Gas mask

The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases. The mask forms a sealed cover over the nose and mouth, but may also cover the eyes and other vulnerable soft tissues of the face. Some gas masks are also respirators, though the word gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment (e.g. field protective mask). The user of the gas mask is not protected from gas that the skin can absorb. Most gas mask filters will last around 24 hours in a nuclear biological chemical (NBC) situation.

Airborne toxic materials may be gaseous (for example, sulfur mustard and chlorine gas) or particulates (such as biological agents). Many gas masks include protection from both types. Gas masks are used in construction to protect against welding fumes, in demolition to protect against asbestos or other hazardous particles, and in the chemical industry when handling hazardous materials, as in making repairs to leaking equipment or cleaning up after spills; workers are usually issued gas masks as a precaution against leaks.

During demonstrations and protests where tear gas or CS-gas is employed by riot police, gas masks are commonly used by police and demonstrators alike. Aside from serving their functional purposes, gas masks are also used as emblems in industrial music, with the most notable example, the subgenre of drum and bass called neurofunk. These emblems are used by graffiti taggers because the mask protects them from the paint canister's toxic fumes, and by urban explorers venturing into environments where hazardous materials, such as asbestos, may be present.

The traditional gas mask style with two small circular eye windows originated when the only suitable material for these eye windows was glass or acrylic; as glass is notoriously brittle, glass eye windows had to be kept small and thick. Later, the discovery of polycarbonate allowed for gas masks with a large full-face window. Some have one or two filters attached to the face mask while others have a large filter connected to the face mask with a hose, that is sometimes confused with respirators.

Gas mask MUA IMGP0157
A Polish MUA gas mask, used in the 1970s and 1980s
A World War I British gas hood c.1915
A World War I British P Helmet c.1915

Principles of construction

Absorption is the process of being drawn into a (usually larger) body or substrate, and adsorption is the process of deposition upon a surface. This can be used to remove both particulate and gaseous hazards. Although some form of reaction may take place, it is not necessary; the method may work by attractive charges. For example, if the target particles are positively charged, a negatively charged substrate may be used. Examples of substrates include activated carbon, and zeolites. This effect can be very simple and highly effective, for example using a damp cloth to cover the mouth and nose while escaping a fire. While this method can be effective at trapping particulates produced by combustion, it does not filter out harmful gases which may be toxic or which displace the oxygen required for survival.

US Navy gas mask exercise 021015-N-6996M-589

US Navy MCU-2/P gas mask system.

Gas mask 501556 fh000007

Gas mask used by the French military. The filter cartridge is connected via a flexible hose.

Gas mask greek

Greek Infantry with US M17 gas masks

Safety of old gas masks

Gas masks have a limited useful lifespan that is related to the absorbent capacity of the filter. Once the filter has been saturated with hazardous chemicals, it ceases to provide protection and the user may be injured. Most gas masks use sealing caps over the air intake to prevent the filter from degrading before use, but the protective abilities also degrade as the filter ages or if it is exposed to moisture and heat. Very old unused gas mask filters from World War II may not be effective at all in protecting the user, and can even potentially cause harm to the user due to long-term changes in the filter chemical composition.

2 Gasmaskenfilter
An asbestos-containing Russian GP-5 filter and a safe modern one in comparison.

World War II gas masks contained chrysotile asbestos or crocidolite asbestos in their filters.[1][2] It is unknown how long for certain the materials were used in filters. Breathing blue asbestos in the factories resulted in the death of 10 percent of the workforce due to pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma. This rate was between 2.5 and 3.2 times the normal incidence of lung or respiratory cancers.[3]

Many stories have originated from various Russian gas masks and their filters that are now common in surplus stores; the GP-5 was often considered to have an asbestos filter. The filter is made so that the asbestos fibres cannot be breathed in, if the filter layer is not damaged. Nearly all Russian Cold War period masks contain asbestos, however, only the ones produced before 1972 pose a threat, and even then, the construction of the mask makes it impossible to breathe the asbestos in if not damaged.[4]

Modern gas masks are quite safe and do not use asbestos, but it is still important to be careful when using a modern gas mask. Typically, masks using 40 mm connections are a more recent design. Rubber degrades with time, so new in-box "modern type" masks can be cracked and leak. Also, the US C2 canister (black) was shown to contain hexavalent chromium: the studies by the U.S. Army Chemical Corps showed that the levels in the filter were acceptable, but imply caution when using, as it is a carcinogen.

Filter classification

The filter is selected according to the toxic compound.[5] Each filter type protects against a particular hazard:

Particle filters are often included, because in many cases, the hazardous materials are in the form of mist, which is captured already by the particle filter before entering the chemical adsorber. Filtration may be aided with an air pump to improve wearer comfort. Filtration of air is only possible if there is sufficient oxygen in the first place. Thus, when handling asphyxiants, or when ventilation is poor or the hazards are unknown, filtration is not possible and air must be supplied from a pressurized bottle as in scuba diving. Also, a gas mask does not protect against other hazards; for example, corrosive gases can damage the skin, requiring full-body protection.


Monmouth Regimental Museum - QRpedia 5
A 1939 Second World War-era baby's gas mask in Monmouth Regimental Museum. This design covered the whole of the baby except for its legs.

A modern mask typically is constructed of an elastic polymer in various sizes. It is fitted with various adjustable straps which may be tightened to secure a good fit. Crucially, it is connected to a filter cartridge near the mouth either directly, or via a flexible hose. Some models contain drinking tubes which may be connected to a water bottle. Corrective lens inserts are also available for users who require them.

Masks are typically tested for fit before use. After a mask is fitted, it is often tested by various challenge agents. Isoamyl acetate, a synthetic banana flavourant, and camphor are often used as innocuous challenge agents. In the military, teargases such as CN, CS, and stannic chloride in a chamber may be used to give the users confidence in the efficiency of the mask.[6]

Reaction and exchange

This principle relies on substances harmful to humans being usually more reactive than air. This method of separation will use some form of generally reactive substance (for example an acid) coating or supported by some solid material. An example is synthetic resins. These can be created with different groups of atoms (usually called functional groups) that have different properties. Thus a resin can be tailored to a particular toxic group. When the reactive substance comes in contact with the resin, it will bond to it, removing it from the air stream. It may also exchange with a less harmful substance at this site.

Though it was crude, the hypo helmet was a stopgap measure for British troops in the trenches that offered at least some protection during a gas attack. As the months passed and poison gas was used more often, more sophisticated gas masks were developed and introduced. There are two main difficulties with gas mask design:

  • The user may be exposed to many types of toxic material. Military personnel are especially prone to being exposed to a diverse range of toxic gases. However, if the mask is for a particular use (such as the protection from a specific toxic material in a factory), then the design can be much simpler and the cost lower.
  • The protection will wear off over time. Filters will clog up, substrates for absorption will fill up, and reactive filters will run out of reactive substance. Thus the user only has protection for a limited time, and then he must either replace the filter device in the mask, or use a new mask.
Humboldt gasmask 1799

A primitive respirator was designed by A. von Humboldt in 1799 for underground mining

Various gas masks WWI

Various gas masks employed on the Western Front and Eastern Front during World War I

1930s gas mask

Finnish civilian gas mask from 1939. These masks were distributed during World War II

History and development

Early breathing devices

Medico peste
Plague doctor outfit from Germany (17th century).

According to Popular Mechanics, "The common sponge was used in ancient Greece as a gas mask..."[7] An early type of rudimentary gas mask was invented in the 9th century by the Persian Banu Musa brothers in Baghdad, Iraq. They described it in their Book of Ingenious Devices,[8] mainly for protecting workers in polluted wells.[9] In 1785, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier invented a respirator.

Primitive respirator examples were used by miners and introduced by Alexander von Humboldt already in 1799, when he worked as a mining engineer in Prussia. There were also plague doctor's bird-beak-shaped mask filled with herbs originating from the seventeenth century. The forerunner to the modern gas mask was invented in 1847 by Lewis P. Haslett, a device that contained elements that allowed breathing through a nose and mouthpiece, inhalation of air through a bulb-shaped filter, and a vent to exhale air back into the atmosphere.[10] According to First Facts, it states that the "gas mask resembling the modern type was patented by Lewis Phectic Haslett of Louisville, Kentucky who received a patent on June 12, 1849." [11] U.S. patent #6,529 issued to Haslett, described the first "Inhaler or Lung Protector" that filtered dust from the air.[12]

Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in 1854[13] and the physicist John Tyndall in the 1870s.[14] Another early design was the "Safety Hood and Smoke Protector" invented by Garrett Morgan in 1912, and patented in 1914. It was a simple device consisting of a cotton hood with two hoses which hung down to the floor, allowing the wearer to breathe the safer air found there. In addition, moist sponges were inserted at the end of the hoses in order to better filter the air. This was later modified to include its own air supply, leading to World War I era gas masks.[15][16][17][18]

First World War

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R52907, Mannschaft mit Gasmasken am Fla-MG
German soldiers with gas masks, 1915

The German army used poison gas for the first time against Allied troops at the Second Battle of Ypres, Belgium on 22 April 1915.[19] As an immediate response was cotton wool wrapped in muslin issued to the troops by 1 May. This was followed by the Black Veil Respirator, invented by John Scott Haldane, which was a cotton pad soaked in an absorbent solution which was secured over the mouth using black cotton veiling.[20] Seeking to improve on the Black Veil respirator, Cluny MacPherson created a mask made of chemical absorbing fabric and which fitted over the entire head.[21] A 50.5 cm × 48 cm (19.9 in × 18.9 in) canvas hood treated with chlorine-absorbing chemicals, and fitted with a transparent mica eyepiece.[22] Macpherson presented his idea to the British War Office Anti-Gas Department on 10 May 1915, with prototypes being developed soon after.[23] The design was adopted by the British Army and introduced as the British Smoke Hood in June 1915; Macpherson was appointed to the War Office Committee for Protection against Poisonous Gases.[24] More elaborate sorbent compounds were added later to further iterations of his helmet (PH helmet), to defeat other respiratory poison gases used such as phosgene, diphosgene and chloropicrin. In summer and autumn 1915, Edward Harrison, Bertram Lambert and John Sadd developed the Large Box Respirator.[25] This canister gas mask had a tin can containing the absorbent materials by a hose and began to be issued in February 1916. A compact version, the Small Box Respirator, was made a universal issue from August 1916.

In the first gas masks of World War I, it was initially found that wood charcoal was a good absorbent of poison gases. Around 1918, it was found that charcoals made from the shells and seeds of various fruits and nuts such as coconuts, chestnuts, horse-chestnuts, and peach stones performed much better than wood charcoal. These waste materials were collected from the public in recycling programs to assist the war effort.[26]

The first effective filtering activated charcoal gas mask in the world was invented in 1915 by Russian chemist Nikolay Zelinsky.[27]

First World War gas mask for horses
Soldaty 267 Duhovshinskogo polka
1916, Russian soldiers

Also in World War I, since dogs were frequently used on the front lines, a special type of gas mask was developed that dogs were trained to wear.[28] Other gas masks were developed during World War I and the time following for horses in the various mounted units that operated near the front lines.[29] In America thousands of gas masks were produced for American as well as Allied troops. Mine Safety Appliances was a chief producer. This mask was later used widely in industry.[30]

Modern mask

Air Raid Precautions on the British Home Front- Anti-gas Instruction, c 1941 D3948
A British couple wearing gas masks in their home in 1941

The modern gas mask was developed in 1943 by the British [31]. It was made of plastic and rubber-like material that greatly reduced the weight and bulk, compared to World War I gas masks and fitted the user's face more snugly and comfortably. The main improvement was replacing the separate filter canister connected with a hose by a filter canister screwed on the side of the gas mask, that could be replaced easily. Also, it had replaceable plastic lenses, much helping vision.[32]

Gas mask development since has mirrored the development of chemical agents in warfare, filling the need to protect against ever more deadly threats, biological weapons, and radioactive dust in the nuclear era. However, where agents that cause harm through contact or penetration of the skin occurs, such as blister agent or nerve agent, a gas mask alone is not sufficient protection, and full protective clothing must be worn in addition, to protect from contact with the atmosphere. For reasons of civil defense and personal protection, individuals often buy gas masks believing that they protect against the harmful effects of an attack with nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) agents; which is only partially true, as gas masks protect only against respiratory absorption. Whilst most military gas masks are designed to be capable of protection against all NBC agents, they can have filter canisters proof against those agents (heavier) or only against riot control agents and smoke (lighter, and often used for training purposes); likewise there are lightweight masks solely for use in riot control agents and not for NBC situations.

Although thorough training and the availability of gas masks and other protective equipment can nullify the casualty-causing effects of an attack by chemical agents, troops who are forced to operate in full protective gear are less efficient in completing tasks, tire easily, and may be affected psychologically by the threat of attack by these weapons. During the Cold War era, it was seen as inevitable that there would be a constant NBC threat on the battlefield, and thus troops needed protection in which they could remain fully functional; thus protective gear, and especially gas masks have evolved to incorporate innovations in terms of increasing user-comfort, and in compatibility with other equipment (from drinking devices to artificial respiration tubes, to communications systems etc.). The gas mask has thus now arrived at a 'fourth generation' of development.

Chemical weapon1
Iranian soldier wearing gas mask on the front-line of the Iran–Iraq War

During the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88), Iraq developed its chemical weapons program with the help of Europeans countries (such as Germany and France), and used them large-scale against Iranians as well as against Iraqi Kurd. Iran was unprepared for chemical warfare. In 1984, Iran received gas masks from the Republic of Korea and East Germany, but the Korean masks were not suited for the faces of non-East Asian people and the filter only lasted for 15 minutes, and the 5,000 masks bought from East Germany proved to be not gas masks but spray painting goggles. As late as 1986, Iranian diplomats still traveled in Europe to buy active charcoal and models of filters in order to produce defensive gear domestically. In April 1988, Iran started domestic production of gas masks by the Iran Yasa factories.[33]

In schools

Viktor Billa Oborona pionerov
Pioneers in gas masks. USSR, 1937

Most civilians learned how to use gas masks through the civil defense department, but children received most gas mask education in school drills. Schools would implement gas mask education and training after the outbreak of a war. Schools would harshly enforce the compulsory carrying of gas masks at all times. Gas mask and air raid drills were closely related and children would be made to wear gas masks in everyday activities, including gymnastics. The wearing of gas masks in the classrooms were especially difficult for teachers as they had trouble distinguishing one child from another. The gas masks became as uniform as the students' uniforms. Other civilians learned the use of a gas mask through posters, pamphlets, and radio lectures, but children learned through cartoons and rhymes such as "coughs and sneezes spread diseases".[34]

See also


  1. ^ Burns, Judith (2014-05-13). "Ban wartime gas masks, schools told". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  2. ^ Dail, David H.; Hammar, Samuel P.; Colby, Thomas V. (2012-12-06). Pulmonary Pathology — Tumors. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4612-2496-9.
  3. ^ Acheson, E D; Gardner, M J; Pippard, E C; Grime, L P (1982). "Mortality of two groups of women who manufactured gas masks from chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: a 40-year follow-up". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 39 (4): 344–8. doi:10.1136/oem.39.4.344. PMC 1009064. PMID 6291580.
  4. ^ "Health & Safety - Asbestos Danger from WW2 Gas Masks | CWU - North Anglia Branch". Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  5. ^ "Guide for selection and use of filtering devices" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-20. Retrieved 2010-07-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Popular Mechanics". January 1984. p. 163
  8. ^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering Archived December 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine)
  9. ^ Young, M. J. L. (1990). The Cambridge history of Arabic literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 0-521-32763-6.
  10. ^ "The invention of the gas mask". Ian Taggart. Archived from the original on 2013-05-02.
  11. ^ Drobnicki, John A.; Asaro, Richard (2001). "Historical Fabrications on the Internet". In Su, Di. Evolution in Reference and Information Services: The Impact of the Internet. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Information Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7890-1723-9.
  12. ^ "Lewis P". United States Patent and Trademark office.
  13. ^ Alvin K. Benson (2010). Inventors and inventions. Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-58765-526-5.
  14. ^ The Environment and Its Effect Upon Man: Symposium Held at Harvard School of Public Health, August 24-August 29, 1936, as Part of Harvard University Tercentenary Celebration, 1636-1936. Harvard School of Public Health. 1937.
  15. ^ Jr, Henry Louis Gates; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (2004-04-29). African American Lives. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199882861. By World War I, Morgan had modified the mask to carry its own air supply, creating the first gas mask, which by 1917 was standard equipment for the U.S. Army.
  16. ^ "Garrett Augustus Morgan". PBS Who Made America?. He sold the hoods to the U.S. Navy, and the Army used them in World War I.
  17. ^ "Morgan, Garrett 1877–1963". Contemporary Black Biography. Morgan would later perfect his “breathing device” into a gas mask that was used extensively in World War I.
  18. ^ "Garrett Morgan Biography". People. Morgan's breathing device became the prototype and precursor for the gas masks used during World War I, protecting soldiers from toxic gas used in warfare.
  19. ^ "Second Battle of Ypres Begins". Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  20. ^ Wetherell & Mathers 2007, p. 157.
  21. ^ Victor Lefebure (1923). The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War. The Chemical Foundation Inc. ISBN 0-585-23269-5.
  22. ^ "Macpherson Gas Hood . Accession #980.222". The Rooms Provincial Museum Archives (St. John’s, NL). Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  23. ^ Mayer-Maguire & Baker 2015.
  24. ^ "Biographical entry Macpherson, Cluny (1879 - 1966)". Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  25. ^ "The UK". The Gas Mask Database.
  26. ^ Once Worthless Things that have Suddenly Become of Value, Popular Science monthly, December 1918, page 80, scanned by Google Books
  27. ^ Kozhevnikov, A B (2004). Stalin's great science: the times and adventures of Soviet physicists (illustrated, reprint ed.). Imperial College Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-86094-419-2. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  28. ^ "Gas-Masks for Dogs / Dumb Heroes of the Fighting Front", Popular Science monthly, December 1918, page 75, Scanned by Google Books
  29. ^ "Gas Masks to Guard Horses and Dogs in War" Popular Mechanics, July 1934, bottom pg. 75
  30. ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 30, 1960
  31. ^
  32. ^ "Gas Mask Weighing Half As Much." Popular Sciences, March 1944, p. 74.
  33. ^ Zanders, Jean Pascal (March 7, 2001). "Iranian Use of Chemical Weapons: A Critical Analysis of Past Allegations". CNS Briefings. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  34. ^ "EBSCOhost Login". Retrieved 25 March 2018.


  • Wetherell, Anthony; Mathers, George (2007), "Respiratory Protection", in Marrs, Timothy; Maynard, Robert; Sidell, Frederick, Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment, New York: Wiley, pp. 157–174, ISBN 978-0470013595
  • Mayer-Maguire, Thomas; Baker, Brian (2015), British Military Respirators and Anti-Gas Equipment of the Two World Wars, Crowood

External links


Canister may refer to:

Any container that is roughly cylindrical in shape

A container for 35 mm film for use in cameras

Pods used for parachute supply drops

Gas containers used for riot control

A perforated metal box which is part of a gas mask

The carbon dioxide scrubber of a rebreather

The filter which absorbs gasoline vapour in a car tank

A cylindrical bell worn by sheep, that was traditionally used in Sussex, England, especially on the South Downs

Canister shot, a type of artillery round used in warfare as anti-personnel ammunition

Edward Harrison Memorial Prize

The Edward Harrison Memorial Prize was awarded from 1926 to 1979 by the Chemical Society and from 1980 to 2007 by its successor the Royal Society of Chemistry to a British chemist who was under 32 years, and working the fields of theoretical or physical chemistry. It commemorated the work of Edward Harrison who was credited with producing the first serviceable gas mask and whose work saved many lives.In 2008 the prize was joined with the Meldola Medal and Prize to form the Harrison-Meldola Memorial Prizes.

GP-5 gas mask

The GP-5 gas mask (Russian: Гражда́нский Противога́з-5, tr. Grazhdanskiy Protivogaz-5) is a Soviet-made single-filter gas mask. It was issued to the Soviet population starting in 1962; production ended in 1990. It is a lightweight mask, weighing 1.09 kg (2.42 lbs). It can operate in all weather and withstand temperatures from −40 degrees (Celsius and Fahrenheit) to 114 °C (237 °F). The GP-5 also comes with sealed glass eye pieces. They were originally made to protect the wearer from radioactive fallout during the Cold War and were distributed to most fallout shelters. They have been tested in Poland to see if they have NBC protective capabilities. It was concluded that the mask will last in an NBC situation for 24 hours. They are a favorite of gas mask collectors because they are common and have the "old" circular eyepieces like masks used in World War II and the "helmet" type masks. The GP-5 kit consists of SHM-62 face piece, GP-5 filter, bag and anti fogging lenses. the GP-5 kit can be also completed SHM-62u SHMP SHM-66mu face pieces.

There has been some debate as to whether or not the filters are dangerous for containing asbestos. In October 2013, Dixon Information found out that the cotton layer of the filter contains 7.5 percent asbestos. Some claim that the filter is configured so that the asbestos can't be breathed in, so long as the filter layer isn't damaged.. It is not advised to use the filters, as the case is made with a percentage of lead which slowly degrades into the filter, along with many other chemicals used in the manufacturing process. The mask also tightly clings to the skin of the head, and so may be uncomfortable for those with all but the shortest hair.

The GP-5 is widely available on the army surplus market, usually very cheaply ($4 to $20), and as such is often used as part of Halloween or other fancy dress costumes.

A variation of the GP-5 gas mask is the GP-5m, which features a circular piece of metal that contains a thin piece of plastic on the inside, which acts as a voice diaphragm ('voicemitter'), as well as a cut-out design for the ear holes. The military version of the GP-5 uses a near-identical facepiece but with an elongated filter housing, to which is fitted a hose which in turn connects to a tall can-type filter which remains supported in the mask's haversack whilst the mask is worn. The GP-5 and military version were issued respectively to the civilian population and armed forces of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies, among which they were given differing designations. The East German Armed Forces designated the military version the SchM41M. Although it is unrelated to the GP5 family of masks, a similar variant of the Russian "helmet-style" design with small eyepieces and a voicemitter for those with specific needs relating to the use of optical equipment (i.e. officers - binoculars) was known as the SchMS.

Gas (1944 film)

Gas is an animated short, directed by Chuck Jones and first released in May, 1944. It features Private Snafu learning the value of a gas mask in warfare. The cartoon was produced by Warner Bros. Cartoons. The script writers for the Snafu cartoons were typically uncredited, though animation historians consider that several of them were written or co-written by Dr. Seuss and Munro Leaf.

James Bert Garner

James Bert Garner (September 2, 1870 – November 28, 1960) was an American chemical engineer and professor at the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research from 1914 until his retirement in 1957. He is credited with the invention of a World War I gas mask design in 1915.

M17 gas mask

The M17 Protective Mask is a series of gas masks that were designed and produced in 1959 (as a replacement of the M-9 gas mask) to provide protection from all types of known chemical and biological agents present. The M-17 was issued to troops in the Vietnam war, and was standard issue for the U.S. Military until it was replaced by the M40 Field Protective Mask for the U.S. Army and USMC in the mid 1990s while the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy replaced it for the MCU-2/P Gas Mask in the mid-1980s.

M2 gas mask

The M2 gas mask was a French-made gas mask used by French, British and American forces from April 1916 to August 1918 during World War I. The M2 was fabricated in large quantities, with about 29,300,000 being made during the war. It was intended to protect the wearer from at least five hours' exposure to phosgene gas, a common chemical weapon of the time.

M40 field protective mask

The M40 field protective mask is one of various gas masks used by the United States Armed Forces and its allies to protect from field concentrations of chemical and biological agents, along with radiological fallout particles. It is not effective in an oxygen deficient environment or against ammonia.

M50 joint service general purpose mask

The M50 series protective mask consisting of the M50 and M51 variants, officially known as the Joint Service General Protective Mask (JSGPM) is a lightweight, protective mask system consisting of the mask, a mask carrier, and additional accessories.

The mask was designed to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to protect United States Armed Forces and allied forces from current and anticipated CBRN threats. It is an above-the-neck, chemical-biological (CB) respirator that protects against battlefield concentrations of CB agents, toxins, toxic industrial materials and radioactive particulate matter. The M50/51 masks replace the M40 and M42, MCU-2/P series masks and the M45 of the Land Warrior Program. There are two mask variants: M50 (ground and shipboard use) and M51 (ground vehicle use).

M61 gas mask

The M-61 is a Finnish gas mask manufactured by Nokia since the 1960s up to the 1980s. It was the standard issue gas mask for the Finnish Defense Forces, but was replaced by the updated M-95 in the 1990s. It is a side loading mask (meaning the filter attaches to the side) It uses 60 millimeter threads, but adapters are available to convert it to 40 millimeter threads.These masks are quite common on the surplus market, most filters (marked SUOD 61, suodatin is Finnish for filter) on the market have been checked by the Technical Depot of the Finnish Defence Forces in the 1970s-1980s. The weight in grams of the filter is written on the label as before the Gulf War it was thought that a properly stored filter would still be serviceable, providing the weight of the filter had not changed (which would indicate that the activated carbon had changed, taken up moisture etc.). The filters were manufactured by Kemira in Vaasa (now part of Scott Health & Safety, in turn part of Tyco International).


MOPP (an acronym for "Mission Oriented Protective Posture"; pronounced "mop") is protective gear used by U.S. military personnel in a toxic environment, e.g., during a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) strike:

Protective mask — Commonly referred to as a gas mask or pro mask. It is designed to filter harmful chemical and biological agents, as well as irradiated particles from the air to allow the wearer to breathe safely. No protective masks filter out gases such as carbon monoxide, and in situations requiring that level of protection, external breathing apparatus is employed.

Mask carrier — Protects the mask from damage. It is usually worn as part of battle gear for easy access and usually contains a technical manual, extra filter, spare parts, chemical detection papers, and nerve agent antidote kits (NAAK).

Over garments — Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) Specially designed clothing to be worn over the normal uniform. These garments are designed to allow maximum airflow for cooling while keeping chemical and biological agents from reaching the skin of the wearer. Some are equipped with a charcoal lining to neutralize some agents. Military personnel often equip over garments with strips of M9 Detector Paper to identify chemical agents on the battlefield they might come in contact with.

M9 Detector paper is worn to detect chemical liquid agents that a service member may brush against while in MOPP gear. It is worn in three different area of the suit. It is worn on the dominant arm, bicep area, on the wrist of the opposite arm, and on the dominant leg, shin area. It is also placed on lower levels of vehicles for detection purposes.

Gloves and overboots — (JSLIST) Highly durable rubber, designed with combat operations in mind. Used to prevent contact with agents.

Metro 2033 (video game)

Metro 2033 is a first-person shooter survival horror video game developed by 4A Games and published by THQ. It was released in 2010 for the Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows. The story is based on Dmitry Glukhovsky's novel of the same name, and is set in the ruins of Moscow following a nuclear war, where the survivors are forced to live in underground metro tunnels. Players control Artyom, a man who must save his home station from the dangers lurking within the Metro.

Metro 2033 is played from a first-person perspective. Players encounter human and mutant enemies, who can be killed with a variety of firearms; alternatively, players can employ stealth to evade or silently kill enemies. Ammunition and other necessary items must be either scavenged from the bodies of dead enemies, or purchased from vendors. Some areas of the metro tunnels, in addition to the Earth's surface, are covered in radiation, and the player must wear a gas mask to explore these areas. If the gas mask is worn while in combat, it may be damaged, and the player must quickly find a replacement before they die.

Metro 2033 received positive reviews from critics: it was praised for its horror elements, detailed environments and appealing plot, but it was criticized for its buggy artificial intelligence and its many graphical issues.

A sequel, Metro: Last Light, was released in May 2013. On 26 August 2014, a compilation of both titles was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One. On PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, this remake was entitled Metro Redux. On Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux, and SteamOS, a release entitled Metro Redux Bundle includes both this game and Metro: Last Light Redux.

PMK gas mask

The PMK gas mask represents a family of gas masks used by the Soviet Armed Forces, and later by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. It can be distinguished from its civilian counterpart, the GP-7, by its rounded triangular lenses, versus the GP-7's circular lenses.

Power House (Alcatraz)

The Power House is an electrical supply building on the northwest coast of Alcatraz Island, off the coast of San Francisco, USA. It was constructed in 1939 for $186,000 as part of a $1.1 million modernization scheme which also included the water tower, New Industries Building, officers quarters and remodeling of the D-block. The white powerhouse smokestack and lighthouse were said to give an "appearance of a ship's mast on either side of the island". "A Warning. Keep Off. Only Government permitted within 200 yards" sign lay in front of the powerhouse to deter people landing on the island at the point.

Between 1939 and 1963 it supplied power to the Federal Penitentiary and other buildings on the island. The powerhouse had a tower duty station which was guarded with a "30-caliber Winchester rifle with 50 rounds of ammunition, a Colt .45 semiautomatic pistol with three seven-round magazines, three gas grenades, and a gas mask." After it was closed, the power house housed several documents until they were recovered.

Riot protection helmet

A riot protection helmet is a type of helmet designed for law enforcement and military use to protect its wearer's head, face and eyes from handheld melee weapons, and thrown projectiles such as bricks, as may be met in riot control. Many modern riot squad helmets are reinforced with materials that will protect the wearer from dangerous substances such as acids or industrial chemicals. The riot protection helmets are usually made to be able to easily fit a Gas mask, especially when tear gas is being used.

There have been rare cases of riot protection helmets being worn to protect against objects blown by storm wind, for example in England in the 18 January 2007 gale.

Sandman (Wesley Dodds)

Sandman (Wesley Dodds) is a fictional character, a superhero who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics. The first of several DC characters to bear the name Sandman, he was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Bert Christman.

Attired in a green business suit, fedora, and gas mask, the Sandman used a gun emitting a sleeping gas to sedate criminals. He was originally one of the mystery men to appear in comic books and other types of adventure fiction in the 1930s but later was outfitted with a unitard/cowl costume and developed into a proper superhero, acquiring sidekick Sandy, and founding the Justice Society of America.

Like most DC Golden Age superheroes, the Sandman fell into obscurity in the 1940s and eventually other DC characters took his name. During the 1990s, when writer Neil Gaiman's Sandman (featuring Morpheus, the anthropomorphic embodiment of dreams) was popular, DC revived Dodds in Sandman Mystery Theatre, a pulp/noir series set in the 1930s. Wizard Magazine ranked Wesley Dodds among the Top 200 Comic Book Characters of All Time, and he is the oldest superhero in terms of continuity to appear on the list.

The Empty Child

"The Empty Child" is the ninth episode of the first series of the British science fiction television programme Doctor Who, which was first broadcast on BBC One on 21 May 2005. It was the first episode written by Steven Moffat, who later became the showrunner and main writer of the series in 2010 following Russell T Davies' departure, and was directed by James Hawes. "The Empty Child" is the first of a two-part story, which concluded with "The Doctor Dances", on 28 May.

In the episode, the alien time traveller the Ninth Doctor (Christopher Eccleston) and his travelling companion Rose Tyler (Billie Piper) arrive in 1941 during the London Blitz, where they find that the city has been terrorised by a strange child in a gas mask repeatedly asking for his mother.

The episode marks the first appearance of John Barrowman as Captain Jack Harkness, who would become a recurring character in Doctor Who and the lead character of the spin-off series Torchwood. "The Empty Child" was watched by 7.11 million viewers in the UK. The two-part story has been cited by critics amongst the best of the show, and it won the 2006 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form.

The Pink Panther (2006 film)

The Pink Panther is a 2006 American comedy film and a reboot of The Pink Panther franchise, marking the tenth installment in the series. In this film, Inspector Jacques Clouseau is assigned to solve the murder of a famous football coach and the theft of the famous Pink Panther diamond. The film stars Steve Martin as Clouseau and also co-stars Kevin Kline, Jean Reno, Emily Mortimer, Roger Rees, Kristin Chenoweth and Beyoncé Knowles.

The film grossed $159 million worldwide. The Pink Panther was theatrically released on February 10, 2006, and was released on DVD and Blu-ray on June 13, 2006. A sequel was released on February 6, 2009.

William James Connell

William James Connell (July 6, 1846 – August 16, 1924) was an American Republican Party politician.

Born in Cowansville, Quebec, he immigrated with his family to Schroon Lake, New York in 1857 and then moved to Vermont in 1862. He moved to Omaha, Nebraska in 1867 and studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1869.

He was the district attorney of the third judicial district of Nebraska from 1872 to 1876 and a city attorney for the city of Omaha from 1883 to 1887. He was elected to the Fifty-first United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1889, to March 3, 1891. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1890. He returned to his job as Omaha's city attorney in 1892. He died in Atlantic City, New Jersey on August 16, 1924, and is buried in Prospect Hill Cemetery, Omaha.

His son, Dr. Karl Albert Connell, invented the gas mask used by American troops during World War I.

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