain in the world at 8,035 metres (26,362 ft) above sea level. It is the third-highest peak of the Gasherbrum massif, and is located in the Karakoram, on the border between Gilgit–Baltistan province, Pakistan, and Xinjiang, China. The mountain was first climbed on July 7, 1956, by an Austrian expedition which included Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch, and Hans Willenpart.

Hans Kammerlander

Hans Kammerlander (born 6 December 1956, Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy) is an Italian mountaineer. He has climbed 13 of the 14 8000m peaks. In 1984, together with Reinhold Messner he was the first climber to traverse two 8000 m peaks before descending to base camp.He teamed with Messner, the first man to climb all fourteen 8000m peaks, on successful climbs of Cho Oyu, Gasherbrum I and II, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Makalu, and Lhotse, and is a UIAGM mountain guide (English, International Federation of Mountain Guide Associations). Chris Bonington described Messner's relationship with Kammerlander as the most "amicable" of Messner's climbing partnerships.Since 1996, he held the Guinness World Record for the fastest ascent without supplemental oxygen of Mount Everest (16 hours and 45 minutes) and fastest ascent from Everest North Base Camp.In 1990 he made the first ski descent of Nanga Parbat. In 1996 he failed in an attempt to be the first to ski down Mount Everest, after removing his skis and climbing down from 300 metres below the summit, skiing down from 7700m, although he set a then speed record during that attempt of 17 hours to climb from base camp to the summit of Everest via the North Col. Kammerlander also abandoned an attempt to be the first to ski from the summit of K2 when he saw a Korean climber fall to his death.In 2001 Kammerlander announced that he would not attempt to climb Manaslu, necessary to complete all 8000m peaks, due to losing several close friends on an attempt on the mountain.In 2012, Kammerlander claimed to be the first man to have climbed the Seven Second Summits, the second highest summits on all seven continents. However, there are claims that Kammerlander may have only climbed the lower West Summit of Mount Logan. It is also claimed that Puncak Trikora, climbed by Kammerlander as part of the challenge, is not the second highest summit in Oceania. In which case Kammerlander will have to climb the main summit of Mount Logan, and climb Puncak Mandala in New Guinea to complete the Seven Second Summits.

Hassan Sadpara

Hassan Sadpara PP (born Hassan Asad; April 1963 – 21 November 2016) was a Pakistani mountaineer and adventurer from Skardu in GB, Pakistan. He is the first Pakistani to have climbed six eight-thousanders including the world's highest peak Everest (8848m) besides K2 (8611m), Gasherbrum I (8080m), Gasherbrum II (8034m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Broad Peak (8051m). He is also credited for summiting five of the eight-thousanders without using supplemental oxygen. Contrary to initial reports, Hassan Sadpara clarified that he used supplemental oxygen during his Everest ascent due to bad weather. He died due to cancer on 21 November 2016 in Rawalpindi.

Karakoram

The Karakoram is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan. It begins in the Wakhan Corridor (Afghanistan) in the west and encompasses the majority of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan) and extends into Ladakh (India), and the disputed Aksai Chin region controlled by China. It is the second highest mountain range in the world, and part of the complex of ranges including the Pamir Mountains, the Hindu Kush and the Himalayan Mountains.. The Karakoram has eight summits over 7,500 m (24,600 ft) height, with four of them exceeding 8,000 m (26,000 ft): K2, the second highest peak in the world at 8,611 m (28,251 ft), Gasherbrum I, Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II.

The range is about 500 km (311 mi) in length, and is the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 76 kilometres (47 mi) and the Biafo Glacier at 63 kilometres (39 mi) rank as the world's second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions.The Karakoram is bounded on the east by the Aksai Chin plateau, on the northeast by the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and on the north by the river valleys of the Yarkand and Karakash rivers beyond which lie the Kunlun Mountains. At the northwest corner are the Pamir Mountains. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed, west to east, by the Gilgit, Indus, and Shyok rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalaya range proper. These rivers flow northwest before making an abrupt turn southwestward towards the plains of Pakistan. Roughly in the middle of the Karakoram range is the Karakoram Pass, which was part of a historic trade route between Ladakh and Yarkand but now inactive.

The Tashkurghan National Nature Reserve and the Pamir Wetlands National Nature Reserve in the Karalorun and Pamir mountains have been nominated for inclusion in UNESCO in 2010 by the National Commission of the People's Republic of China for UNESCO and has tentatively been added to the list.

List of deaths on eight-thousanders

The eight-thousanders are the 14 mountains that rise more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges.

This is a list of mountaineers who have died on these mountains.

List of highest mountains on Earth

There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than 7,200 metres (23,622 ft) above sea level. The vast majority of these mountains are located on the edge of the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. Only those summits are included that, by an objective measure, may be considered individual mountains as opposed to subsidiary peaks.

Marek Holeček

Marek "Mára" Holeček (born November 5, 1974, in Prague) is a Czech mountaineer, explorer, author and documentary filmmaker. Holeček has received the 2018 Piolet d'Or award for his successful full ascent on the southwest face of Gasherbrum I with Zdeněk Hák, which he achieved in Alpine style.

Pete Schoening

Peter Kittilsby Schoening (July 30, 1927 – September 22, 2004) was an American mountaineer. Schoening was one of two Americans to first successfully climb the Pakistani peak Gasherbrum I in 1958, and was one of the first to summit Mount Vinson in Antarctica in 1966.

Peter Habeler

Peter Habeler (born 22 July 1942) is an Austrian mountaineer. He was born in Mayrhofen, Austria. He developed an interest in mountain climbing at age six.Among his accomplishments as a mountaineer are his first ascents in the Rocky Mountains. He was also the first European to climb on the Big Walls in Yosemite National Park.

He began climbing with Reinhold Messner in 1969. Several accomplishments in mountaineering followed. The most notable event was the first ascent without supplemental oxygen of Mount Everest on 8 May 1978 together with Messner, which was previously thought to be impossible. A year after his climb on Everest he published Lonely Victory ("Der einsame Sieg". Autor: Eberhard Fuchs) in 1978. Habeler set further records by descending from the summit to the South Col in only one hour and climbing the North Face of the Eiger in ten hours.Other eight-thousanders (mountains over 8,000 meters) that Habeler has summited are Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Kangchenjunga and Gasherbrum I. He has also climbed Yerupaja Chico (6089 m) in Peru's Cordillera Huayhuash. The ascent of Gasherbrum I was made with Messner in 1975, Alpine-style in three days, and is seen by some as ushering in a new era of Alpine-style ascents of eight-thousanders, in contrast to the "siege" tactics which had largely prevailed to this time. It was the first time an eight-thousander had been climbed Alpine-style. Habeler attempted to climb Everest again in 2000 but failed to do so due to fluid in his lungs.Habeler became a skiing instructor at age twenty one and founded the Peter Habeler Ski and Mountaineering School in his hometown of Mayrhofen, Austria. The school is now run by his son, though Habeler still teaches on occasion.At age 74, he repeated an ascent on The Eiger's north face with David Lama.

Reinhold Messner

Reinhold Andreas Messner (German pronunciation: [ˈʁaɪ̯nhɔlt ˈmɛsnɐ]; born 17 September 1944) is an Italian mountaineer, explorer, and author. He made the first solo ascent of Mount Everest, the first ascent of Everest without supplemental oxygen, along with Peter Habeler, and was the first climber to ascend all fourteen peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level. He was also the first person to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds. Furthermore, he crossed the Gobi Desert alone. Messner also published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. In 2018 he received jointly with Krzysztof Wielicki the Princess of Asturias Award in the category of Sports.

Solar eclipse of April 29, 1976

An annular solar eclipse occurred on April 29, 1976. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide.

Annularity was visible from North Africa, Greece, Turkey, Middle East, central Asia, India, China. 5 of the 14 eight-thousanders in Pakistan and China—Nanga Parbat, K2, Broad Peak, Gasherbrum II and Gasherbrum I, lie in the path of annularity.

The Dark Glow of the Mountains

The Dark Glow of the Mountains (Gasherbrum - Der Leuchtende Berg) is a TV documentary made in 1984 by German filmmaker Werner Herzog. It is about an expedition made by freestyle mountain climber Reinhold Messner and his partner Hans Kammerlander to climb Gasherbrum II and Gasherbrum I all in one trip without returning to base camp. The film is not so much concerned with showing the climb itself or giving guidelines on mountaineering, but seeks to reveal the inner motivation of the climbers.

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