Garganey

The garganey (Spatula querquedula) is a small dabbling duck. It breeds in much of Europe and western Asia, but is strictly migratory, with the entire population moving to southern Africa, India (in particular Santragachi), Bangladesh (in the natural reservoirs of Sylhet district) and Australasia in winter,[2] where large flocks can occur. This species was first described by Linnaeus in 1758. Like other small ducks such as the common teal, this species rises easily from the water with a fast twisting wader-like flight.

Their breeding habitat is grassland adjacent to shallow marshes and steppe lakes.

Garganey
Garganey (Anas querquedula) RWD3
Male
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Genus: Spatula
Species:
S. querquedula
Binomial name
Spatula querquedula
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Spatula querquedula map
Synonyms
  • Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758
  • Anas circia Linnaeus, 1758

Taxonomy

The first formal description of the Garganey was by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae. He introduced the binomial name Anas querquedula.[3] A molecular phylogentic study comparing mitochondrial DNA sequences published in 2009 found that the genus Anas, as then defined, was non-monophyletic.[4] The genus was subsequently split into four monophyletic genera with ten species including the Garganey moved into the resurrected genus Spatula.[5] This genus had been originally proposed by the German zoologist Friedrich Boie in 1822.[6][7] The name Spatula is the Latin for a "spoon" or "spatula". The specific epithet is derived from Latin querquedula, a word believed to represent to its call.[8]

The common English name dates from the 17th century and comes from Lombard language gargenei, the plural of garganell, which ultimately comes from the Late Latin gargala "tracheal artery".[9] The English usage owes its origins to Conrad Gesner who used the Italian name in the third volume of his Historiae Animalium (History of Animals) of 1555.[10]

Description

Garganey (Anas querquedula) in AP W IMG 2844
Females
Spatula querquedula MHNT.ZOO.2010.11.18.1
Spatula querquedula - MHNT

The adult male is unmistakable, with its brown head and breast with a broad white crescent over the eye. The rest of the plumage is grey, with loose grey scapular feathers It has a grey bill and legs. In flight it shows a pale blue speculum with a white border. When swimming it will show prominent white edges on its tertials. His crown (anatomy) is dark and face is reddish brown.[11]

Some care is needed in separating the brown female from the similar common teal, but the stronger face markings and more frequent head-shaking when dabbling are good indicators. Confusion with the female of the blue-winged teal is also possible, but the head and bill shape is different, and the latter species has yellow legs. Pale eyebrow, dark eye line, pale lore spot bordered by a second dark line.[11]

These birds feed mainly by skimming rather than upending.

The male has a distinctive crackling mating call; the female is rather silent for a female duck, but can manage a feeble quack.

Garganey are rare breeding birds in the British Isles, with most breeding in quiet marshes in Norfolk and Suffolk. In Ireland a few pairs breed in Wexford, with occasional breeding elsewhere.

The garganey is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. The status of the garganey on the IUCN Red List is Least Concern.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Spatula querquedula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T22680313A86016410. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680313A86016410.en.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  3. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Volume 1 (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiae:Laurentii Salvii. p. 126.
  4. ^ Gonzalez, J.; Düttmann, H.; Wink, M. (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships based on two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae". Journal of Zoology. 279 (3): 310–318. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00622.x.
  5. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Screamers, ducks, geese & swans". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  6. ^ Boie, Friedrich (1822). "Generalübersicht". Isis von Oken (in German). Col 564.
  7. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 460.
  8. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 328, 361. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  9. ^ "gar·ga·ney". American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  10. ^ "Garganey". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. Retrieved 1 June 2007. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  11. ^ a b Dunn, J.; Alderfer, J. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America (5th ed.).

External links

Amsterdam wigeon

The Amsterdam wigeon (Mareca marecula, formerly Anas marecula), also known as the Amsterdam Island duck or Amsterdam duck, was a species of anatid waterfowl, endemic to Île Amsterdam (Amsterdam Island), French Southern Territories. This flightless species is only known from bones and was presumably driven extinct by visiting sealers and the rats they introduced.A 1696 sighting by William de Vlaming of "four-footed animals" in the reeds of Amsterdam Island may have been of this duck, as there are no native land mammals on the island. No naturalist visited Amsterdam Island until 1874, by which time it was infested with rats from visiting ships, and the duck was extinct.The first bones of this species to be discovered, in 1955–56, were thought to most closely resemble those of a garganey. In 1987 bones of at least 33 individuals were recovered from rock cavities, revealing a very small duck with a short pointed bill like a wigeon's. Strong legs and reduced breastbone and wings show it was flightless. The skull's reduced salt glands indicate it was drinking little seawater, and its bones were recovered from sea level up to 500 m, suggesting it was not living on the coast. It was named Anas marecula, after the former wigeon genus Mareca.During his visit to Île Saint-Paul (St Paul Island) on 2 February 1793, explorer John Barrow mentioned the presence of "a small brown duck, not much larger than a thrush" that was "the favourite food of the five sealers living on the island". Because Amsterdam Island is 80 km away, these ducks would represent an independent case of dispersal and flightlessness, similar to the Amsterdam wigeon, but a different species.

Baillon's crake

The Baillon's crake (Porzana pusilla) is a very small waterbird of the family Rallidae.

Cacharel

Cacharel (French: [kaʃaʁɛl]) is a French brand of ready-to-wear clothing, perfume and accessories, founded in 1962 by Jean Bousquet. Cacharel designs are characterized by their youthful style, femininity, lightness, refinement, and use of bright colours.

Drigh Lake

Drigh Lake (Urdu: ڈرگ جھیل ‎) is situated in Qambar Shahdadkot District in Sindh, Pakistan, 29 kilometres (18 mi) from Larkana city and 7 kilometres (4 mi) from Qambar town. It has a surface area of 4,800 acres (1,900 ha) and the running length of the lake from North to South is about 5.64 Miles. Formed in the floods of 1814, 1815 and 1817. Drigh Lake is a favorable area for resident and winter migratory birds like night heron, grey heron, purple heron, great white egret, little egret, mallard, gadwal, pintail, shoveller, common teal, tufted duck, wigeon, osprey, marsh harrier, white breasted kingfisher, pied kingfisher, small blue kingfisher, purple galinule, white-breasted waterhen, moorhen, cormorant, common pochard, pied harrier, crow pheasant, darter, garganey, ferruginous duck, greater spotted eagle, moorhen, marbled teal and coot.Drigh Lake was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1972 and was designated as a Ramsar site recognized by the united nation as A World Heritage site in 1976.

Drigh lake is a privately owned property belonging to the "Shaikh" family DRIGH lake is a joint property of the Shaikh family Of Qamber.

Dignitaries who have visited the Drigh Dhand Apart from King George the 5th and Queen Mary Of England in 1918, Yasir Arafat, Raza Shah Pehlwi of Iran, Hafiz al-Asad of Syria, Muammar Qaddafi of Libya, Queen Elizabeth II of England and her husband Prince Philip, Shaikh Zahid of UAE, King Hussein of Jordan and former Pakistani leaders President of the state Field Martial General Ayub Khan, Shaheed Zulifqar Ali Bhutto Prime minister of Pakistan, President General Yahya Khan, and General Ziaul Haq when he was chief of army staff in the tenure of Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's Prime Minister ship.

Presently The Lake is under direct supervision of different members of the shaikh family.

Getterön Nature Reserve

Getterön Nature Reserve (Swedish: Getteröns naturreservat) is a nature reserve at Getterön in Varberg Municipality, Sweden. It consists of parts of the peninsula Getterön and an area to the north. It has an area of 350 hectares, of which 235 are land. The reserve was established in 1970.

Getterön Nature Reserve is protected as a Natura 2000 site and included in the Ramsar list.

Getterön Nature Reserve is one of northern Europe's premier birdwatching sites. In the reserve's wetland nesting species like gadwall, garganey, black-tailed godwit, ruff, dunlin, little tern, and pied avocet. The pied avocet also serves as a symbol for the nature reserve. Also in the winters there are many different species at Getterön, for example little grebe, water rail, common kingfisher, Eurasian bittern, bearded reedling, whooper swan, and smew. Also birds of prey, like the peregrine falcon, are common.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary

Karikili Bird Sanctuary is a 61.21-hectare (151.3-acre) protected area located in the Kancheepuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The sanctuary is about 75 kilometres (47 mi) from Chennai, south of Chengalpattu. About 100 species were recorded from this sanctuaryKarikili is situated about 10 km from Vedanthangal, and there are two tanks combined established as the bird sanctuary in 1988. This region is surrounded by open areas, paddy fields and scrub forest. Several migratory birds such as Northern Pintail, Garganey, Common Sandpiper were recorded from Karikili.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary along with Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary has been identified as one of the Important Bird Areas of Tamil Nadu (IBA Site Code-29, A1, IBA criteria - A4iii). Several waterbirds use Vedanthangal as a nesting site and Karikili as a foraging site.

Kempton Park Reservoirs

Kempton Park Reservoirs are a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the London Borough of Hounslow and Kempton Park in Surrey. It is owned by Thames Water. It is part of South West London Waterbodies Ramsar site and Special Protection Area Kempton Park East reservoir is also a local nature reserve.

List of birds of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands

This is a list of birds of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands. (A) means bird species is accidental / rare.

The Wake Island rail was a species endemic to Wake Island, but it is now extinct. The Laysan duck is endemic to the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (which includes Midway Atoll — Midway Atoll is part of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, not the state of Hawaii). The endemic and critically-endangered Nihoa finch was extirpated from Midway Atoll.

Because the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands is a statistical area with no organized government, it has no official bird (unlike the states and four out of five of the inhabited territories).

Mangalajodi

Mangalajodi is an olden village under Tangi, Odisha block in Khordha district of Odisha at the northern edge of Chilika Lake. Scenic beauty of this village and its vast wetland attracts the visitors. In 2017 this village is declared and functioning as a separate Grama Panchayat (Mangalajodi Grama Panchayat)

Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary

Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, near the village of Nelapattu. It has an area of 458.92 hectares. It is an important breeding site for spot-billed pelicans (Pelecanus philippensis).Nelapattu has two major plant communities, Barringtonia swamp forests and southern dry evergreen scrub.

Southern dry evergreen scrub covers most of the sanctuary, including the 288 hectares of Kalluru Reserved Forest and 88 hectares of unreserved forest. The dominant tree and shrub species are Manilkara hexandra, Maba buxifolia, Memecylon edule, Buchanania angustifolia, Zizyphus xylopyrus, and others.The Barringtonia swamp forests are found in the 83-ha Nelapattu tank. The predominant tree species is Barringtonia acutangula (Hijal). This tree also grows in uplands, but the tree species found at Nelapattu can grow in flooded conditions lasting for 5 to 7 months. The saplings can survive total submersion during the long duration of flooding.About 189 bird species can be found at Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, 50 of which are migratory. In addition to the spot-billed pelican, it is an important breeding site for white ibis, openbill stork, night heron, and little cormorant. Other migratory water birds that visit the sanctuary include pintail, common teal, dabchick, shoveler, coot, spot-bill duck, grey heron, darter, black-winged stilt, and garganey gadwall.

Pulborough Brooks

Pulborough Brooks is a 160-hectare (400-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south of Pulborough in West Sussex. It is part of the Pulborough Brooks nature reserve, which is managed by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. It is also part of the Arun Valley Ramsar site, Special Area of Conservation and Special Protection Area.These wet meadows are crossed by a network of ditches, some of which have a rich aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna, including several which are nationally rare. The site is internationally important for wintering wildfowl and many species of birds breed there, such as lapwing, snipe, garganey, yellow wagtail, grey partridge, skylark, reed bunting and barn owl.

Puttenahalli Lake (JP Nagar)

Puttenahalli lake ( ಪುಟ್ಟೇನಹಳ್ಳಿ ಕೆರೆ) is a small, restored freshwater lake located in JP Nagar 7th Phase, South Bangalore. The area of the lake is about 13 acres. The primary water sources are rain and surface water diverted to the lake through channels. The lake is currently maintained by Puttenahalli Neighbourhood Lake Improvement Trust (PNLIT) . The lake was on the brink of extinction, but due to the efforts of PNLIT, is now a haven for bird-watchers and on its way to being completely restored.

Rajakkamangalam

Rajakkamangalam is a block or Panchayat Union of Kanyakumari district, India. It is one of the nine administrative divisions of the district of Kanyakumari. The present President of the Rajakkamangalam Panchayat is T. Vajila. It includes the following 15 village panchayats,

Athikkattuvilai

Elluvilai

Ganapathipuram

Kanyakulam

Kesavanputhenthurai

Melekrishnanputhoor

Manakudi

Northsoorankudy

Putheri

Peruvilai

Parakkai

Pallamthurai

Melasankarankuzhi

Rajakkamangalam Thurai

Dharmapuram

AzhathangaraiResearch Centre:

Centre for Marine Science and Technology is the research Centre of Manonmaniam Sundaranar University for Coastal Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology research activities. The Centre is recognized by DST-FIST, UGC-SAP, DRS by Govt of India. The centre is one of the very few Institutes in India offering M.Sc., M.Phil and Ph.D in Marine Biotechnology. The centre is the offshoot of Madurai Kamaraj University, and later it was formulated as Institute of Artemia Research and Training inaugurated by Dr. J. Jayalalitha during early 1990s and later it was renamed as Institute if Coastal Area Studies and now it is functioning in the name of Centre for Marine Science and Technology with advance research activities in the areas of Marine Genomics, Marine Microbiology, Nanobiotechnology, Marine Pharmacology, Marine Biodiversity, Microalgal Technology, Molecular Biology, etc.

Azhathangarai-Rajakkamangalam Estuary and Marshy land contains a Coastal ecosystem with Mangroves habitat, sand dunes and Sea turtle breeding site near Azhathangarai beach. Rajakkamangalam estauary and Azhathangarai marshy land is considered as one of the breeding and feeding ground for many birds like Painted stork, cormorant, spot billed pelicans, purple swaphen, dabchick, garganey, purple heron, open bill stork, black winged stilt, etc.

Spatula (genus)

Spatula is a genus or subgenus of ducks in the family Anatidae that includes the shovelers and some of the teals.

Suchindram Theroor Birds Sanctuary

The Suchindram Theroor Birds Sanctuary is a protected area comprising the Suchindram Kulam wetlands at 8°7′30″N 77°27′30″E, and the Theroor Kulam wetlands at 8°10′45″N 77°27′45″E, both near Suchindram town in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India. It is located between Nagercoil and Kanyakumari on the National Highway No. 47. Being at the extreme southern tip of India, this area underlies the southernmost continental range of the Central Asian Flyway. Constitution of this new wildlife sanctuary was proposed in 2002 and remains under consideration of the Government. International name is

Suchindram Therur, Vembanoor, Important bird area code no. IN279, criteria: A1, A4i.

Thurlestone

Thurlestone is a village five miles (8 km) west of Kingsbridge in the South Hams district in south Devon, England. There is an electoral ward in the same name. The population at the 2011 census was 1,886.The village takes its name from Thurlestone Rock, the so-called "thirled stone", an arch-shaped rock formation just offshore in Thurlestone Bay.

The village's All Saints church is built of the dark grey local slate. The chancel is early 13th century; the remainder of the church 15th and 16th century.

Uppu Aru Lagoon

Uppu Aru lagoon is a lagoon in Jaffna District, northern Sri Lanka. The lagoon separates the Valikamam region from the Thenmarachchi region.

The lagoon is linked to Jaffna Lagoon by a short channel to the south. The lagoon's water is brackish.

The lagoon is surrounded by a densely populated region containing palmyra palms, coconut plantations, grassland, rice paddies and extensive vegetable gardens.

The lagoon has extensive mudflats and salt marshes. It is surrounded by mangroves, particularly Avicennia. The lagoon attracts a wide variety of water birds including American flamingoes, ducks, garganey, black-tailed godwit and other shorebirds.

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary is a 30-hectare (74-acre) protected area located in the Kancheepuram District and Madurantakam taluk of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The sanctuary is about 75 kilometres (47 mi) from Chennai on National Highway 45 (NH45). Easily reachable from Madurantakam and Chengalpattu. More than 40,000 birds (including 26 rare species), from various parts of the world visit the sanctuary during the migratory season every year.Vedanthangal is home to migratory birds such as pintail, garganey, grey wagtail, blue-winged teal, common sandpiper and the like.Vedanthangal is the oldest water bird sanctuary in the country. Vedanthangal in Tamil language means 'hamlet of the hunter'. This area was a favourite hunting spot of the local landlords in the early 18th century. The region attracted a variety of birds because it was dotted with small lakes that acted as feeding grounds for the birds. Realising its ornithological importance, the British government undertook steps to develop Vedanthangal into a bird sanctuary as early as 1798. This was established in 1858 by the order of the Collector of Chengalpattu.

The best time to visit this sanctuary is from November to March. During this time, birds are seen busy building and maintaining their nests.

Villagers near this sanctuary are very concerned about the sanctuary and its winged residents, and they have taken many serious steps to avoid disturbance to the flow of birds.

Wraysbury and Hythe End Gravel Pits

Wraysbury and Hythe End Gravel Pits is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) based in Wraysbury,Berkshire. The site is important for the number of bird species it features.

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